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Biology

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The slender naiad is eaten by waterfowl and provides shelter for aquatic insects and small fish (2). It can reproduce sexually through seeding as well as through vegetative reproduction (2). Flowering and fruiting occur from August to September; the male and female parts are found on the same plant but in separate flowers (5). Pollination occurs underwater as the plant is completely submerged, although floating fragments are often found (2).
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Conservation

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Conservation of this species is underway. Scottish National Heritage carried out surveys in 1994 and 1995 and the number of known Scottish sites that are home to the slender naiad was increased from 24 to 34. There has also been extensive assessment of known populations with a view to maintaining them through water quality control and by limiting local area farming and forestry operations to reduce run-off. Three Sites of Special Scientific Interest house populations and these have been put forward for Special Area Conservation plans under the EC Habitats Directive. There are plans to assess the condition of sites which used to include the slender naiad and to reintroduce plants if possible. Northwest Water have been directed to investigate better sewage treatment options and the Royal Botanic Gardens at Edinburgh and Kew are responsible for collecting valuable seed to add to the Millennium Seed Bank. Finally, studies of the population dynamics and habitat requirements of the slender naiad will be undertaken so that projects to maintain and restore populations have a higher success rate (4).
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Description

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This slender, flexible plant has a branched stem with long, narrow leaves which are oppositely positioned at the bottom of the plant but become clustered and whorled towards the tips. The slender naiad has inconspicuous fruits and flowers under the leaves (2).
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Habitat

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This aquatic plant is found in clear, lowland water bodies such as ponds, lakes, slow-moving streams, heathland pools and canals with low to medium levels of plant nutrients, (2) (3). It can grow in areas with limestone geology, resulting in water rich in lime, and can even tolerate brackish water (4). The water must be between one and four metres deep (2) (4).
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Range

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The slender naiad is now limited to Scotland in the UK and is most commonly found on western coast islands. It was previously present in the Lake District in England but despite surveys taking place, there has been no record of it in England since 1982 (3) (4). Outside the UK, the slender naiad is present in Ireland, northern Europe and northern North America (2) (3) (4).
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Status

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This species is listed under Annexes II and IV of the EC Habitats Directive and Appendix I of the Bern Convention, as well as being protected under Schedule 4 of the Conservation Regulations 1994 and Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (4).
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Threats

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Nutrient-rich run-off from fish farms, agricultural farms and forestry operations cause an increase in nutrient-loving algae and plants, which compete with the slender naiad for space and light, restricting its growth (4).
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Comments

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In habit, Najas flexilis is most similar to N. guadalupensis. When seeds are present, N. flexilis can be separated easily from the latter species by the glossy, smooth, yellowish seeds that are widest above the middle. In the northern United States and in Canada, N. flexilis is by far the most common species of Najas, although in the Ohio and surrounding areas, it is disappearing as eutrophication (depletion of oxygen from lakes) continues (W. A. Wentz and R. L. Stuckey 1971).
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Stems often profusely branched distally, 2.5--5 cm ´ 0.2--0.6 mm; internodes 0.16--6.8 cm, without prickles. Leaves spreading to ascending with age, 0.2--0.6 cm, lax in age; sheath 0.7--1.6 mm wide, apex rounded; blade 0.2--0.6 mm wide, margins minutely serrulate, teeth 35--80 per side, apex acute, with 1--2 teeth, teeth unicellular; midvein without prickles abaxially. Flowers 1(--2) per axil, staminate and pistillate on same plants. Staminate flowers in distal axils, 1.1--2.7 mm; involucral beaks 3-lobed, 0.7--1.2 mm; anther 1-loculed, 1.1--2.7 mm. Pistillate flowers in distal to proximal axils, 2.5--4.7 mm; styles 1.5--1.7 mm; stigmas 3-lobed. Seeds not recurved, deep brown to yellow, narrowly to broadly obovoid, (1.2--)2.5--3.7 ´ 0.2--1.2 mm, apex with style situated at center; testa glossy, 3 cell layers thick, smooth; aeroleareoles regularly arranged in ca. 50 longitudinal rows, not ladderlike, 3--4-angled, longer than broad, end walls not raised. 2n = 12, 24.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Distribution

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Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask.; Calif., Conn., Del., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis.; Eurasia.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flowering/Fruiting

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Flowering summer--fall.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Habitat

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Lakes and rivers; 0--1500m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Synonym

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Caulinia flexilis Willdenow, Mém. Acad. Roy. Sci. Hist. (Berlin) 1798: 89, plate1, fig. 1. 1801; Najas caespitosus (Maguire) Reveal; Najas. canadensis Michaux
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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Najas flexilis

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Najas flexilis is an aquatic annual plant native to parts of North America and Europe. It is native to northern and Central Europe from Norway to Ireland to Switzerland, and from there across Russia and Siberia. It is also considered native throughout most of Canada, and the northern United States in disjunct populations in southern California, Arizona, Missouri, South Carolina and Utah.[1][2] Its common names include slender naiad and nodding waternymph.

Najas flexilis inhabits shallow bodies of brackish and fresh water such as lakes and bays.[3][4][5] It is also native to northern Europe, where its range includes Scotland,[6] Poland[7] and Sweden.[8] It is rare in the European portion of its range and is strictly protected by Appendix I of the Berne Convention. The largest population is in Lake Sīveri in Latvia.

References

  1. ^ Biota of North America Program, Najas flexilis Image
  2. ^ "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew". apps.kew.org. Retrieved 2017-01-31.
  3. ^ Friedrich Wilhelm Bottlieb Theophil Rostkovius & Wilhelm Ludwig Ewald Schmidt. 1824. Flora Sedinensis 382, Najas flexilis
  4. ^ Carl Ludwig von Willdenow. 1801. Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences et Belles-Lettres depuis l'Avénement de Fréderic Guillaume II au Thrône 1798: 89, pl. 1, f. 19. 1798[1801].
  5. ^ United States Department of Agriculture (1971), Common Weeds of the United States, New York: Dover Publications, ISBN 0-486-20504-5
  6. ^ Reed, Denise, Wildlife of the Lunan Lochs, retrieved 2007-05-10
  7. ^ Thiry, Emmanuel (coordination); van de Weyer, Klaus (17 Feb 2005), Re-Establishment Plan for the Natura 2000 Species Najas flexilis in Poland (PDF), retrieved 2007-05-10
  8. ^ Jacobsson, Anders (2005), Sjönajas återfunnen i Södra Kärrlången. [Najas flexilis rediscovered in Södermanland, southeast Sweden.] (PDF), retrieved 2008-04-16

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Najas flexilis: Brief Summary

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Najas flexilis is an aquatic annual plant native to parts of North America and Europe. It is native to northern and Central Europe from Norway to Ireland to Switzerland, and from there across Russia and Siberia. It is also considered native throughout most of Canada, and the northern United States in disjunct populations in southern California, Arizona, Missouri, South Carolina and Utah. Its common names include slender naiad and nodding waternymph.

Najas flexilis inhabits shallow bodies of brackish and fresh water such as lakes and bays. It is also native to northern Europe, where its range includes Scotland, Poland and Sweden. It is rare in the European portion of its range and is strictly protected by Appendix I of the Berne Convention. The largest population is in Lake Sīveri in Latvia.

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