Brief Summary

    Hypnale walli: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Hypnale walli, Wall's hump-nosed viper, is a venomous pitviper species endemic to Sri Lanka. The smallest member of its genus, it is distinguished by having a strongly upturned nose and lower scale counts. No subspecies are currently recognized.

Comprehensive Description

    Hypnale walli
    provided by wikipedia

    Hypnale walli, Wall's hump-nosed viper,[2] is a venomous pitviper species endemic to Sri Lanka. The smallest member of its genus, it is distinguished by having a strongly upturned nose and lower scale counts. No subspecies are currently recognized.[3]


    The specific name, walli, is in honor of Ceylonese-born British herpetologist Frank Wall.[4]


    The smallest member of the genus Hypnale, the only male with a complete tail measured 30.5 cm (12.0 in) in total length with a tail of 4.3 cm (1 34 in) (14% of total length), while the largest female was 28.3 cm (11 14 in) in total length with a tail of 3.5 cm (1 12 in) (12% of total length). The body is stoutly built.[2]

    This species is distinguished from H. hypnale by a snout that has a strongly upturned tip. This is due to an extended rostral scale, which is immediately followed by a raised wart-like hump covered with 10 minute scales. Also, the hemipenes have clearly visible spines. It is distinguished from H. nepa by its lower scale counts.[2]

    The scalation includes 17 rows of dorsal scales at midbody that usually lack keels, 7 supralabial scales, 120-126 ventral scales, and 28-33 subcaudal scales.[2]

    Regarding the color pattern, Gloyd and Conant (1990) examined a number of preserved specimens, mentioning that some were so faded as to render the pattern almost invisible. One of these, however, had a faint narrow stripe down the center of its back. In general, the color pattern is described as consisting of a series of 18-24 dorsolateral small subtriangular brown blotches, pointing upwards. These are slightly darker than the ground color, except for the upper edges that may be considerably darker. A pair of dark brown blotches are present on the side of the head, along with a pair of dark stripes curving backward on the sides of the neck. The ventral surface is strongly flecked and dappled with grayish brown.[2]

    Geographic range

    Hypnale walli is found in Sri Lanka. The type locality given is "Kanneliya Forest, Udugama Southern Province, Ceylon [Sri Lanka], elevation approximately 1,000 ft [300 m]".[1]


    According to Gloyd and Conant (1990), the taxonomic status of this species is unclear. Although described here as a species, it may eventually be classified as a subspecies of H. nepa, or even as the minimum extreme for H. nepa with regard to its low ventral and subcaudal scale counts, as well as its relatively short tail.[2]

    See also


    1. ^ a b McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T (1999). Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Washington, District of Columbia: Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
    2. ^ a b c d e f Gloyd HK, Conant R (1990). Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex: A Monographic Review. Oxford, Ohio: Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 614 pp. 52 plates. LCCN 89-50342. ISBN 0-916984-20-6.
    3. ^ "Hypnale walli". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 8 August 2008.
    4. ^ Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Hypnale walli, p. 279).