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Austrian Pine

Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold

Brief Summary

    Pinus nigra: Brief Summary
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    Pinus nigra, the Austrian pine or black pine, is a moderately variable species of pine, occurring across southern Mediterranean Europe from Spain to the eastern Mediterranean on Anatolian peninsula of Turkey and on Corsica/Cyprus, including Crimea, and in the high mountains of the Maghreb in North Africa.

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    Brief Summary
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    Not only is black pine more resistant to sea wind than the Scots pine. The Corsican black pine can reach the ripe age of 600 years! Understandably, most of the conifers planted in the dunes are black pine species. Nevertheless, they don't grow well if they receive the full blast of sea wind and therefore are often sheltered by a stretch of deciduous trees. Thanks to these pines, there are many new species of birds, plants and mushrooms living and growing in the dunes and on the Wadden Islands. Besides the Corsican pines, Austrian pines are also a common species found planted in Dutch forests.
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    Brief Summary
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Pinaceae -- Pine family

    David F. Van Haverbeke

    European black pine (Pinus nigra), also called Austrian pine, was one of the early tree introductions into the United States, first reported in cultivation in 1759 (52). Black pine was one of the first conifers tested for adaptability in the Sandhills of Nebraska in the 1891 Bruner plantation, Holt County, and in 1909 on the Nebraska National Forest. It was also planted by homesteaders on the Great Plains in the early 1900's to provide beauty and protection from wind and snow on the treeless prairies.

    The most common seed sources of European black pine introduced into the United States have been from Austria and the Balkans (69). Sources from other parts of the natural range are relatively scarce in this country, except in a few arboreta. The best of these, however, grow as much as 50 percent faster than the typical Austrian sources. Today, European black pine is one of the most common introduced ornamentals in the United States.

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Comprehensive Description

    Pinus nigra
    provided by wikipedia

    Pinus nigra, the Austrian pine[2] or black pine, is a moderately variable species of pine, occurring across southern Mediterranean Europe from Spain to the eastern Mediterranean on Anatolian peninsula of Turkey and on Corsica/Cyprus, including Crimea, and in the high mountains of the Maghreb in North Africa.

    Distribution

    Pinus nigra is a tree of the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome. The majority of the range is in Turkey. It is found in the higher elevations of the South Apennine mixed montane forests ecoregion in southern Italy and the Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests ecoregion in Sicily. There are remnant populations in the Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests ecoregion, and in the higher Atlas Mountains in Morocco and Algeria.

    It is found at elevations ranging from sea level to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft), most commonly from 250–1,600 metres (820–5,250 ft). Several of the varieties have distinct English names.[3]

    It has naturalized in parts of the midwestern states of the U.S, normally south of the normal native ranges of native pines.

    Description

    Pinus nigra is a large coniferous evergreen tree, growing to 20–55 metres (66–180 ft) high at maturity and spreading to 20 to 40 feet wide. The bark is grey to yellow-brown, and is widely split by flaking fissures into scaly plates, becoming increasingly fissured with age. The leaves ("needles") are thinner and more flexible in western populations (see 'Taxonomy' section below).

    The ovulate and pollen cones appear from May to June. The mature seed cones are 5–10 cm (rarely to 11 cm) long, with rounded scales; they ripen from green to pale grey-buff or yellow-buff in September to November, about 18 months after pollination. The seeds are dark grey, 6–8 mm long, with a yellow-buff wing 20–25 mm long; they are wind-dispersed when the cones open from December to April. maturity is reached at 15–40 years; large seed crops are produced at 2–5 year intervals.

    Pinus nigra is moderately fast growing, at about 30–70 centimetres (12–28 in) per year. It usually has a rounded conic form, that becomes irregular with age. The tree can be long-lived, with some trees over 500 years old. It needs full sun to grow well, is intolerant of shade, and is resistant to snow and ice damage.

    @media all and (max-width:720px){.mw-parser-output .mw-module-gallery{display:block!important;float:none!important}.mw-parser-output .mw-module-gallery div{display:inherit!important;float:none!important;width:auto!important}}
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    Foliage and cone of subsp. nigra
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    Bark of subsp. laricio

    Taxonomy

    The species is divided into two subspecies, each further subdivided into three varieties.[4][5] Some authorities (e.g. Flora Europaea) treat several of the varieties at subspecific rank, but this reflects tradition rather than sound taxonomy, as the distinctions between the taxa are small.[6]

    Subspecies
    • P. nigra subsp. nigra in the east of the range, from Austria, northeast and central Italy, east to the Crimea and Turkey. Needles stout, rigid, 1.5–2 mm diameter, with 3–6 layers of thick-walled hypodermal cells.
      • P. nigra subsp. nigra var. nigra (syn. Pinus nigra var. austriaca, Pinus nigra subsp. dalmatica) (Austrian pine): Austria, Balkans (except southern Greece).
      • P. nigra subsp. nigra var. caramanica (Turkish black pine): Turkey, Cyprus, southern Greece.
      • P. nigra subsp. nigra var. italica (Italian black pine): central Italy (Villetta Barrea, in Abruzzo National Park)
      • P. nigra subsp. nigra var. pallasiana (syn. Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana) (Crimean pine): Crimea.
    • P. nigra subsp. salzmannii in the west of the range, from southern Italy to southern France, Spain and North Africa. Needles slender, more flexible, 0.8–1.5 mm diameter, with 1–2 layers of thin-walled hypodermal cells.
      • P. nigra subsp. salzmannii var. salzmannii (Pyreneean pine): Pyrenees, Southern France, Northern Spain.
      • P. nigra subsp. salzmannii var. corsicana (syn. Pinus nigra subsp. laricio, Pinus nigra var. maritima) (Corsican pine): Corsica, Sicily, Southern Italy.
        • P. nigra subsp. laricio Koekelare [7]
      • P. nigra subsp. salzmannii var. mauretanica (Atlas Mountains black pine): Morocco, Algeria.

