dcsimg

Biology

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Common water-plantain flowers from June to August (4). It fruits prolifically, and readily colonises recently cleared ditches and flooded mineral workings (3).
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Conservation

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Conservation action is not needed.
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Description

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Common water-plantain is a stout aquatic herb with oval-shaped leaves, which may be rounded or heart-shaped at the base (4). The pale lilac flowers are borne on a greatly branching inflorescence, and open between 1pm and 7pm each day (2). The curvature of the ribs on the leaves of water plantain was one of the inspirational natural features used by John Ruskin in the development of his theories on gothic architecture; he claimed that they were models of 'divine proportion' (5).
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Habitat

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This species is usually found growing at the edge of still or slow-flowing water, as well as in swamps and marshes (3).
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Range

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Widespread throughout much of Britain, but rarer in the north of Scotland, Shetland, the Outer Hebrides and Orkney. Elsewhere, it is found in temperate Europe (2), and has become widely naturalised outside of its natural range (3).
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Status

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Widespread (3).
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Threats

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This species is not threatened.
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Distribution in Egypt

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Nile region.

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Global Distribution

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North and east Africa, temperate Europe, southwest to central Asia, north America, southeast Australia, New Zealand.

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Habitat

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Nile banks, ditches and marshy ground.

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Life Expectancy

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Perennial.

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Comments

provided by eFloras
The name Alisma plantago-aquatica has been used in a variety of North American floras. We are following, however, the treatment of I. Björkqvist (1968), in which the native distribution of A. plantago-aquatica is restricted to Eurasia.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Herbs, to 1 m. Leaves emersed, petiolate; blade linear-lanceolate to broadly elliptic to ovate, to 30 ´ 1--12 cm. Inflorescences to 1 m. Flowers chasmogamous; sepals 1.7--3.2 mm; petals purplish white to purplish pink, 3.4--6.4 mm, margins ± erose, apex obtuse; anthers ellipsoid, 0.7--1.4 mm; style ± straight, 0.6--1.5 mm, exceeding ovary length. Fruiting heads 4--6.5 mm diam; achenes ovoid, 1.7--3.1 mm, abaxial keels broadly rounded, with 1 median abaxial groove, rarely 2, beak erect or nearly erect. 2n = 14 (Eurasian material).
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Distribution

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introduced; Alaska; Eurasia.
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Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flowering/Fruiting

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Flowering and fruiting late summer.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Habitat

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Stream margins; 200m.
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Flora of North America Vol. 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Size

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20-100 cm
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Julia (Nenya)
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Description

provided by Flora of Zimbabwe
Perennial aquatic herb, up to 1m, submerged or emergent. Leaves erect in a basal tuft. Flowers in a tall open panicle, white.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
bibliographic citation
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Alisma plantago-aquatica L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=103200
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Mark Hyde
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Frequency

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Occasional
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Alisma plantago-aquatica L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=103200
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Mark Hyde
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Petra Ballings
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Worldwide distribution

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Known from all temperate regions of the world and mountainous areas in East Africa. Introduced in Angola, Zimbabwe and South Africa. Its true origins are uncertain.
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Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings
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Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T. and Ballings, P. (2002-2014). Alisma plantago-aquatica L. Flora of Zimbabwe website. Accessed 28 August 2014 at http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=103200
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Bart Wursten
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Petra Ballings
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Alisma plantago-aquatica

provided by wikipedia EN

Alisma plantago-aquatica, also known as European water-plantain, common water-plantain or mad-dog weed, is a perennial flowering aquatic plant widespread across most of Europe and Asia from Portugal and Morocco to Japan, Kamchatka and Vietnam. It is also regarded as native in northern and central Africa as far south as Tanzania. It is reportedly naturalized in southern Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Alaska, British Columbia, Washington State and Connecticut.[2][3][4] Some sources maintain that the species is widespread across North America, but these reports appear to have been based on misidentified specimens.[5] It is found on mud or in fresh waters.

Description

AlismaPlantagoBlossom.jpg

Alisma plantago-aquatica is a hairless plant that grows in shallow water, consists of a fibrous root, several basal long stemmed leaves 15–30 cm long, and a triangular stem up to 1 m tall. It has branched inflorescence bearing numerous small flowers, 1 cm across, with three round or slightly jagged, white or pale purple petals. The flowers open in the afternoon. There are 3 blunt green sepals, and 6 stamens per flower. The carpels often exist as a flat single whorl. It flowers from June until August.[6]

The word alisma is said to be a word of Celtic origin meaning "water", a reference to the habitat in which it grows. Early botanists named it after the Plantago because of the similarity of their leaves.[7]

Similar species

Narrow leaved water plantain Alisma lanceolatum differs only in that the leaf tips are acuminate and shape is narrow lanceolate.

