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Brief Summary

    Abendländischer Lebensbaum: Brief Summary ( German )
    provided by wikipedia Deutsch

    Der Abendländische Lebensbaum (Thuja occidentalis), auch Abendländische Thuja oder Gewöhnliche Thuja genannt, ist eine Pflanzenart aus der Gattung der Lebensbäume (Thuja) in der Familie der Zypressengewächse (Cupressaceae).

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    Batı mazısı: Brief Summary ( Turkish )
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    Batı mazısı (Thuja occidentalis), servigiller (Cupressaceae) familyasından Kuzey Amerika'nın doğu kesimlerinde yaygın olan 20 m yüksekliğinde bir mazı türü.

    Genellikle toprak yüzeyine yakın bir noktadan çatallanarak birkaç ana gövdeye ayrılır. Gövdeler kırmızımsı kahverengi bir kabukla örtülüdür. Kozalakları oluşturan 8-10 puldan yalnızca dört tanesi verimlidir.

    Park ve bahçecilikte değerli olan ince, uzun piramitsi çeşitleri vardır.

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    Kanadantuija: Brief Summary ( Finnish )
    provided by wikipedia FI

    Kanadantuija (Thuja occidentalis) on sypressikasveihin kuuluva havupuu, joka kasvaa luonnonvaraisena Kanadan kaakkoisosassa ja Yhdysvaltojen koillisosassa. Kanadantuija oli varhaisimpia Pohjois-Amerikasta Eurooppaan tuotuja puita (noin vuonna 1566).

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    Thuja occidentalis: Brief Summary ( Italian )
    provided by wikipedia Italiano
     src= Thuja occidentalis.

    La tuia occidentale (Thuja occidentalis, L. 1753), o cedro bianco, è una specie di albero che appartiene al genere Thuja, conifera della famiglia delle Cupressaceae originaria del Nord America e del Canada. È stata introdotta in Europa al tempo di Francesco I, re di Francia (1515-1547) e piantata nel giardino di Fontainebleau a scopo ornamentale.

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    Thuja occidentalis: Brief Summary ( Spanish; Castilian )
    provided by wikipedia Español

    Thuja occidentalis, la tuya del Canadá,​ o tuya occidental es una especie arbórea de la familia de las Cupresáceas. Es una conífera siempreverde originaria del nordeste de EE.UU. y sudeste de Canadá, desde el centro de Saskatchewan, este de Nuevo Brunswick, sur y este de Tennessee en los Apalaches.

     src= Un muy cuidado seto de Thuja occidentalis  src= Hojas de Thuja occidentalis  src= Vista del árbol  src= En su hábitat
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    Thuja occidentalis: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Thuja occidentalis, also known as northern white-cedar or eastern arborvitae, is an evergreen coniferous tree, in the cypress family Cupressaceae, which is native to eastern Canada and much of the north, central and upper Northeastern United States, but widely cultivated as an ornamental plant. The species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753, and the binomial name remains current.

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    Thuja occidentalis: Brief Summary ( Vietnamese )
    provided by wikipedia VI

    Thuja occidentalis là một loài thực vật hạt trần trong họ Cupressaceae. Loài này được L. mô tả khoa học đầu tiên năm 1753.

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    Thuja occidentalis: Brief Summary ( Catalan; Valencian )
    provided by wikipedia CA

    Thuja occidentalis (en anglès:Eastern Arborvitae, Northern Whitecedar) és una espècie de conífera del gènere Thuja cultivada com arbre ornamental sota el nom d'Arbor Vitae americà. És endèmic del nord-est d'Amèrica del Nord.

    En anglès té molts noms comuns incloent: Tree of Life, Yellow Cedar, American Arborvitae, Arbor Vitae, Atlantic White Cedar, Cedrus Lycea, Eastern White Cedar, False White Cedar, Hackmatack, Lebensbaum, Thuia du Canada, Thuja.

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    Thuja occidentalis: Brief Summary ( Portuguese )
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    Thuya occidental: Brief Summary ( French )
    provided by wikipedia Français

    Thuja occidentalis

    Page d'aide sur l'homonymie Pour les articles homonymes, voir balai (homonymie) et balai. Le Thuya occidental (Thuja occidentalis L.) est une espèce de conifère du genre Thuja de la famille des Cupressacées, originaire du Nord-Est de l'Amérique du Nord. Il est appelé aussi « cèdre blanc » ou « cèdre » dans les régions francophones d'Amérique du Nord, où ses populations sont appelées « cédrières ».

