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Fall Panicgrass

Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx.

Brief Summary

    Panicum dichotomiflorum: Brief Summary
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    Panicum dichotomiflorum, known by the common names fall panicgrass, autumn millet (Britain and Ireland), and fall panicum is a species of Poaceae "true grass". It is native to much of the eastern United States and parts of Canada, and it can be found in the Western United States through California. It may be an introduced species in some western climates. It grows in many types of habitat, including disturbed areas and chaparral habitats.

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Comprehensive Description

    Panicum dichotomiflorum
    provided by wikipedia

    Panicum dichotomiflorum, known by the common names fall panicgrass, autumn millet (Britain and Ireland),[1] and fall panicum[2] is a species of Poaceae "true grass". It is native to much of the eastern United States and parts of Canada, and it can be found in the Western United States through California. It may be an introduced species in some western climates.[3] It grows in many types of habitat, including disturbed areas and chaparral habitats.

    Description

    Panicum dichotomiflorum is an annual grass growing decumbent or erect to a maximum height near one meter-3 feet. It can be distinguished from its relative, Panicum capillare - Witchgrass by its hairless leaves.[4] The inflorescence is a large open panicle up to 20 centimeters long and fanning out to a width of 16 centimeters.

    References

    1. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ Mary E. Barkworth, Laurel K. Anderton, Kathleen M. Capel, Sandy Long, Michael B. Piep (2007). Manual of Grasses for North America. University Press of Colorado. ISBN 978-0874216868.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
    3. ^ Grass Manual Treatment Archived 2011-06-11 at the Wayback Machine.
    4. ^ UC Davis IPM

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Distribution

Morphology

    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Annuals; culms branched, glabrous, 30-100 cm high. Blade 15-40 cm long, 7-20 mm wide; midrib stout, greenish white; ligule short, upper margin a ring of hairs; sheath cylindrical, glabrous and shining. Panical ca. 30 cm lkong, branches scabrous, 1-5 per node, arranged at 45o angle to central axis. Spikelets sparingly arranged, ovate-oblong to lanceolate-elliptic, acute, ca. 2.3 mm long, glabrous; lower glume broadly deltoid, obtuse or roumded, clasping vase of spikelet, 1/4-1/5 as long as spikelet; upper glume subequal to spikelet, 5-7-veined; lower lemma and upper lemma subequal, flat; upper lemma oblong, glabrous and shining, 5-veined, prominrnt when mature, tightly enclosing upper palea and caryopsis.
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Gramineae (Poaceae) in Flora of Taiwan Vol. 0 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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    Poaceae in Flora of Taiwan @ eFloras.org
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    Chang-Sheng Kuoh
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    eFloras.org
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    eFloras
    ID
    205823
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Aquatic annual or rhizomatous perennial. Culms geniculately ascending, rooting at lower nodes, branching, succulent, 30–110 cm tall, upper nodes glabrous, often conspicuous. Leaves cauline; leaf sheaths striate, glabrous, lower sheaths often inflated; leaf blades linear, flat, 7–35 × 0.5–1 cm, glabrous, scabrid, base straight or subcordate, apex acute; ligule 1–2 mm, a ciliate membrane. Panicle terminal or axillary, pyramidal when fully exserted, 10–20 cm, much branched; branches glabrous, scabrid, secondary and tertiary branches often appressed. Spikelets lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 3–4 mm, glabrous, acuminate; lower glume broadly ovate, 1/6–1/3 length of spikelet, clasping at the base of the spikelet, membranous, 0–1-veined, obtuse to acute; upper glume as long as spikelet, 7–9-veined; lower lemma similar to upper glume, palea absent or present and well developed; upper floret 2/3 length of spikelet, green or pale yellow, smooth, shiny. Fl. and fr. Jun–Oct.
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    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of China Vol. 22: 505, 506 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of China @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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    eFloras.org
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    eFloras
    ID
    242389
    Physical Description
    provided by USDA PLANTS text
    Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems geniculate, decumbent, or lax, sometimes rooting at nodes, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stems compressed, flattened, or sulcate, Stems branching above base or distally at nodes, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes excee ding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath or blade keeled, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf sheath enlarged, inflated or distended, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades 1-2 cm wide, Leaf blades 2 or more cm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule a fringed, ciliate, or lobed membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence an open panicle, openly paniculate, branches spreading, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence branches more than 10 to numerous, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets dorsally compressed or terete, Inflorescence or spikelets partially hidden in leaf sheaths, subtended by spatheole, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelet with 1 fertile floret and 1-2 sterile florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glume equal to or longer than spikelet, Glumes 1 nerved, Glumes 3 nerved, Lemma similar in texture to glumes, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma awnless, Lemma margins inrolled, tightly covering palea and caryopsis, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea about equal to lemma, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis ellipsoid, longitudinally grooved, hilum long-linear.
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    Dr. David Bogler
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    Missouri Botanical Garden
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    USDA NRCS NPDC
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    USDA PLANTS text
    ID
    PADI_Panicum_dichotomiflorum_USDA_keys_object

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Panicum paludosum Roxburgh.
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    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of China Vol. 22: 505, 506 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of China @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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    eFloras.org
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    eFloras
    ID
    240075

Habitat

    Habitat & Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Shallow waters, swampy places. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan, Yunnan [India, Malaysia; tropics of the New World].
    license
    cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
    copyright
    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of China Vol. 22: 505, 506 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of China @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
    project
    eFloras.org
    original
    visit source
    partner site
    eFloras
    ID
    246259