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Brief Summary

    Micryletta steinegeri: Brief Summary
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    Micryletta steinegeri (common names: Stejneger's paddy frog, Stejneger's narrow-mouthed toad, paddy frog, Taiwan little pygmy frog) is a species of frog in the family Microhylidae. It is endemic to central and southern Taiwan. In the past it has also been considered as a synonym of Micryletta inornata from continental Asia.

Comprehensive Description

    Description
    provided by AmphibiaWeb text

    Micryletta steinegeri is a species of frog with a snout-vent length of 21.86 mm – 24.14 mm in males and 25.75 mm – 28.25 mm in females. The head is at least as broad as it is long, and the snout is blunt. The nostrils are large, circular, slightly prominent, and are directed towards the sides and the front of the body. The canthus rostralis is smooth and curved, and the region between the eye and the nostril is almost vertical. The tympana are not visible, though there is a very faint supratympanic fold. The back has a warty texture, whereas the underside is granular. There are many large supernumerary palmar tubercles, and the subarticular tubercles are well defined. Males lack nuptial pads. The fingertips are blunt, and the relative finger lengths are: II < I < IV < III. The tibia length is shorter than the foot length, and the feet lack a tarsal fold. The inner metatarsal tubercle is well defined and either circular or ovoid in shape, whereas the outer metatarsal tubercle is faint in appearance. There are many small supernumerary tubercles on the foot, and the subarticular tubercles on the toes are very prominent. The feet have primitive webbing, and the toe tips are dull except for the fourth toe, which is enlarged. The relative toe lengths are: I < II < V < III < IV (Wang et al. 1989).

    The tadpole has an ovoid and depressed body. The snout is wide and curved, and the nostrils are positioned on the top of the snout. There is a slightly rounded, prominent groove running between the nostril and the anterior end of the eye. The eyes are horizontal. The mouth is at the very front of the snout and located on the upper half of the body. The lips are curved inward, and the lower lip extends past the upper lip. It has a medioventral spiracle, and the anus is positioned on the midline of the body. The tail fin is filamentous towards the end, and tapers to a pointed tip (Wang et al. 1989).

    It is similar in appearance to M. inornata, though M. inornata differs in having enlarged toe tips, no webbing on the feet, and a smaller ratio of the distance between the eyes to the upper eyelid width. Tadpoles of M. steinegeri are similar to those of Microhyla ornata, although Microhyla ornata differs in having a convex mouth, lighter coloration, and a more evenly tapered tail fin (Wang et al. 1989).

    In life, individuals have widely varying coloration. The examined holotype has a purple to orange brown back with a midline that runs from between the eyes to the end of the body. The back may have varying black markings, including stripes, marbling, irregular spots, and/or scarce speckling. The underside is light gray with black marbling. A black stripe runs from the snout tip through the eye, and all the way to the groin. The pupil is black and the iris is golden. The lips are spotted white, though the spotting on the upper lip may form a white line going from the angle of the mouth to the front of the eye. Males have a black throat. The backside of the limbs is orange and spotted black, whereas the undersides are white (Wang et al. 1989).

    Much of the variation within the species comes from the coloration and markings, though no description is available on the coloration differences within the species. Additionally, females are much larger than males, and males have a vocal sac (Wang et al. 1989).

    The species authority is: Boulenger, G. A. (1909). "Descriptions of four new frogs and a new snake discovered by Mr. H. Sauter in Formosa." Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 8, 4, 492-495.

    The species epithet, steinegeri, is named after Dr. L. Stejneger, author of the valuable monograph Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territories (Boulenger 1909).

    Micryletta steinegeri was first described by Boulenger in 1909, as Microhyla steinegeri. Subsequently, in 1931, Okada thought that M. steinegeri might be a junior synonym for Microhyla fissipes, as described by Boulenger in 1884. In 1934, Parker instead synonymized M. steinegeri with M. inornata, though with reservation. In 1999, Fei removed M. steinegeri from synonymy with M. inornata (Boulenger 1884, Boulenger 1909, Fei 1999, Okada 1931, Parker 1934).

    Micryletta steinegeri
    provided by wikipedia

    Micryletta steinegeri (common names: Stejneger's paddy frog, Stejneger's narrow-mouthed toad, paddy frog, Taiwan little pygmy frog) is a species of frog in the family Microhylidae. It is endemic to central and southern Taiwan. In the past it has also been considered as a synonym of Micryletta inornata from continental Asia.[2]

    Description

    Micryletta steinegeri is a small frog, growing to a maximum length of 25 mm (0.98 in). It has a slender body that is brown in colour, with irregular dark markings. Colouration varies a lot among individuals. Arms of front legs are orange. Breeding takes place in late spring and early summer in explosive breeding events. The tadpoles are almost transparent.[3]

    Range

    Its range is fragmented within central and southern Taiwan. It is also present in Kenting National Park.[1]

    Habitat and conservation

    Micryletta steinegeri inhabits broadleaf forests, sometimes also to be found in cultivated fields and orchards. Tadpoles develop in temporary rainwater pools, blocked ditches and cisterns. It is a rare frog known only from few localities. It is threatened by habitat loss.[1]

    References

    1. ^ a b c Lue Kuangyang; Chou Wenhao (2004). "Micryletta steinegeri". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T57897A11689999. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T57897A11689999.en. Retrieved 11 January 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Micryletta steinegeri (Boulenger, 1909)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
    3. ^ Lue, Kuang-Yang. "Micryletta steinegeri". BiotaTaiwanica. Archived from the original on 7 June 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
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Distribution

    Distribution and Habitat
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    This species has a fragmented distribution in central and southern Taiwan. Specifically, in southern Taiwan it is found in Kenting National Park, Taiping Ding, and Manzhou, and in central Taiwan it is found in Kanshirei. It occurs below 1000 m asl and inhabits broadleaf forests. It is sometimes also found in cultivated fields and orchards (Wang et a.l 1989, Stuart et al. 2008).

Trends

    Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
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    Adults are terrestrial. Breeding has been observed to occur during periods of prolonged rainfall in August. Males call throughout the day and night in temporary ponds and in grass around these ponds. Females swim towards the males at night, and amplexus happens in the water. Eggs are laid in single layers and are found connected to grasses or rocks, and float on the surface of ponds. The tadpoles develop in these ponds, and are primarily herbivorous. They utilize filter feeding as well as surface film feeding to consume plant material. Tadpoles metamorphose into froglets within 17 – 20 days (Wang et al. 1989, Stuart et al. 2008).

Threats

    Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
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    This species is extremely rare and is thought to be declining in numbers. Individuals have only ever been found in three or four localities. It is threatened by habitat loss and degradation due to ongoing human settlement and small-scale agriculture. It is only protected in one area throughout its range, in Kenting National Park (Stuart et al. 2008).

Risks

    Relation to Humans
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    It is found to occur in areas of human agriculture (Stuart et al. 2008).