    Ecology

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    Pinus nigra var. corsicana—Corsican pine, in Corsica.
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    Pinus nigra var. corsicana—Corsican pine plantation, in Belgium.

    In Mediterranean Europe and the Anatolian Peninsula (Asia Minor), trees usually associated with this species include Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), Serbian spruce (Picea omorika), Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii), Norway spruce (Picea abies), Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani), European silver fir (Abies alba) and related firs. Several species of juniper (Juniperus spp.), and various broadleaf trees are associates.

    Climate and provenance

    Pinus nigra is a light-demanding species, intolerant of shade but resistant to wind and drought.[8] The eastern P. nigra subsp. nigra exhibits greater winter frost hardiness (hardy to below −30 °C) than the western P. nigra subsp. salzmannii (hardy to about −25 °C).[4]

    Different provenances (seed sources by geographic area) or varieties are adapted to different soil types: Austrian and Pyrenees origins grow well on a wide range of soil types, Corsican origins grows poorly on limestone, while Turkish and Crimean origins grow well on limestone. Most provenances also show good growth on podzolic soils.

    Uses

    Lumber

    The timber of European black pine is similar to that of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and red pine (Pinus resinosa), being moderately hard and straight-grained. It does however tend to be rougher, softer, and not as strong, due to its faster growth. It is used for general construction, fuel, and in paper manufacture.

    In the United Kingdom, Pinus nigra is important both as a timber tree and in plantations (primarily Corsican pine subsp.). Recently however, serious problems have occurred with red band needle blight disease, caused by the fungus Dothistroma septosporum, resulting in a major recent decline in forestry planting there.[9] In the United States it is of low importance as a timber species.

    In regard to Austrian pine, the fungus Dothistroma septosporum is widespread and rapidly spreading out of control throughout the United States. All now growing Austrian pine are expected to be killed by this disease. It is out of control and not recommended for landscaping, especially in groups or rows.

    Ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal usage

    In Turkey, this pine (subsp. pallasiana) was and is used in various ways, both topically and internally, as well as for construction and for livestock. Among its uses are curing acne, common cold, osteomyelitis, and viral infections; acting as an oral antiseptic; treating cracked hands and feet in the winter; and sealing wooden roofs.

    Ornamental usage

    In the US and Canada, the European black pine is planted as a street tree, and as an ornamental tree in gardens and parks. Its value as a street tree is largely due to its resistance to salt spray (from road de-icing salt) and various industrial pollutants (including ozone), and its intermediate drought tolerance. In the UK the tree is planted as an ornamental tree in parks and gardens. It is planted with great success as far north as Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. [1]

    In both the US and UK most of the specimens planted are from Austrian sources, the Pinus nigra subsp. nigra and Pinus nigra subsp. nigra var. nigra seed selections. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, when demand for natural trees was extremely high, its rapid growth, deep green color and low cost made it briefly a popular Christmas tree, but the extreme length of the needles (making it very difficult to decorate) soon led to its fall from favor, and it has long since been abandoned in the US for that purpose.

    P. nigra is planted for windbreaks and shelterbelts in the US, recommended for windbreaks in the Northern Great Plains on medium to deep moist or upland soils.

    Invasive species

    Pinus nigra has become naturalised in a few areas of the United States. In New Zealand it is considered an invasive species and noxious weed, along with lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), due to their habitat conversion nature in tussock grassland plant communities, shading out the native bunch grasses as their forest canopy develops.

    References

    1. ^ Farjon, A. (2013). "Pinus nigra". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2013: e.T42386A2976817. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T42386A2976817.en. Retrieved 9 January 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ "Pinus nigra". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
    3. ^ Rushforth, K. (1987). Conifers. Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X.
    4. ^ a b Gymnosperm Database: Pinus nigra
    5. ^ Christensen, K. I. (1993). Comments on the earliest validly published varietal name for the Corsican Pine. Taxon 42: 649-653.
    6. ^ Farjon, A. (2005). Pines Drawings and Descriptions of the Genus Pinus 2nd ed. Brill ISBN 90-04-13916-8.
    7. ^ Belgische Dendrologie Belge Pinus Nigra Laricio Koekelare
    8. ^ Isajev, V.; Fady, B.; Semerci, H.; Andonovski, V. (2004), European Black pine - Pinus nigra: Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use (PDF), European Forest Genetic Resources Programme
    9. ^ Forestry Commission: Red band needle blight

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Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Austrian pine is native to Europe and Asia. Its range there
    extends from Spain and Morocco east to eastern Turkey, south to Cypress,
    and north to northeastern Austria and the Crimea, Russia. In the United
    States Austrian pine widely planted in northern states in New
    England, around the Great Lakes, and in the Northwest. It has
    naturalized in New England and the Great Lakes States [21].
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    Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Pinus nigra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Occurrence in North America
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    CT IL ME MD MA MI MS MO NJ NY OH PA WV
    AB BC ON PE QC
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Morphology