    Cet arbre est parfois appelé Cèdre blanc du Canada ou Thuya du Canada et plus rarement Thuya d'Occident ou Balai.

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    Tuia obișnuită: Brief Summary ( Romanian; Moldavian; Moldovan )
    provided by wikipedia RO

    Tuia (Thuja occidentalis L.) sau tuia obișnuită, este un conifer din genul Tuia din familia Cupressaceae. Forma conică, cu ramuri scurte și dese, cu numeroși lăstari, cu ramificare aplatizată. Frunzele sunt solziforme, de culoare verde pe timpul perioadei de vegetație, iar pe timpul iernii capătă o nuanță bronz. Conurile sunt mici (8 mm) de culoare brun-deschis. Poate atinge înălțimea de 10-12 m și diametru de 2-4 m, un ritm de creștere lent și se dezvoltă bine în plin soare și în semiumbră. Rezistă bine la ger, preferă soluri revene, bine drenate și calcaroase. Nu suportă excesul de umiditate din sol, suportă bine tunderea.

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    Tuja: Brief Summary ( Swedish )
    provided by wikipedia SV
    För farao Amenhotep IIIs svärmor, se Tuja (artonde dynastin).

    Tuja eller vanlig tuja (Thuja occidentalis) är ett barrträd i familjen cypressväxter. Det växer inte vilt i Sverige men är mycket vanlig i parker och trädgårdar. Tuja kallas ibland "livsträd".

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    Westerse levensboom: Brief Summary ( Dutch; Flemish )
    provided by wikipedia NL

    De westerse levensboom (Thuja occidentalis) is een groenblijvende conifeer uit de cipresfamilie (Cupressaceae) die van nature voorkomt in het oosten van Canada en in de noordelijke en oostelijke delen van de Verenigde Staten.

    In tegenstelling tot de reuzenlevensboom blijft de westerse levensboom vrij klein. De meeste bomen worden niet groter dan 15 meter, met een stamomtrek van 90 centimeter. Veelal vormt hij een kwijnende of gedrongen boom. De geribbelde schors is roodbruin, maar grijsachtiger dan de reuzenlevensboom. De bladeren zijn 3 à 5 mm lang en geschubd. De zaadkegels zijn slank, geelgroen en later bruin, 9 à 14 mm lang en 4 à 5 mm breed. Ze bestaan uit 6 tot 8 overlappende schubben en bevatten zo'n 8 zaden.

    De westerse levensboom groeit in natte bossen en doet het erg goed in moerassen met naaldbomen waar andere, sneller groeiende bomen geen kans maken. Het verspreidingsgebied loopt grofweg van Zuidoost-Manitoba en Minnesota in het westen via de Grote Merenregio tot bij Nova Scotia in het oosten. Ten zuiden van de Grote Meren zijn er geïsoleerde populaties tot in Tennessee en North Carolina.

    Op plaatsen waar de bomen niet aangetast kunnen worden door hertachtigen of bosbrand, zoals kliffen, kan de westerse levensboom erg oud worden. Het oudst bekende levende exemplaar is meer dan 1100 jaar oud. Er is een dode boom gevonden met meer dan 1650 jaarringen.

    De westerse levensboom is net als de reuzenlevensboom wijdverspreid als haag- en sierplant in tuinen en parken. De soort werd in 1536 of 1540 als een van de eerste Amerikaanse planten in Europa geïntroduceerd. Levensbomen groeien snel, zijn winterhard en vormen snel een gesloten haag.

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    Brief Summary
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Cupressaceae -- Cypress family

    William F. Johnston

    Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis) is also called eastern white-cedar, arborvitae, and swamp-cedar. The name arborvitae or "tree of life" dates from the 16th century when the French explorer Cartier learned from the Indians how to use the tree's foliage to treat scurvy. A record tree in Michigan measures 175 cm (69 in) in d.b.h. and 34 m (113 ft) in height. The rot- and termite-resistant wood is used principally for products in contact with water and soil. The tree provides valuable shelter and browse in winter deeryards, and it is a widely planted ornamental.

