Comments

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Several forms of Trillium undulatum have been described. One, forma enotatum T. S. Patrick, lacks the usual red, V-shaped petal markings. Other named forms have green petals, extra leaves or petals, and deformities suggesting a mycoplasma infection as in Trillium grandiflorum.

This difficult-to-cultivate species has been reported from Wisconsin, but it cannot be accepted as native there.

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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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Flora of North America Vol. 26: 92, 99, 105 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Description

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Rhizomes horizontal, short, stout, ± praemorse. Scapes 1–3, dark greenish maroon, round in cross section, 1.1–4 dm, glabrous. Bracts strongly petiolate; blade dark green over maroon, main veins prominent, ovate to long-acuminate, 12–18 × 8–20 cm, ± glossy, base above petiole rounded, apex acuminate; petiole 4–17 mm. Flower opening above bracts, erect, odor unknown; sepals conspicuous, spreading, wine red to dull maroon green, rarely white-striated, lanceolate-acuminate, 13–37 × 4–10 mm, margins entire, apex acuminate; petals spreading, white, with distinct, inverted, V-shaped, dark-red mark basally, the red radiating outward along major veins, or white and lacking red marks, veins not engraved, oblong-ovate, occasionally lanceolate, usually widest just above middle, 2–5 × 1–2 cm, base tapering very gradually to attachment, margins not undulate basally, undulate apically, apex somewhat rapidly acuminate; stamens straight, 8–12 mm; filaments pink or white, equaling or longer than anthers, slender; anthers erect or slightly spreading, white or pink, 2–7 mm, thin, dehiscence extrorse; connectives pink, equaling anther sac; ovary fully exposed, white, pink tipped, obtusely 3-angled, becoming obscurely angled-rotund in cross section, 3–10 mm, broadly attached; stigmas ascending, barely connate basally, then strongly recurved, white, ± linear, 3–10 mm, uniformly thin; pedicel erect, 2–5 cm. Fruits quickly deciduous upon ripening, scarlet, obscurely 3-angled to cylindrical, 1–2 cm, fleshy, juicy. 2n = 10.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 26: 92, 99, 105 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Distribution

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N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Conn., Ga., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 26: 92, 99, 105 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flowering/Fruiting

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Flowering late spring--early summer (late Apr--Jun).
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 26: 92, 99, 105 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Habitat

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Deep acid humus of pine, spruce, hemlock, oak, mixed deciduous-coniferous woods, rhododendron or mountain laurel thickets in s range, almost any acidic forested situation n and ne, often around old Pinus strobus stumps in white birch-red maple-white pine second-growth woods in n range; prefers deep shade except at high elevations in range; not usually found on limestone-derived or basic soils unless in very deep acid humus; 10--1800m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 26: 92, 99, 105 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Synonym

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Trillium erythrocarpum Michaux
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of North America Vol. 26: 92, 99, 105 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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Trillium undulatum

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Trillium undulatum, the painted trillium,[3] is a species of flowering plant in the family Melanthiaceae. It is also known as painted lady (not to be confused with a painted lady butterfly), smiling wake robin,[4] or trille ondulé[5] in French. The plant is found from Ontario in the north to northern Georgia in the south and from Michigan in the west to Nova Scotia in the east.[2][6] It demands strongly acidic, humus-rich soils and tends to be found in the shade of acid-loving trees such as eastern white pine, red maple, red spruce and balsam fir. Although the soils that support it have low base saturation, this species was found to have relatively high levels of calcium, magnesium, and especially potassium in its foliage.[5][7]

Trillium undulatum is a perennial herbaceous plant that spreads by means of underground rhizomes. There are three large leaf-like bracts arranged in a whorl about a scape that rises directly from the rhizome. Bracts are ovate, each with a definite petiole.[8]

Flowering occurs from late April to the end of June.[5] The single, terminal flower is pedicellate with three sepals and three petals. The petals are wavy-margined and white with a central red to reddish purple splotch at the base of the flower.[9]

After anthesis, if the flower was successfully pollinated, a single fruit develops. Initially the fruit is green, ripening to a bright red by mid to late summer. The fruit is a berry-like capsule, 1 to 2 cm (0.5 to 1 in) long.[9][10] No other North American Trillium species has a fruit of this size and shape.