    Description
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Austrian pine is an introduced, medium-sized, two-needle pine [7].
    Mature height (approximately 80 years of age [21]) ranges from 66 to 165
    feet (20-50 m) [11]. Some characters vary depending on the subspecific
    taxon; the type variety has dark brown to black bark that is widely
    split by flaking fissures into scaly plates [14]. The bark becomes
    increasingly creviced with age [17]. Austrian pine is
    fast growing and usually has a pyramidal form. It has deep lateral
    roots. Austrian pine is long lived; harvest rotation times of up
    to 360 years have been used in Europe [21].
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    Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Pinus nigra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Trees to 50 m in native range; bark gray or dark brown; branchlets pale brown or orange-brown, glabrous; winter buds ovoid or cylindric-ovoid, slightly resinous. Needles 2 per bundle, pale or dark green, straight or curved, 4-19 cm × 1-2 mm, somewhat rigid, resin canals 3-17, median, base with persistent sheath. Seed cones subsessile, yellowish or pale brown, shiny, 3-8 × 2-4 cm, deciduous. Apophyses slightly or obtusely keeled; umbo mucronate.
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    Flora of China Vol. 4: 21 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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    Physical Description
    provided by USDA PLANTS text
    Tree, Evergreen, Monoecious, Habit erect, Trees without or rarely having knees, Tree with bark rough or scaly, Young shoots 3-dimensional, Buds resinous, Leaves needle-like, Leaves alternate, Needle-like leaf margins finely serrulate (use magnification or slide your finger along the leaf), Leaf apex acute, Leaves > 5 cm long, Leaves < 10 cm long, Leaves not blue-green, Needle-like leaves triangular, Needle-like leaves twisted, Needle-like leaf habit erect, Needle-like leaves per fascicle mostly 2, Needle-like leaf sheath persistent, Twigs glabrous, Twigs viscid, Twigs not viscid, Twigs without peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Berry-like cones orange, Woody seed cones < 5 cm long, Woody seed cones > 5 cm long, Seed cones bearing a scarlike umbo, Umbo with obvious prickle, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds green, Seeds winged, Seeds unequally winged, Seed wings prominent, Seed wings equal to or broader than body.
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Habitat

    Climate
    provided by Silvics of North America
    In parts of its native European habitat, black pine grows in a cool to cold temperate climate (23). The northern varieties are very frost-hardy, withstanding temperatures of -30° C (-22° F), and the southern varieties tolerate -7° C (19° F) temperatures. Annual precipitation varies from 610 to 1020 mm (24 to 40 in). The species has been shown to carry on photosynthesis at -5° C (23° F), with respiration still detectable at -19° C (-2° F) (21). Black pine withstands the weight of ice well and is considered hardy except in the coldest, hottest, and driest regions.

    In the United States, black pine is mainly suited to Climatic Zone IV, which includes most of Nova Scotia, southern Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, southern Ontario, Michigan, northern Indiana, northern Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa, northern Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, Utah, Idaho, Montana, southwestern Alberta, and central British Columbia (52). It has either failed or has performed poorly in the southern states of Oklahoma, Texas, North Carolina, Georgia, northern Florida, and Arkansas.

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    Habitat & Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Widely cultivated. Beijing Shi, Hubei (Wuhan Shi), Jiangsu (Nanjing Shi), Jiangxi (Lu Shan), Liaoning, Shandong, Zhejiang [native to NW Africa, SW Asia, S Europe]
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    Flora of China Vol. 4: 21 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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    Habitat characteristics
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Austrian pine is mainly suited to northern temperate climate zones
    in the United States; it does not grow well in the southern states [21].
    Different provenances (seed sources by geographic area) or varieties are
    adapted to different soil types: Austrian and Pyrenees pines grow well
    on a wide range of soil types, Corsican pine grows poorly on
    limestone-derived soils, and Crimean pine grows well on poorer,
    limestone-derived soils. Most provenances will also show good growth on
    podzolic soils. Whatever the soil type, however, the soils need to be
    deep for good growth [11,21]. Austrian pine grows well on high pH
    soils in New England. Some provenances exhibit better winter hardiness
    than others [21].

    In Europe, Austrian pine is found at elevations ranging from 820
    to 5,910 feet (250-1,800 m) [21].
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    Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Pinus nigra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Habitat: Ecosystem
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    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

    FRES10 White - red - jack pine
    FRES15 Oak - hickory
    FRES18 Maple - beech - birch
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    Key Plant Community Associations
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    More info for the term: natural

    In Europe trees usually associated with Austrian pine include
    Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris), Swiss mountain pine (P. mugo), Aleppo
    pine (P. halepinsis), Italian stone pine (P. pinea), and Heldreich pine
    (P. heldreichii). In the United States where it has become naturalized,
    Austrian pine may be developing natural associations [21].
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    Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Pinus nigra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Soils and Topography
    provided by Silvics of North America
    European black pine is adapted to many soil types and topographic habitats. In its native range the species commonly is separated into three geographic groupings: western, central, and eastern. Sources from southern France and Spain, the western group, often are indifferent to soil type; sources from Corsica, Italy, and Sicily, the central group, grow poorly on limestone soils; while sources from the Balkans and the Crimea, U.S.S.R., the eastern group, appear to do well on the poorer limestone soils (31). Black pine also grows well on podzolic soils (8).

