In the ideal situation, males collect an amount of dung to be inserted into a burrow by the female (Thomas, 2001), and both sexes use their head and front legs to do so (Price and May, 2009). After checking with their heads to see if the burrow is compacted tightly enough they will mate. If they determine that the burrow is not compact, both the male and female will leave to start a burrow somewhere else (Price and May, 2009). Each nesting site has one or more brood balls (Price and May, 2009). Brood balls consist of dung for food and soil for preservation (Bertone et al., 2004). Once the brood ball is complete, the male and female mate and the female lays her egg in the brood ball (Woodruff, 1973). Another burrow with a brood ball is then constructed for the newly emerging adult or larvae to feed on (Price and May, 2009). The male and female then cease to be caretakers of the egg, although they do stay in the burrow (Price and May, 2009). In dung beetles, after the egg hatches in approximately 1 week, it develops into a larva and then transitions to an adult (Thomas, 2001). Larvae typically pupate within 3 weeks (Thomas, 2001). Adult P. vindex come out of the brood ball due to rainfall or temperatures rising, mainly in spring (Blume and Aga, 1976). They are known to hibernate in the winter (Blume and Aga, 1976). Once they come out, dung beetles repeat the same cycle of finding a mate, provisioning a burrow, and reproducing (Price and May, 2001). Adult P. vindex can live over a year (Eaton and Kaufman, 2007). P. vindex are likely to live a smaller amount of time in the field than in a laboratory setting due to the fact that in the former, beetles have to leave their burrow frequently to seek fresh food, whereas in a laboratory setting, their food is being renewed by overseers, they are less likely to encounter predators, and to encounter competition over dung.