dcsimg
539.vpsbc v236208 1348529086 jpg.130x130
Life » » Plants » » Orchids »

Pacific Coralroot

Corallorhiza mertensiana Bong.

Brief Summary

    Corallorhiza mertensiana: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Corallorhiza mertensiana, or Pacific coralroot, is a coralroot orchid native to the shady conifer forests of northwestern North America. It also goes by the common names Western coralroot and Mertens' coralroot. Corallorhiza mertensiana was previously considered a subspecies of Corallorhiza maculata but was given species rank in 1997 by Freudenstein.

Comprehensive Description

    Corallorhiza mertensiana
    provided by wikipedia

    Corallorhiza mertensiana, or Pacific coralroot, is a coralroot orchid native to the shady conifer forests of northwestern North America.[1][2] It also goes by the common names Western coralroot and Mertens' coralroot.[3] Corallorhiza mertensiana was previously considered a subspecies of Corallorhiza maculata but was given species rank in 1997 by Freudenstein.[4]

    Description

    Corallorrhiza mertensiana is a leafless, parasitic, perennial orchid that is 6-20 inches tall.[5][6] The stem is red to brownish purple. The upper petals are pink to reddish pink, with yellow to dark red veins. The lower petals are wider, dark pink to red, and have three deep red veins. Beneath the lower petal the spur is prominent.[3] The flower spikes are visible from May to August.[4] Corallorrhiza mertensiana has no roots, only hard, branched rhizomes that resemble coral.[7]

    Fungal Associations

    Corallorrhiza mertensiana is a nonphotosynthetic, myco-heterotroph that receives its nutrition from ectomycorrhizal fungi.[8] The fungi receive mineral nutrients and carbon symbiotically from trees. Corallorrhiza mertensiana parasitizes the carbon from the fungi.[9] Corallorrhiza mertensiana only associates with mutually exclusive subsets of species from the Russulaceae.[10] Corallorrhiza mertensiana never shares fungal species with Corallorrhiza maculata even when intermixed at the same growing site.[4]

    Habitat and Distribution

    Corallorrhiza mertensiana grows in shady coniferous forests at low to mid-elevations.[3] It prefers damp soil that is rich in humus, and receives dappled sunlight.[7] Corallorrhiza mertensiana is found in the Cascades from Alaska to California, and the Rocky Mountains from Alberta to Wyoming.[2] In a survey of the plants found in Glacier Bay, Alaska in 1923, Corallorhiza mertensiana was reported to be growing beneath the thickets of Alnus tenufolia along with Petasites frigida, Aspidium, and Polystichum.[11] In British Columbia it has been found to be associated with Gaultheria shallon, Hylocomium splendens, and Rhytidiadelphus loreus.[12]

    Gallery

    • Corallorhiza mertensiana 9316.JPG

    References

    1. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    2. ^ a b http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=COME17
    3. ^ a b c Turner, Mark & Phyllis Gustafson. Wildflowers of the Pacific Northwest. Timber Press Field Guide.
    4. ^ a b c https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Tom_Bruns/publication/227802288_Population_habitat_and_genetic_correlates_of_mycorrhizal_specialization_in_the_cheating_orchids_Corallorhiza_maculata_and_C._mertensiana/links/0912f512aa6777058c000000.pdf
    5. ^ Kemper, John. Wildflowers of Southern Oregon: A Field Guide.
    6. ^ . JSTOR 2445319. Missing or empty |title= (help).mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    7. ^ a b http://wanativeorchids.com/Corallorhiza/index.html
    8. ^ Shefferson, Richard P., et al. "Life History Strategy In Herbaceous Perennials: Inferring Demographic Patterns From The Aboveground Dynamics Of A Primarily Subterranean, Myco-Heterotrophic Orchid." Oikos 120.9 (2011): 1291-1300. Academic Search Complete. Web. 7 June 2015.
    9. ^ http://www.pacificbulbsociety.org/pbswiki/index.php/Corallorhiza
    10. ^ http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/42/2/352.full
    11. ^ . JSTOR 1929047. Missing or empty |title= (help)
    12. ^ Ceska, A., & A.M. Scagel. Indicator Plants of Coastal British Columbia. UBC Press. 2011.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Alta., B.C.; Alaska, Calif., Idaho, Mont., Oreg., Wash., Wyo.

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    In the Pacific Northwest Corallorhiza mertensiana is largely sympatric with C. maculata and occasionally intergrades with it. It frequently forms large clumps.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Stems ± strongly thickened, base not bulbous. Inflorescences: racemes dense, 35–65 × 1.5–4 cm. Flowers 8–35, showy; perianth open; sepals reddish purple, sometimes yellowish near base, or completely yellow, lanceolate, 3-veined, 6–12 mm; dorsal sepal arching over column, nearly adhering to it; lateral sepals strongly spreading; petals arching over column, connivent with dorsal sepal, often yellowish basally, and streaked with purple, or completely yellow suffused with purple toward apex; lip red-purple, white, or white with purple streaks or spots, narrowly obovate, 4.8–9.5 × 2.5–5 mm, thin, usually with small (0.7 mm) tooth on each side, margins undulate-denticulate; column curved somewhat toward lip, yellow, often flushed with purple or white basally, and streaked or spotted with purple, 5–8.2 mm; ovary 5.9–10 mm; mentum prominent, protruding backward along ovary but free from it. Capsules ellipsoid, 10–25 × 6–9 mm. 2n = 40.

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Corallorhiza maculata (Rafinesque) Rafinesque subsp. mertensiana (Bongard) Calder & Roy L. Taylor; C. purpurea L. O. Williams

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Moist to dry coniferous and mixed woods; 0--2300m.

Cyclicity

    Flowering/Fruiting
    provided by eFloras
    Flowering late spring--summer.