    In England, Austrian material does well as a shelterbelt tree in exposed situations near the sea on light, dry, shallow soils, sands, chalks, and limestone. It is less well-suited than Corsican strains in infertile, "stiff," or wet soils (6).

    Although European black pine often is found on poor, calcareous, sandy, and even pure limestone soils, it requires a deep soil. On good sites, Italian, Sicilian, and Corsican strains are fast growing (up to 40 m or 131 ft tall) and straight (23,40).

    In Europe, black pine is found at elevations ranging from 250 to 1800 m (820 to 5,910 ft). In Austria, it is found on poor dolomite and limestone sites from 260 to 500 m (850 to 1,640 ft) and on good soils from 300 to 700 m (980 to 2,300 ft); at about 610 m (2,000 ft) in the Dinaric Alps of the Balkans; at 1200 m (3,940 ft) in the Sierra de Segura of southeastern Spain; and from 900 to 1800 m (2,950 to 5,910 ft) on Corsica (40).

    In the United States the major experience with European black pine has been with Austrian sources. Most planting stock is provided by private nurseries, and several million trees are produced annually in the Northeastern States. The species has been especially successful in the Northeast on soils of high pH in the southern part of the area formerly planted to red pine (Pinus resinosa) (69). There is evidence, however, that black pine is not a good choice to replace red pine on many northeastern sites (42). After 21 growing seasons, black pine averaged about 2.1 m (7 ft) shorter and 3.2 cm (1.25 in) less in d.b.h. on several New York soil types.

    In the Great Plains region, European black pine is not a demanding species and is being planted on soils of the orders Aridisols, Entisols, Mollisols, and Vertisols. More specifically it grows well throughout a broad range of soils including sandy loams, silty clays, and calcareous soils. It is about as adaptable to most Great Plains windbreak and shelterbelt sites as ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), although on the very poor sites it suffers considerable mortality. Once established, however, the rate of height growth is good, and density and form of the crown are superior to ponderosa pine (50). Survival, height, vigor, and crown development throughout the Great Plains region are best in deep, permeable, well-drained, and mostly sandy loams along river lowlands and stream valleys where the water table is 6.1 m (20 ft) or less below the surface; they are poorest on shallow, sandy, or silty soils underlain by claypan or gravel.

    After early success in the turn of the century plantings in the Nebraska Sandhills, black pine was not considered as desirable for extensive plantings as eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), jack pine (Pinus banksiana), or ponderosa pine. In Iowa, black pine was reported to be tolerant of high-lime soils, where survival and growth were best on western and northern exposures (19).

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Associations

    Associated Forest Cover
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    European black pine in its many forms grows naturally throughout the Mediterranean region in association with Scotch pine, Swiss mountain pine (Pinus mugo), Aleppo pine (P. halepensis), Italian stone pine (P. pinea), and Heldreich pine (P. heldreichii) (11,40,69). Other pine species that share the same geographic range or portions of it with European black pine include Swiss stone pine (P. cembra), Balkan pine (P. peuce), maritime pine (P. pinaster), and P. brutia and its variant P. pithyusa (11). In England some naturally regenerating European black pines, from principally Corsican sources, are associated with birch (Betula pendula), willows (Salix caprea and S. cinerea), and oak (Quercus robur) on the sand dunes, saltmarshes, and intertidal sand and mudflats of the north Norfolk coast (27).

    In the United States, European black pine is associated with numerous species consequent to its use in landscape and environmental plantings. Its apparent tendency to escape, possibly to naturalize, and to hybridize with certain other pines may, in time, result in some natural species associations in this country.

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Diseases and Parasites

    Damaging Agents
    provided by Silvics of North America
    European black pine is susceptible to infection by many pathogens that damage seedlings, foliage, stems, and roots (26). Damping-off and seedling root rots, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora cactorum, and Pythium debaryanum, and loss of seedling vigor caused by the dagger nematode (Xiphinema americanum) (45) are among the most common causes of seedling damage in nurseries.

    Dothistroma needle blight, caused by the fungus Dothistroma pini, is one of the most damaging of the foliage diseases of black pine. The fungus has been found in 23 States in the United States and in three Provinces in Canada. Dothistroma needle blight is widespread and causes extensive damage to Austrian pine in Christmas tree plantings in Minnesota (43), and in shelterbelt, ornamental, and Christmas tree plantings in the central and southern Great Plains (48). Infection of current-year needles first occurs in mid-July, while infection of second-year needles begins in late May in the Great Plains and in British Columbia. Symptoms develop in early September to early November and consist of yellow and tan spots and bands that appear water-soaked on the needles. The bands and spots may turn brown to reddish brown, and the distal end of the needle becomes chlorotic, then necrotic, while the base of the needle remains green. Infected needles are cast prematurely (46).

    Genetic resistance to Dothistroma needle blight has been detected in European black pine. In a Nebraska test of 21 geographic sources (51), some individual trees within 16 sources were highly resistant, while those from one Yugoslavian source showed universally high resistance (48).

