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Picea schrenkiana Fisch. & C. A. Mey.

Brief Summary

    Picea schrenkiana: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Picea schrenkiana, Schrenk's spruce, or Asian spruce, is a spruce native to the Tian Shan mountains of central Asia in western China (Xinjiang), Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. It grows at altitudes of 1,200–3,500 metres, usually in pure forests, sometimes mixed with the Tien Shan variety of Siberian fir (Abies sibirica var. semenovii). Its name was given in honour of Alexander von Schrenk (1816–1876).

Comprehensive Description

    Picea schrenkiana
    provided by wikipedia

    Picea schrenkiana, Schrenk's spruce,[1] or Asian spruce,[1] is a spruce native to the Tian Shan mountains of central Asia in western China (Xinjiang), Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.[1] It grows at altitudes of 1,200–3,500 metres,[2] usually in pure forests, sometimes mixed with the Tien Shan variety of Siberian fir (Abies sibirica var. semenovii). Its name was given in honour of Alexander von Schrenk (1816–1876).

    Description

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    Picea schrenkiana tree in Rogów Arboretum, Poland

    Picea schrenkiana is a large evergreen tree growing to 40–50 metres (130–160 ft) tall (rarely to 60 metres (200 ft)), with a trunk diameter of up to 1–2 metres (3.3–6.6 ft). It has a narrow conical crown with level branches and sometimes pendulous branchlets. The shoots are pale buff-brown, and glabrous (hairless). The leaves are needle-like, 1.5-3.5 cm long, rhombic in cross-section, dark green with inconspicuous stomatal lines.

    The cones are cylindric–conic, 6–12 cm long and 2 cm broad, purple when young, maturing dark brown and opening to 2.5–3.5 cm broad 5–7 months after pollination; the scales are moderately stiff and smoothly rounded.

    Subspecies

    There are two subspecies:

    • Picea schrenkiana subsp. schrenkiana. Eastern Tian Shan, in Kazakhstan and Xinjiang. Leaves longer, 2–3.5 cm long.
    • Picea schrenkiana subsp. tianshanica (Rupr.) Bykov. Western Tian Shan, in Kyrgyzstan. Leaves shorter, 1.5–2.5 cm long.

    It is closely related to, and in many respects intermediate between Morinda spruce (Picea smithiana) from further south in the Himalaya, and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) further north in Siberia.

    Uses

    Schrenk's spruce is an important tree in central Asia for timber and paper production, where few other large trees exist. Its slower growth compared to Norway Spruce reduces its importance outside of its native range.

    Cultivation

    Picea schrenkiana is grown as an ornamental tree in large gardens and public parks in Europe.

    References

    1. ^ a b c d A. Farjon (2010). "Picea schrenkia". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 December 2014..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ "Picea schrenkiana". Flora of China. efloras.org. Retrieved 16 March 2013.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Xinjiang [Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan]

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    The timber is used for construction, aircraft, machines, poles, and wood pulp, and tannin is extracted from the bark. The species is also cultivated for afforestation and as an ornamental.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Trees to 60 m tall; trunk to 2 m d.b.h.; bark dull brown, thickly flaking; crown cylindric or narrowly pyramidal; branchlets pendulous, yellowish gray or yellow in 1st and 2nd years, finally dark gray, glabrous or pubescent; winter buds brownish yellow, conical-ovoid, slightly resinous, scales slightly opening at base of branchlets. Leaves spreading radially, directed forward, quadrangular-linear, straight or somewhat curved, broadly rhombic in cross section, 2-3.5 cm × ca. 1.5 mm, stomatal lines 5-8 along each surface adaxially, 4-6 along each surface abaxially, apex acute. Seed cones purple or green, maturing purplish or dull brown, ellipsoid-cylindric or cylindric, 6-11.3 × 2.5-3.5 cm. Seed scales triangular-obovate, 1.2-2 × (1-)1.3-1.8 cm, apex rounded. Seeds obliquely ovoid, 3-4 mm; wing obovate, 1.2-1.3 cm. Pollination May-Jun, seed maturity Sep-Oct.

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Picea morinda Link subsp. tianschanica (Ruprecht) Berezin; P. obovata Ledebour var. schrenkiana (Fischer & C. A. Meyer) Carriere; P. schrenkiana subsp. tianschanica (Ruprecht) Bykov; P. schrenkiana var. tianschanica (Ruprecht) W. C. Cheng & S. H. Fu; P. tianschanica Ruprecht.

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Mountains, N-facing slopes, cool ravines; 1200-3500 m.