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Image of Steindachner's Robber Frog; ra-da-mata
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Steindachner's Robber Frog; Ra Da Mata

Ischnocnema guentheri (Steindachner 1864)

Brief Summary

    Ischnocnema guentheri: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Ischnocnema guentheri is a species of frog in the Brachycephalidae family. It is found in Argentina, Brazil, and possibly Paraguay. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.

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    8616063d1a1c1f2c39694606d9082b6b
    Brief Summary
    provided by IABIN
    Diagnosis Distinct toe disks with circumferential grooves and lacking toe webbing or fringes. The first finger is about the same length as the second. The canthal portion of the eye mask is much narrower than the portion at the tympanum. Lacks a distinctive boldly mottled pattern in the groin. The toe disks are ovate or indented. Has vomerine teeth and the tympanum is distinct.
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    Museo Nacional de Historia Natural
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    Esteban O. Lavilla
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    Diego Arrieta
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    IABIN
    ID
    64_plic_pcfcore_briefDescription

Comprehensive Description

Distribution

    Distribution and Habitat
    provided by AmphibiaWeb text

    Ischnocnema guentheri is found in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Brazil from southern Bahia to western Paraná and northeastern Santa Catarina, above 1,200m (Kwet and Solé 2005; Hedges et al. 2008). This species lives on the forest floor.

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    Diogo Borges Provete
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    2952_distribution
    Distribution
    provided by IABIN
    Present in the states of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, Brazil
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    Esteban O. Lavilla
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    Diego Arrieta
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    IABIN
    ID
    64_plic_pcfcore_distribution

Diagnostic Description

    Diagnostic Description
    provided by IABIN
    Adult morphology Snout outline subelliptical or subovoid from above, rounded in profile; no cranial crests; upper eyelid with pronounced warty tubercles to weakly tuberculate: tympanum present, usually distinct, sometimes uppermost portion hidden, lower portion always distinct. Diameter about one half eye; vocal sac in males either weakly indicated or not indicated; vocal slits present in males; vomerine teeth in two small transverse series, narrowly separated, posterior to and between choanae; finger I just II=IV
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    Museo Nacional de Historia Natural
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    Esteban O. Lavilla
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    Diego Arrieta
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    IABIN
    ID
    64_plic_pcfcore_scientificDescription

Molecular Biology

    Molecular Biology
    provided by IABIN
    DIGITOXINA,GITOXINA, GITALOXINA (7)
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    64_plic_pcfcore_molecularData

Conservation Status

    Conservation Status
    provided by IABIN
    LC. Least Concern.
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    ID
    64_terms_threatStatus

Trends

    Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
    provided by AmphibiaWeb text

    Ischnocnema guentheri is a forest ground dweller and is commonly found on the leaf litter during the day or night. This is a species with low mobility. Although it mainly inhabits forest habitats it can also be encountered near the forest edge in surrounding vegetation (Heyer et al. 1990; Pombal 1997; Ramos and Gasparini 2004; Ribeiro et al. 2005).

    Males call at late afternoon and early night from low vegetation (20-60 cm) in the rainy season from October to February away from water bodies, but inactive individuals can be found from the very end August throught June (Heyer et al. 1990; Haddad and Sazima 1992; Pombal and Gordo 2004). The advertisement call was described by Heyer et al. (1984; 1990) and can be heard on Haddad et al. (2003). The call is given sporadically, beginning quietly and ending loudly; call duration 1.10-1.75s. Some variations in call structure within the geographic range of I. guentheri and its taxonomic implications are discussed in Kwet and Solé (2005).

    This species has direct development, laying small clutches (usually 20-30 eggs) in small hollows, like miniature roofed caves, in banks of earth (Lynn and Lutz 1946; Lutz 1947; Izecksohn and Carvalho-e-Silva 2001; mode 23 of Haddad and Prado 2005).

    Dixo and Verdade (2006) reported that they found 12 individuals during 32 days in their study site. Van Sluys et al. (2007) found 6 individuals during one year of sampling, at a density of 1.3 individuals/100m2 using small plots. Rocha et al. (2007) found similar results; I. guentheri was the dominant species within the leaf-litter frog fauna in their study site, comprising 29.5% of the anuran fauna, with a density of 2.71 ind/100m2. Steinicke (2008) found 383 specimens in four forest fragments during two rainy season sampling periods in southeastern Brazil. Additionally, I. guentheri was more commonly found inside small forest fragments, compared with a control site (a forest reserve). Furthermore, it tended to have a higher survival rate in fragmented habitats, demonstrating to be an intermediate habitat specialist. Giaretta et al. (1997) found that I. guentheri was more common at a higher altitude locality in their study site, due to more leaf-litter accumulation and humidity, moreover, I. guentheri comprised 83% of the individuals caught, being the dominant species at this site.

    There are reports of infection by nematodes in a population of I. guentheri from Rio de Janeiro. Five species of worms infected the frogs and were found in the lungs and intestine (Martins and Fabio 2005).

    An analysis of food items ingested by the pirapitinga do sul (Brycon opalinus, an endangered fish in rivers of the Atlantic Forest of the Serra do Mar, in southeastern Brazil) revealed the occurrence of Ischnocnema guentheri as a prey item, but the authors pointed out that this fish is an opportunistic omnivore (Gomiero et al. 2006).

    The defense strategy is death feigning (Haddad et al. 2008).

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Threats

    Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
    provided by AmphibiaWeb text

    Its range is within protected areas, like the Nova Baden State Park, at Lambari-MG, Ibitipoca State Park, at Lima Duarte-MG, Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina, São José do Barreiro-SP, Parque Nacional da Tijuca, in Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos, at Teresópolis-RJ, Reserva Ecológica do Guapiaçu, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Parque Nacional do Caparaó, Estação Biológica da Boracéia, at Salesópolis-SP, Parque Estadual de Intervales, Estação Ecológica Juréia-Itains and Serra do Japi. It is little abundant in Ilha Grande. Declining according to IUCN. This species seems to have experienced a local decline at Boracéia between 1983 and 1984, compared with data from 1979, but recently appeared to be abundant again, as new data has been collected at the site, but there are no records of declines in another localities along the range of this species (Heyer et al. 1988; Eterovick et al. 2005). Ischnocnema guentheri is a common species within its range.

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    Diogo Borges Provete
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    2952_trends_threats