    Lophodermium needle cast of pines, caused by Lophodermium pinastri, is a serious disease of European black pine in the Lake States, causing browning and premature dropping of needles and terminal bud dieback (60). A needle disease caused by the fungus Nemacyclus minor has been reported from Pennsylvania (38).

    Diplodia tip blight, caused by the fungus Diplodia pinea, is a very damaging twig and stem disease of European black pine, especially to trees more than 30 years old. Entire new shoots are killed rapidly by the fungus. Trees repeatedly infected have some branches killed back to the main stem (47).

    Black pine seedlings in nurseries are susceptible to the fungi Cylindrocladium scoparium and C. floridanum. These fungi cause root rot, damping-off, and needle blight (9).

    Damage to black pine by insects and other pests is apparently of lesser consequence than that from fungal pathogens. The species has been reported to be injured by pine aphids, pine beetles, and pine weevils, but growing trees, on the whole, are relatively free from insect pests (12). Damage by rabbits and sapsuckers has been noted (19,42).

    Some incidence of attack in northeastern United States from the Zimmerman pine moth (Dioryctria zimmermani), the European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer), and the European pine shoot moth has been observed (68).

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General Ecology

    Fire Ecology
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    More info for the term: fire regime

    In Europe, Austrian pine is associated with Scotch pine, a species
    which is maintained by periodic fire. No information on the fire
    adaptations of Austrian pine is available in the English language
    literature.

    FIRE REGIMES :
    Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
    species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
    "Find FIRE REGIMES".
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    Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Pinus nigra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)
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    More info on this topic.

    More info for the term: phanerophyte

    Phanerophyte
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    Immediate Effect of Fire
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    No specific information on the effect of fire on Austrian pine is
    available in the English language literature.
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    Life Form
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: tree

    Tree
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    Post-fire Regeneration
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    Tree without adventitious-bud root crown
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    Reaction to Competition
    provided by Silvics of North America
    European black pine is classed as intolerant of shade, and, therefore, must be planted in situations where it will receive full sunlight. Those from Austria and the Balkans have received increasing attention during recent decades from foresters and Christmas tree growers in the Northeastern United States as an alternative to red pine, which has been heavily damaged by the European pine shoot moth (Rhyacionia buoliana). It has proven especially successful on soils of high pH in the southern part of the area formerly planted to red pine (69).

    At Ithaca, NY, a series of four-paired, quarter-acre plots of red pine and black pine were established on a series of somewhat poorly drained to excessively well-drained acidic, silty loam, and other associated soils typical of New York's southern tier, to compare their performances. After 21 growing seasons, black pine averaged about 1.8 m (6 ft) in height and 3.2 cm (1.25 in) in diameter less than red pine over all sites. Branches were usually thicker and closer together, suggesting slower early height growth; stems suffered sapsucker damage, and the trees had many double forks and malformed shoots. These tests suggested that European black pine, from this source at least, was a poor choice to replace red pine on many northeastern sites (42).

    In the Great Plains shelterbelt planting, European black pine was frequently intermixed with ponderosa pine within the same row. Survival was about 5 percent better and height growth was about 0.7 m (2.3 ft) more for black pine over a 12- to 19-year period on the deep to medium, permeable, well-drained silty and sandy loams of loess origin (50). Heights of trees also were more uniform within black pine rows because of freedom from damage by tip moths (Rhyacionia spp.). Density and form of crowns also were superior to ponderosa pine.

    In West Virginia, 10 sources of European black pine, ponderosa pine, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata), and European alder (Alnus glutinosa) were tested on strip mine spoils. Although all hardwood species grew faster than the pines, Yugoslavian sources grew faster and survived best of all other black pine sources (29).

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    Regeneration Processes
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    More info for the terms: fresh, seed, stratification

    Austrian pine attains sexual maturity at ages ranging from 15 to
    40 years. Trees from Corsican sources in England produce their first
    heavy seed crops at 25 to 30 years of age, with maximum production at 60
    to 90 years of age. Large seed crops are produced at 2- to 5-year
    intervals [21]. The winged seeds are wind dispersed [11]. Fresh seed
    does not require stratification for good germination, but stored seeds
    can be cold stratified for up to 60 days to hasten germination [11].

    Austrian pine can be propagated by grafting [21].
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    Rooting Habit
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    All varieties of European black pine are considered to be deep laterally rooted and, therefore, to perform best in deep soils (22,49).

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    Successional Status
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    Austrian pine is intolerant of shade and needs to be planted in
    full sun [21,22]. In England direct sowing of Austrian pine seeds
    is successful on north-facing slopes on young sand dunes [21]. European
    black pine (Corsican pine) plantations in England develop a more closed
    canopy than similar-aged plantations of Scotch pine [17].
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Cyclicity

    Phenology
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    In Ontario Austrian pine pollen is released from May to June.
    Individual ovulate cones are only receptive to pollen for approximately
    3 days, but collectively are receptive from May to June. Fertilization
    takes place 13 months after pollination. Cones mature from September to
    November and seeds are dispersed from October to November [21].
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Reproduction

    Flowering and Fruiting
    provided by Silvics of North America
    European black pine is monoecious, with staminate (microsporangiate) and ovulate (megasporangiate) strobili borne separately on the same tree (67). Staminate strobili, clustered at the base of new shoots, mostly on older lateral branches in the lower crown, are cylindrical, short-stalked, bright yellow, about 2 cm (0.8 in) long with numerous scales, and contain pollen in great quantity (12,49,52).