Numerous abnormal forms have been reported[11] including variants with multiple whorls of bracts, enormous sepals, or four or more parts (instead of the usual three), the latter being somewhat common in T. undulatum.[12] A form with unmarked white petals occurs in the southern Appalachian Mountains.[13]

Trillium undulatum

References

  1. ^ "Trillium undulatum". NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. Retrieved 2008-05-02.
  2. ^ a b "Trillium undulatum". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  3. ^ "Trillium undulatum". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  4. ^ Keyes, Florence J. (January 1927). "Trillium grandiflorum in Maine". Rhodora. New England Botanical Club, Inc. 29 (337): 15. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  5. ^ a b c Case Jr., Frederick W. (2002). "Trillium undulatum". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 26. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  6. ^ "Trillium undulatum". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  7. ^ T.G. Siccama, F.H. Bormann and T.E. Likens. The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study: Productivity, Nutrients and Phytosociology of the Herbaceous Layer. Ecological Monographs Vol.40, No. 4, Autumn 1970.
  8. ^ O'Connor, R. P.; Penskar, M. R. (2004). "Special plant abstract for Trillium undulatum (painted trillium)" (PDF). Lansing, MI, USA: Michigan Natural Features Inventory. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  9. ^ a b Stritch, Larry. "Painted Trillium (Trillium undulatum)". United States Forest Service. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  10. ^ "Painted Trillium (Trillium undulatum)". Adirondacks Forever Wild. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  11. ^ Deane, Walter (February 1908). "Some Teratological Forms of Trillium undulatum". Rhodora. New England Botanical Club, Inc. 10 (10): 21–24. JSTOR 23294015.
  12. ^ Fernald, M. L. (1943). "Trillium undulatum Willd., forma Cleavelandicum (Wood), comb. nov". Rhodora. 45: 517. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  13. ^ Patrick, Thomas S. (1985). "Trillium undulatum forma enotatum, a new petal color form of the painted trillium". Rhodora. 87: 157–158. Retrieved 8 November 2019.

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Trillium undulatum: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Trillium undulatum, the painted trillium, is a species of flowering plant in the family Melanthiaceae. It is also known as painted lady (not to be confused with a painted lady butterfly), smiling wake robin, or trille ondulé in French. The plant is found from Ontario in the north to northern Georgia in the south and from Michigan in the west to Nova Scotia in the east. It demands strongly acidic, humus-rich soils and tends to be found in the shade of acid-loving trees such as eastern white pine, red maple, red spruce and balsam fir. Although the soils that support it have low base saturation, this species was found to have relatively high levels of calcium, magnesium, and especially potassium in its foliage.

Trillium undulatum is a perennial herbaceous plant that spreads by means of underground rhizomes. There are three large leaf-like bracts arranged in a whorl about a scape that rises directly from the rhizome. Bracts are ovate, each with a definite petiole.

Flowering occurs from late April to the end of June. The single, terminal flower is pedicellate with three sepals and three petals. The petals are wavy-margined and white with a central red to reddish purple splotch at the base of the flower.

After anthesis, if the flower was successfully pollinated, a single fruit develops. Initially the fruit is green, ripening to a bright red by mid to late summer. The fruit is a berry-like capsule, 1 to 2 cm (0.5 to 1 in) long. No other North American Trillium species has a fruit of this size and shape.

Numerous abnormal forms have been reported including variants with multiple whorls of bracts, enormous sepals, or four or more parts (instead of the usual three), the latter being somewhat common in T. undulatum. A form with unmarked white petals occurs in the southern Appalachian Mountains.

Trillium undulatum Trillium undulatum flowering in the Appalachian Mountains in western Virginia USA

T. undulatum flowering in the Appalachian Mountains in western Virginia USA

Trillium undulatum fruiting along the Lake Mansfield Trail in Vermont USA

T. undulatum fruiting along the Lake Mansfield Trail in Vermont USA

Trillium undulatum with four leaves and four sepals

An unusual individual with four leaves and four sepals

Geographical distribution of Trillium undulatum in the USA

Geographical distribution of T. undulatum in the USA

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