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Brief Summary

    Common Mexican tree frog: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    The common Mexican tree frog (Smilisca baudinii) is a nocturnal species of tree frog whose native range extends from the Sonoran Desert and the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas south to Costa Rica. Common names include Mexican tree frog, Baudin's tree frog and Van Vliet’s frog. They are usually found within lightly forested areas near permanent sources of water.

Comprehensive Description

    Common Mexican tree frog
    provided by wikipedia

    The common Mexican tree frog (Smilisca baudinii) is a nocturnal species of tree frog whose native range extends from the Sonoran Desert and the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas[2] south to Costa Rica. Common names include Mexican tree frog, Baudin's tree frog and Van Vliet’s frog. They are usually found within lightly forested areas near permanent sources of water.

    Description

    The common Mexican tree frog is generally brown-grey in color, with darker brown, irregular blotching. Its underside is typically a lighter grey or white. Its legs have distinctive dark banding.

    Taxonomy

    The species has numerous synonymous classifications due to disjunct populations, and was mistakenly redescribed on several different occasions by different field researchers.

    Conservation

    The common Mexican tree frog is considered to be a threatened species in the US state of Texas.[3] It has only been reported in a few counties, and no estimates of its actual population count have been made.

    References

    1. ^ Santos-Barrera; et al. (2004). "Smilisca baudinii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2006. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 12 May 2006..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em} Database entry includes a range map and justification for why this species is of least concern
    2. ^ "Smilisca baudinii Mexican Treefrog". Herps of Texas. University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
    3. ^ "Mexican Treefrog (Smilisca baudinii)". Wildlife Fact Sheets. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Retrieved 2010-04-27.

    Description
    provided by AmphibiaWeb text

    This is the largest tree frog native to the United States (Bartlett 1999). It is also the largest species in the genus (Duellman 1970). Males are about 76 mm and females reach a maximum of 90 mm. Chubby, stocky and short-legged (Savage 2002). Broad, flat head, indistinct from body. It is distinguished from other species by having a row of warts along the lower arm. Snout is rounded in dorsal view and bluntly truncate in lateral view. Large prominent eyes with horizontally ellipted pupils, and gold or silver irises. Distinct tympanum with a diameter about two-thirds of the eye. Dorsal skin is smooth and venter skin is granular (Lee 2000). Varies in color and pattern. The upper surface of S. baudinii can be a shade of green, tan or brown with a pattern of dark patches. Metachrosis is extreme and individuals can change colors depending on circumstances (although individuals tend to retain their dark blotches usually outlined by black) (Savage 2002). The vocal sac of breeding males is grey (Leenders 2001). Males have dark throats and females have light throats (Bartlett 1999). The undersurfaces are white to creamy yellow, usually devoid of markings (Lee 2000). A dark streak extends from the eye onto the shoulder region. There is also a vertical black bar that lies on the upper lip directly below the eye (Norman 1998). Similar to S. phaeota, the dorsal surface of the hind limbs have dark transverse bars (Leenders 2001). Has contrasting yellow and black mottling on the back of the thighs and especially in groin region (Norman 1998). Moderately large appendages. Toes are extensively webbed. Fingers are extensively webbed at bases (Savage 2002).

    A Spanish-language species account can be found at the website of Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio).

Distribution

    Distribution and Habitat
    provided by AmphibiaWeb text

    Humid, subhumid and semiarid lowlands and marginally on premontane slopes from southern Sonora, Mexico, and extreme southeastern Texas to southeastern and southwestern Costa Rica (Savage 2002). Probably more common in urban backyards with pools than in the wild. Occurs in the vicinity of canals, resacas, ponds, pools and other water retaining areas. In dry years these frogs are difficult to find (Bartlett 1999).

Life Expectancy

    Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
    provided by AnAge articles
    Maximum longevity: 6.3 years (captivity)

Trends

    Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
    provided by AmphibiaWeb text

    During dry seasons S. baudinii seeks refuge in tree holes, outer sheaths of banana plants, or under bark. When attacked by a predator, both sexes emit high-pitched distress calls with their mouths wide open (Savage 2002). Their mating call consists of a series of short, explosive "wonk-wonk-wonk" notes. Call groups are spaced 15 seconds to several minutes apart. On average notes last 0.11 seconds. The two frequencies emphasized are from 350Hz and 2500Hz. S.baudinii call in duets (Duellman 1970). Nocturnal and aboreal frog. Uses shallow temporary bodies of water as breeding sites (Savage 2002). Usually breeds from June to October but in the more humid Caribbean lowlands, this frog appears to have a longer breeding season. (Duellman 1970). Males will usually call from the edge of water areas. Amplexus is axillary and takes place in the shallow waters. Females lay 2,500-3,500 eggs in a surface film. The eggs are black and cream in color and are 1.3 mm in diameter (1.5 mm including the vitelline membrane). Metamorphosis takes place 14-20 days after fertilization. Metamorphs are 12-15.5 mm in standard length (Savage 2002).

Threats

    Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
    provided by AmphibiaWeb text

    Although S. Baudinii seems to be able to adapt well to human impact, it is possible that development has reduced populations. Some historical peripheral populations have not been seen in a decade or more. This is a protected species by the state of Texas (Bartlett 1999).