    One or two ovulate strobili (conelets) emerge near the end of the new growth of terminal and lateral branches; they are cylindrical, small, bright red, and short-stalked or sessile (12,49,67). Pollen dispersal and conelet receptivity occur from May to June. Individual ovulate conelets are receptive for the pollen for only about 3 days, however (67). After pollen dispersal, the staminate strobili dry and fall within several weeks. The scales of the ovulate strobili close within a few days of pollination, and the conelets begin a slow developmental process. At the beginning of the second growing season, the ovulate strobili are only about 2 cm (0.8 in) long (47). Fertilization takes place in the spring or early summer about 13 months after pollination, and the cones, now turned green in color begin to grow rapidly from about May until maturity in the fall (67).

    The fruit, a tough, coarse, woody, yellow-green cone during the pre-ripening second summer, changes to shiny yellow-brown to light brown at maturity from September to November of the second growing season (12,49,52). Cones are descending, sessile, ovoid, and 5 to 8 cm (2 to 3 in) long. Cone scales are shiny, thickened at the apex, and end in a short spine on the dorsal umbo.

    Minimum seed bearing age is 15 to 40 years (40,52,67). In England, black pine from Corsican sources produce their first heavy cone crops at ages 25 to 30 years and reach maximum production between 60 and 90 years of age (27). The interval between large cone crops is 2 to 5 years.

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    Seed Production and Dissemination
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    Seeds are dispersed from October through November of the second growing season. Seeds are reddish brown, often mottled, 6.4 mm (0.25 in) long at one end of a membranous wing 19 mm (0.75 in) long (49). Two winged seeds are produced on the upper surface of each scale of the cone except for those at the tip and base.

    Seeds are extracted from harvested cones by air-drying for 3 to 10 days or kiln-drying at 46° C (115° F) for 24 hours. Sound seeds are separated from empty seeds by flotation in 95 percent ethanol (31). The number of sound seeds per cone in Austrian black pine ranges from 30 to 40, of which 15 to 20 are germinable (67).

    Cleaned seeds average 57,300 per kilogram (26,000/lb) with a range from 30,900 to 86,000/kg (14,000 to 39,000/lb). Seeds from the Crimea, Turkey, and Cyprus tend to be the largest, ranging from 38,600 to 45,900/kg (17,500 to 20,800/lb), and those from Corsica the smallest, ranging from 61,700 to 79,400/kg (28,000 to 36,000/lb) (31,67).

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    Seedling Development
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    European black pine is easily grown from seed and transplants well. Fresh seeds require no pre-sowing stratification; but stored seeds can be cold-stratified up to 60 days to hasten germination. Ninety-nine percent germination was obtained from seeds stored 10 years in closed containers at 6.6 percent moisture content (ovendry-weight basis) at 0° to 2° C (32° to 36° F). No loss of viability occurred in seeds stored in sealed containers at room temperature after 2 years. Storage at moisture contents as low as 2 percent or as high as 12 percent, however, was detrimental to seeds stored for long periods (25). A light period of 8 hours at 30° C (86° F) and a dark period of 20° C (68° F) for 16 hours is recommended for germination (24). Germination is epigeal (31). Seeds from Corsican sources tend to germinate more slowly than those from Austria and Calabria (55).

    In nurseries, nonstratified seeds are sown in the fall or spring, at a density to obtain 540 to 650 seedlings per square meter (50 to 60/ft²). Seeds should be sown at a depth of 13 to 19 mm (0.5 to 0.75 in).

    Black pine seedlings can be produced in peat-perlite containers using low rates of fertilizers (e.g. Osmocote 18N-2.6P-10K) (1). Experiments with 3-year-old nursery seedlings from 27 different European provenance locations demonstrated that nitrogen and manganese ion uptake was significantly enhanced, but that uptake of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, boron, zinc, and aluminum ions was suppressed by 45 percent urea (33). Application of a pre-emergence herbicide was found to enhance mycorrhizal formation in nursery-grown seedlings (61).

    In Germany, seedlings of all provenances of black pine from Corsica, Spain, and southern France suffered severe frost damage in the nursery, and those from southern Italy suffered some damage; but seedlings from eastern provenances (Austria, Yugoslavia, Greece, and Cyprus) were undamaged (54). Experience in the United States strongly suggests that black pine seed be obtained from the Balkan Peninsula or from the Crimea, for improved winter hardiness (32).

    Nursery-grown seedlings are commonly field-planted as 2-0, 2-1, or 2-2 seedlings. Field-plantable seedlings can be greenhouse grown in containers in 9 months following a predetermined schedule of temperature, moisture, relative humidity, and nutrient application (62).

    In England, germination success of direct-sown Corsican black pine seed was found to be strongly dependent on aspect; satisfactory germination was achieved on north-facing slopes on young sand dunes nearest the sea (27). Newly germinated seedlings suffered very heavy losses from voles and rabbits but became unpalatable to them within 2 months.

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    Vegetative Reproduction
    provided by Silvics of North America
    At present, grafting is the most common method for vegetatively propagating European black pine. Needle fascicles have been rooted, but only fascicles from 1-year-old short shoots on young (5-year-old) plants were able to form callus or to root. Propagation by cuttings and air-layering has not been reported.

