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Alpine Timothy

Phleum alpinum L.

Brief Summary

    Phleum alpinum: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Phleum alpinum is a species of grass known by the common names alpine cat's-tail, alpine timothy and mountain timothy.

Comprehensive Description

    Phleum alpinum
    provided by wikipedia

    Phleum alpinum is a species of grass known by the common names alpine cat's-tail,[1] alpine timothy[2] and mountain timothy.[3]

    Distribution

    Phleum alpinum has a circumboreal distribution, inhabiting northern areas of the Northern Hemisphere, as well as extending down through the Americas to southern South America. It can be found on islands in the subantarctic region such as South Georgia Island, on which it is one of the most common plant species.[4]

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    Phleum alpinum, clumps at 11,000 ft (3,400 m) in the Sierra Nevada USA

    Description

    Phleum alpinum is a perennial bunchgrass forming loose clumps 20 to 60 centimeters tall. The inflorescence is a cylindrical to oval mass of spikelets up to 6 centimeters long and 1.2 wide.

    References

    1. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ "Phleum alpinum". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
    3. ^ Cathy Rose, Stephen Ingram (2015). Rock Creek Wildflowers. California Native Plant Society Press.
    4. ^ Callaghan, T. V. and M. C. Lewis. (1971). The growth of Phleum alpinum L. in contrasting habitats at a sub-Antarctic station. New Phytologist 70:6 1143-54.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Cosmopolitan.
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    A cosmopolitan species distributed in Arctic and Antarctic zones and alpine regions.
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Gansu, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan [Afghanistan, Bhutan, India (Sikkim), Japan, Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan; SW Asia, N Europe, North America, South America (Andes)].
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Distribution: Pakistan (N.W.F.P. & Kashmir); throughout the Arctic regions and on mountains in the northern hemisphere, penetrating southwards to southern Chile along mountains in the New World.

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    This is a species of arctic and alpine regions of the N hemisphere, extending down the Andes in South America as far as Chile.
    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    2000-4300 m.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Perennial with elongated rhizome; culm 30-40 cm tall, 1 mm in diameter. Bldes tutfted near the base of the culm; cauline leaves 2-3, linear-lanceolate, 5-7 cm long by 5 mm wide; ligule membranous, about 1 mm long, truncate. Panicle contracted, cylindrical, 2 cm long 7 mm wide. Spikelets 1-flowered, 3 mm long; glumes subequal, chartaceous, laterally compressed, 3-nerved, 1-keeled, hairy, apex cuspidate. Lemma membranous, 2 mm long, 5-nerved, apex truncate. Palea membranous, oblong, nearly as long as the lemma. Caryopsis cylindrical, 1.5 mm long.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Perennial, shortly rhizomatous. Culms loosely tufted, erect or decumbent at base, 5–40(–60) cm tall, 3–4-noded. Leaf sheaths glabrous, upper slightly inflated; leaf blades broadly linear, 2–13 cm, 2–9 mm wide, the upper shorter than the lower, glabrous, apex acute; ligule 2–3 mm, obtuse. Panicle broadly cylindrical to ovoid, 1–6 × 0.6–1.2 cm, usually purplish; branches adnate to central axis. Spikelets oblong, 3–4 mm (excluding awns); rachilla extension absent; glumes oblong, membranous, scaberulous, lower softly hairy on margins, keel conspicuously pectinate-ciliate, apex truncate, cuspidate into a stiff, 1.5–3 mm, glabrous or ciliate awn; lemma ca. 2 mm, 5-veined, veins puberulent, apex truncate; anthers 1–1.5 mm. Caryopsis ca. 1.5 mm. Fl. and fr. Jun–Oct. 2n = 14, 28.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Loosely tufted, shortly rhizomatous perennial; culms 5-50 cm high, erect or ascending. Leaf-blades up to 17 cm long and 8 mm wide, the upper shorter than the lower, glabrous; upper sheaths slightly inflated; ligule up to 2 mm long, obtuse. Panicle 1-5(-6) cm long, 7-15 mm wide, broadly cylindrical to ovoid, usually purplish. Spikelets 3-55(-8.5) mm long (including awns); glumes truncate, stiffly ciliate on the keel, scabrid on the sides, the lower softly hairy on the margins; awn 1-3(-4) mm long, glabrous or ciliate; lemma two-thirds the length of the glumes, 3-5-nerved, minutely hairy on the nerves; anthers 1-1.5 mm long.
    Elevation Range
    provided by eFloras
    2400-4400 m
    Physical Description
    provided by USDA PLANTS text
    Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Rhizomes present, Rhizome short and compact, stems close, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems ge niculate, decumbent, or lax, sometimes rooting at nodes, Stems solitary, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf sheath enlarged, inflated or distended, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence a dense slender spike-like panicle or raceme, branches contracted, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence spike ovoid, lanceolate, or oblong, not more than t wice as long as wide, Inflorescence single raceme, fascicle or spike, Inflorescence branches more than 10 to numerous, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes, glumes persistent, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glumes awned, awn 1-5 mm or longer, Glumes keeled or winged, Glumes 3 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma 3 nerved, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma body or surface hairy, Lemma apex truncate, rounded, or obtuse, Lemma awnless, Lemma awned from tip, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea about equ al to lemma, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis ellipsoid, longitudinally grooved, hilum long-linear.

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Phleum commutatum Gaudin.

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Wet alpine meadows, damp soil around bushes, riversides; 2500–3900 m.

Cyclicity