Traditional uses

According to Flora of the U.S.S.R. (1934, translated 1968), “A powder prepared from dried roots is used in popular medicine as a cure for rabies and crushed leaves are used against mammary congestion; fresh leaves are employed in homeopathy. [...] Since this species is often confounded or identified with others of the genus, the reported data may also refer to [Alisma orientale or Alisma lanceolatum].”[8] Indeed, Alisma plantago-aquatica is also known as mad-dog weed,[9] as if it could be used to cure rabies. Do not confuse this with Scutellaria lateriflora (mad-dog skullcap), which is also sometimes called mad-dog weed.

Alisma orientale is sometimes treated as a variety of this species (Alisma plantago-aquatica var. orientale).[10][11] The rhizomes of A. orientale have been used as a traditional Chinese medicine, ze xie.[12] However, it may have serious side effects or even toxic effects such as hepatotoxicity in patients with chronic hepatitis B.[13]

Research

In vitro and animal studies indicate that extracts of Alisma plantago-aquatica or its isolated chemical constituents may have biological activities including:

Chemistry

Chemical constituents of Rhizoma Alismatis—rhizomes of Alisma orientale (syn. Alisma plantago-aquatica var. orientale) as a traditional Chinese medicine—include alisol A 24-acetate and alisol B 23-acetate.[18] The content of these two compounds are significantly different in Rhizoma Alismatis of different areas.

References

  1. ^ Lansdown, R.V. (2014). "Alisma plantago-aquatica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.old-form url
  2. ^ "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew". apps.kew.org. Retrieved 2017-01-26.
  3. ^ Biota of North America Program
  4. ^ "Alisma plantago-aquatica in Flora of China @ efloras.org". www.efloras.org. Retrieved 2017-01-26.
  5. ^ Björkquist, I. 1968. Studies in Alisma L. II. Chromosome studies, crossing experiments and taxonomy. Opera Botanica 19: 1-138.
  6. ^ Flora of North America v 22, Alisma plantago-aquatica
  7. ^ Rose, Francis (2006). The Wild Flower Key. Frederick Warne & Co. pp. 483–484. ISBN 978-0-7232-5175-0.
  8. ^ Flora of the U.S.S.R. 1. 1968. pp. 220–1. Retrieved June 3, 2012.
  9. ^ "Historical Common Names of Great Plains Plants: Alisma plantago-aquatica L". Archived from the original on 2011-06-08. Retrieved June 3, 2012.
  10. ^ "Alisma plantago-aquatica var. orientale". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved June 3, 2012.
  11. ^ "Alisma orientale". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved June 3, 2012.
  12. ^ "SCHEDULE 1 Chinese Herbal Medicines". Chinese Medicine Bill. Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Retrieved June 3, 2012. Rhizoma Alismatis (澤瀉) Tuber of Alisma orientalis (Sam.) Juzep.
  13. ^ YUEN, M.-F.; TAM, S.; FUNG, J.; WONG, D. K.-H.; WONG, B. C.-Y. & LAI, C.-L. (October 2006). "Traditional Chinese medicine causing hepatotoxicity in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection: a 1-year prospective study". Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 24 (8): 1179–86. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2006.03111.x. PMID 17014576.
  14. ^ Rau O., Wurglics M., Dingermann Th., Abdel-Tawab M., Schubert-Zsilavecz M, "Screening of herbal extracts for activation of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor." Pharmazie 2006 61:11 (952-956)
  15. ^ Jeong C.S., Suh I.O., Hyun J.E., Lee E.B. "Screening of hepatoprotective activity of medicinal plant extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats", Natural Product Sciences 2003 9:2 (87-90)
  16. ^ Kubo, Michinori; Mattsuda, Hideaki; Tomohiro, Norimichi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki (May 1997). "Studies on Alismatis rhizoma. Anti-allergic Effects of Methanol Extract and Six Terpene Components from Alismatis rhizoma (Dried Rhizome of Alisma orientale)" (PDF). Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 20 (5): 511–6. doi:10.1248/bpb.20.511. PMID 9178931. Retrieved June 3, 2012.
  17. ^ Lee, JH; Kwon, OS; Jin, HG; Woo, ER; Kim, YS; Kim, HP (2012). "The Rhizomes of Alisma orientale and Alisol Derivatives Inhibit Allergic Response and Experimental Atopic Dermatitis". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 35 (9): 1581–7. doi:10.1248/bpb.b110689. PMID 22975512.
  18. ^ http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-YBQJ201010029.htm

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Alisma plantago-aquatica: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Alisma plantago-aquatica, also known as European water-plantain, common water-plantain or mad-dog weed, is a perennial flowering aquatic plant widespread across most of Europe and Asia from Portugal and Morocco to Japan, Kamchatka and Vietnam. It is also regarded as native in northern and central Africa as far south as Tanzania. It is reportedly naturalized in southern Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Alaska, British Columbia, Washington State and Connecticut. Some sources maintain that the species is widespread across North America, but these reports appear to have been based on misidentified specimens. It is found on mud or in fresh waters.

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