    The side graft method is the usual practice, but cleft and veneer grafts can also be used. Grafting is done on actively growing stock, and removal of the stock by pruning must be gradual after scion growth begins.

    Stock-scion incompatibility in black pine is not a serious problem, especially if the stock and the scion are of the same race. Black pine can be grafted onto Pinus sylvestris, P. resinosa, P. khasya, P. montana, P. mugo, and P. contorta; but semi-incompatibility has been found with P. ponderosa, P. radiata, and P. armandii (67).

    Research in Yugoslavia indicates that a wide range of auxin concentrations, can promote the development of rootable plantlets from shoot tip explants (30).

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Growth

    Growth and Yield
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    European black pine transplants well when small, or when larger if transplanted in the dormant season (49). It is a fast and vigorously growing tree of pyramidal form with full, dark foliage. In England, its habit has been described as bushy in youth, presenting a coarse appearance and having poor stem form; this severely limits its timber value, although it grows rapidly, is hardy, and provides an excellent windbreak (6).

    In the Great Plains region black pine grows relatively rapidly during the first 20 years after planting-approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) per year on the average site (57). Similar rates of growth have been reported in Iowa, where 12-year-old trees average 3.9 m (12.9 ft) in height (19). The fastest growing source in a Nebraska provenance study, a disease resistant source from Yugoslavia, was 5.9 m (19.4 ft) tall at age 12 (51) and 9.7 m (31.8 ft) tall at age 20 (64). Average heights of 4.4 m (14.5 ft) and diameters of 13.5 cm (5.3 in) were recorded in a 15-year-old Michigan provenance plantation (68).

    The average growth rate of European black pine in Great Plains shelterbelts decreases 7.6 cm (3.0 in) per year from about age 20, so that annual height increase is only 6.1 to 9.1 cm (2.4 to 3.6 in) 50 years after planting. Height growth in the Loess Plains of Nebraska compares favorably with height growth in Europe up to age 50. Height growth in Europe, however, is slower during the early years and faster after 40 to 50 years (57).

    A 25-year-old stand of planted black pine in Michigan State University's Kellogg Forest is similar in growth to red pine stands on the same forest and, like them, is being thinned for pulpwood and pruned for timber production (69). Use of faster growing black pine sources does not cause the production of lower wood quality (34).

    Forest plantings established in the North Central and Northeastern United States during recent decades are generally thrifty. Data on growth of older stands, however, is limited to a few relatively small plantings, such as the group of 50-year-old trees in the University of Michigan's Nichols Arboretum at Ann Arbor. These trees are similar in growth rate to nearby red pine, Scotch pine, and eastern white pine (P. strobus) (69). European black pine, in the Secrest Arboretum at Ohio State University's Agricultural Research and Development Center in Wooster, OH, has performed as follows (3):

    Age Average d.b.h. Average height yr cm in m ft 10 9.7 3.8 5.3 17.4 13 10.7 4.2 6.3 20.6 19 14.2 5.6 9.6 31.5 24 16.0 6.3 11.7 38.5 25 18.0 7.1 11.8 38.8 31 17.8 7.0 14.5 47.7 40 22.4 8.8 17.1 56.0 45 24.1 9.5 17.6 57.7 At age 45, the above trees would produce about 0.4 m³ (14 ft³) of wood per tree.

    Height growth of Corsican material in England was proportional to the preceding winter's rainfall from October to March if soil moisture was below field capacity, and volume increment was proportional to the preceding year's height growth. Diameter growth began when the mean 5-day temperature rose to 10° C (50° F) and ended when the mean temperature fell below 10° C (50° F) (56). Wood density of Corsican black pine grown in England was higher than that of other commercially grown exotics, and resin contents as high as 20 percent were found in the heartwood of individual trees (10).

    European black pine matures at about 80 years of age, commonly developing a flat, round, or spreading crown. The species attains heights of 20.1 to 50.3 m (66 to 165 ft) (52,69). Minimum rotation periods of 160 to 180 years have been reported for black pine in Corsica, 240 to 360 years being the normal to produce trees 1 m (3.3 ft) in diameter (12).

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Genetics

    Genetics
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Within the climatically and topographically diverse and disjunct distribution of European black pine, recognizable differences in the population have evolved through natural selection. As early as the third century B.C., Theophrastis (370-285 B.C.) recognized several striking variations within what is here called Pinus nigra.

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Management

    Management considerations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Most of the Austrian pine planted in the United States is from
    Austrian sources [21].

    Austrian pine seedlings up to about 2 months of age are subject to
    predation by voles and rabbits; older seedlings apparently become
    unpalatable [21].

