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Brief Summary

    Common puddle frog: Brief Summary
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    The common puddle frog, puddle frog, or yellow bellied puddle frog (Occidozyga laevis) is a species of frog in the Dicroglossidae family. It has often been confused with Occidozyga sumatrana (which until 1998 was considered to be a junior synonym O. laevis), and records of this species outside the Philippines likely represent that species.

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Comprehensive Description

    Common puddle frog
    provided by wikipedia

    The common puddle frog, puddle frog, or yellow bellied puddle frog (Occidozyga laevis) is a species of frog in the Dicroglossidae family. It has often been confused with Occidozyga sumatrana (which until 1998 was considered to be a junior synonym O. laevis[2]), and records of this species outside the Philippines likely represent that species.[3]

    Range

    The common puddle frog is found in peninsular Thailand (including Phuket), Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo, Anambas Islands (Tarempah), Riau Islands (Natuna Besar), and the Philippines.[1]

    Habitat

    Its natural habitats are tropical moist lowland forests, rivers, intermittent rivers, swamps, intermittent freshwater marshes, coastal freshwater lagoons, arable land, pastureland, rural gardens, urban areas, water storage areas, ponds, aquaculture ponds, irrigated land, seasonally flooded agricultural land, and introduced vegetation.[1]

    References

    1. ^ a b c Diesmos, A.; Alcala, A.; Brown, R.; Afuang, L.; Gee, G.; Sukumaran, J.; Yaakob, N.; Tzi Ming, L.; Chuaynkern, Y.; Thirakhupt, K.; et al. (2004). "Occidozyga laevis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 December 2013..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Occidozyga sumatrana (Peters, 1877)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
    3. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Occidozyga laevis (Günther, 1858)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 7 August 2014.

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    Description
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    Description: Occidozyga laevis is a squat and stocky ranid. The SVL reaches up to 31 mm for males and 48 mm for females (Inger and Stuebing 2005). The body is stout with a small head (Alcala and Brown 1998). The skin of the dorsal surfaces is corrugated with rounded protrusions (Inger and Stuebing 2005). Legs are very muscular and short with fully webbed toes (Alcala and Brown 1998).

    Diagnosis: Adults of this species resemble young Limnonectes kuhlii, but can be distinguished by having an interorbital distance equal to or less than the width of the eyelid (The interorbital distance is greater than the width of the eyelid in L. kuhlii), and by having a single tooth-like projection on the lower jaw (a pair is present in L. kuhlii) (Inger and Stuebing 2005).

    Coloration: The ground color is dark gray-brown. The ventral side of the head is a speckled dark gray and a yellow tinge is sometimes present on the venter and undersides of the thighs (Inger and Stuebing 2005).

    Variation: Some individuals may have a thick light stripe down the dorsum (Inger and Stuebing 2005).

    Tadpole Morphology: Tadpoles are small and slender, reaching a total length of 25 mm, with the tail length greater than two times the body length (Inger and Stuebing 2005). Tadpoles have tubular mouths and lack teeth (Alcala and Brown 1998). The body has dark spotting, along the fin margins (Inger and Stuebing 2005).

    Species authority: Günther (1858) (Frost et al. 2011).

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Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Amphibians and Reptiles of the Philippines

    This species is incredibly common and widespread throughout the Philippine archipelago.

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    Distribution and Habitat
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    O. laevis is distributed widely in Southeast Asia, at elevations up to 1200 m asl. This frog is found in a range of habitats, from polluted puddles and marshes to clear mountain streams. In peninsular Southeast Asia, it is found near forest streams, in shallow muddy puddles. This species inhabits forested areas, but not disturbed areas. In the Philippines, it can tolerate some disturbed habitat. It also inhabits some pristine lower montane and lowland forests (Alcala and Brown 1998; Diesmos et al. 2004). In Borneo, this species is abundant in muddy wallows and small streams (Zainudden 1999).

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    Faunal Affinity
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    Found throughout the Philippine islands.

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    Type Locality
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    Philippines

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Trends

    Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
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    This species is active both diurnally and nocturnally. O. laevis is primarily aquatic, submersing its entire body in the water except for its snout and eyes (Alcala and Brown 1998). It is oviparous and has aquatic larvae. O. laevis has unusual forelimb movement for a frog. O. laevis catches and moves its prey by extending its forelimbs, fingers splayed, and scooping the prey towards its mouth (Gray et al. 1997).

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Threats

    Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
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    O. laevis can tolerate some human disturbance and the populations currently do not show a great degree of disturbance. However, the populations could suffer habitat loss from its most likely threat, deforestation (Diesmos et al. 2004).

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