    Insects and diseases: Austrian pine seedlings are damaged by
    damping off fungi and seedling root rots. Mature trees are easily
    infected by Dithostroma needle blight, the most damaging foliage disease
    of Austrian pine. Other diseases include Lophodermium needle
    cast, which is damaging to Austrian pine in the Great Lakes States
    [21]. Austrian pine is also moderately to highly susceptible to
    infection by brown spot needle disease [18]. The dagger nematode
    damages seedlings. Insect damage to Austrian pine is generally of
    less importance than damage by fungal pathogens [21].
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Benefits

    Importance to Livestock and Wildlife
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    In Wyoming mule deer that were forced onto a conifer tree nursery by
    bad weather browsed Austrian pine in preference to ponderosa pine
    (Pinus ponderosa), blue spruce (Picea pungens), bristlecone pine (Pinus
    aristata), and Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum). Damage
    was concentrated on the lateral branch buds and needles [9].
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    Other uses and values
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    In the United States Austrian pine is mainly planted for
    shelterbelts, as a street tree, and as an ornamental [21,22]. It is
    recommended for windbreaks in the Northern Great Plains on medium to
    deep moist or upland soils [16]. Its value as a street tree is largely
    due to its resistance to salt spray (used in road de-icing) and various
    industrial pollutants, and its intermediate drought tolerance [21]. It
    is resistant to snow and ice damage. In Missouri Austrian pines
    were undamaged by a sleet storm that caused widespread and extensive
    damage to many other street trees [4].

    One- to three-year-old Austrian pine seedlings were found to have
    no symptoms of ozone damage after exposure to 0.020 ppm of ozone for
    5-hour periods (treatment repeated over one growing season) [5].
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    Palatability
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    White-tailed deer showed intermediate preference for Austrian pine
    as compared to other ornamental species (including yews [Taxus spp.],
    other conifers, and various hardwoods) [2].
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    Special Uses
    provided by Silvics of North America
    European black pine is a widespread and important timber-producing tree of central and southern Europe, especially Corsica. The wood resembles Scotch pine but is rougher, softer in texture, and possesses less strength. Although the wood has a relatively larger proportion of sapwood to heartwood and thus requires a long rotation, it is used extensively throughout the Mediterranean region for general construction, fuelwood, and other purposes for which pine timber is needed (12).

    Elsewhere, black pine has been grown more for estate and landscape uses than as a timber crop, although in England during World War II it proved serviceable for box boards and pit props.

    The species has been planted extensively in cold, semi-arid, exposed coastal regions for protection and sand dune fixation because of its capacity to withstand drought, to grow on light, dry sandy soils of low productivity, and to tolerate fill (6). This frost-hardy, windfirm, and light-demanding species has been widely used for nearly 100 years in windbreaks and roadside plantings throughout the eastern Great Plains of the United States, where its dense foliage and stiff branches withstand wind, ice, and heavy snow.

    The species has not been widely grown in the United States for timber production, although estate, school, and experimental plantings have been thinned for pulpwood and timber products (69). It is occasionally tapped for resin, but its pitch is not as high in quality as that of slash pine (Pinus elliottii).

    European black pine is grown for Christmas trees in the North Central and Northeastern States (34) where it is not subject to heavy damage from the European shoot moth and tip moth, but where it is severely damaged by Dothistroma, Lophodermium, and Diplodia needle and tip blights.

    It is being increasingly used in urban and industrial environmental improvement plantings because of its rapid growth and protoplasmic insensitivity to salt spray (4) and to industrial dust, dry soil, and smoke containing sulfur dioxide (7). Excised shoots of black pine and other conifer species are capable of absorbing more S02, N02, and 03 than shoots of a number of deciduous species (18). It also provides wildlife habitat and might be used as a wood source (39).

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    Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites
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    Austrian pine is recommended for planting on strip-mined lands in
    Pennsylvania [10]. It has probably not been widely used for
    surface-mine plantings. Austrian pine is similar to red pine in
    climatic adaptation and growth performance on acid minesoils. It is
    recommended for use in Ohio on fine-clay, poorly drained minesoils with
    a pH of 5 to 7, although suitable native pines are preferred [22]. In
    Idaho it was reported as having good potential for revegetating sites
    denuded by heavy metal pollution from smelter emissions [1].
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    bibliographic citation
    Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Pinus nigra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    PINNIG_VALUE_FOR_REHABILITATION_OF_DISTURBED_SITES
    Wood Products Value
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: fuel

    The wood of Austrian pine is similar to that of Scotch pine and
    red pine (Pinus resinosa), which is moderately hard and
    straight-grained. Austrian pine wood, however, is rougher, softer,
    and not as strong [21].

    In the Mediterranean region Austrian pine wood is used for general
    construction, fuel, and in other purposes [21].

    In the United States Austrian pine is of little importance as a
    timber species. It is planted mainly for shelterbelts [21].
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Pinus nigra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    PINNIG_WOOD_PRODUCTS_VALUE

Taxonomy

    Common Names
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Austrian pine
    Australian pine
    Corsican pine
    Crimean pine
    Pyrenees pine
    European black pine
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    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Pinus nigra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Taxonomy
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: natural

    The scientific name of Austrian pine is Pinus nigra Arnold [13,21].
    The species is genetically diverse. Numerous subspecies, varieties,
    and forms have been named; there is much controversy as to the
    correct interpretation of these infrataxa [21]. In general, there are
    three main groups of Austrian pine races recognized:

    (1) the western group from around Austria, France, and Spain
    (Austrian and Pyrenees pines),
    (2) the central group (Corsican pine) from Corsica, Italy, and Sicily, and
    (3) the eastern group (Crimean pine) from the Balkans and the Crimea [11,23].

    Some natural hybrids with other European pines have been reported.
    Artificial hybrids have also been created [23].
    license
    cc-publicdomain
    bibliographic citation
    Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Pinus nigra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    ID
    PINNIG_TAXONOMY