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    Zerav západní: Brief Summary ( Czech )
    provided by wikipedia CZ

    Zerav západní (Thuja occidentalis) je stálezelený jehličnatý strom čeledi cypřišovitých. Pochází ze Severní Ameriky a v Evropě je pěstován od 16. století. Dnes je oblíbený zejména k vytváření živých plotů. Je známý pod lidovými názvy túje či peručí.

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    Østamerikansk tuja: Brief Summary ( i18n: No )
    provided by wikipedia Norwegian

    Østamerikansk tuja (latin: Thuja occidentalis) er en av to arter av tujaslekten som vokser i Nord-Amerika, og den er også spredt i Norge. Arten er svært giftig.

    Denne eviggrønne arten blir 5–20 meter høy, og er tett greinet med tett dekkende bladverk, grenene peker oppover. Kronen er smalt kjegleformet. Tujabladene er eviggrønne og skjellaktige, og skjellbladene er lagt i fire rader langsetter kvistene. Toppskuddet er opprett, og dette skiller den fra vanlig sypress.

    Ovenfra ser skuddene mørkt grønne ut, men nedenfra lysegrønne. Bladene har en sterkt aromatisk lukt. Bladene er rik på vitamin C, og ble brukt av indianere og tidlige europeiske pionerer som kur for skjørbuk. De er mat for flere forskjellige dyr, som larver og forskjellige sorter sommerfugler.

    Hannkonglene er små og lite iøynefallende og sitter på tuppene av kvistene. Hunnkonglene er i begynnelsen lite iøynefallende, men vokser til omtrent 1–1,2 cm med 6–12 overlappende, tynne, læraktige skjell. Hannblomstene er gulbrune og kuleformete, hunnblomstene er nesten usynlige.

    Arten kommer fra det østlige Nord-Amerika. I Norge er den alltid forvillet fra hager og parker, men synes også å spre seg spesielt i Østfold, ved Moss, Halden, og i Oslo, Ringsaker, Bergen (Hordaland), Balestrand (Sogn og Fjordane), og Snåsa (Nord-Trøndelag).

    På fuktige steder vokser den sammen med balsamgran, svartgran, kvitgran, rødgran, amerikalerk, svartask og rødlønn. På tørrere steder er gulbjørk, papirbjørk, amerikaosp, balsampoppel, canadahemlokk og weymouthfuru vanlige. I undervegetasjonen finnes busker som topplønn, alaskakornell, bærlyng og krypberglyng.

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    Żywotnik zachodni: Brief Summary ( Polish )
    provided by wikipedia POL
     src= Gałązka  src= Nasiona

    Żywotnik zachodni (Thuja occidentalis) – gatunek drzewa z rodziny cyprysowatych. Pochodzi ze wschodniej części Ameryki Północnej – południowej Kanady i północnych rejonów USA. Popularnie sadzony jako drzewo ozdobne w Europie, dokąd wprowadzony został w latach 30. XVI wieku. W Polsce gatunek uprawiany, lokalnie uważany za zadomowiony (kenofit). Żywotnik zachodni jest stosowany w homeopatii oraz w fitoterapii. Wyciąg wchodzi w skład złożonego leku ziołowego do stosowania doustnego w leczeniu przeziębienia, ostrych i przewlekłych infekcji górnych dróg oddechowych oraz pomocniczo wraz z antybiotykiem w leczeniu zakażeń bakteryjnych. Olejek eteryczny, którego głównym składnikiem jest tujon, wchodzi w skład preparatów złożonych do stosowania zewnętrznego w przypadku brodawek na rękach i stopach. Gatunek jest trujący dla człowieka i koni.

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    Туя западная: Brief Summary ( Russian )
    provided by wikipedia русскую Википедию
     src= Шишки туи западной

    Шишки яйцевидные, мелкие (7—12 мм), состоящие из тонких чешуй, содержат два сплюснутых, с двумя узкими соломенно-жёлтыми крылышками семени.

    Древесина ядровая, красноватая, сравнительно мягкая, очень прочная, без смоляных ходов; имеет приятный аромат и не подвержена гниению.

    Корневая система компактная.

    На родине — кальцефил.

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    Туя західна: Brief Summary ( Ukrainian )
    provided by wikipedia UK
    У Вікіпедії є статті про інші значення цього терміна: Туя західна (значення).

    Ту́я за́хідна (Thuja occidentalis) — вид хвойних дерев роду Туя (Thuja) родини кипарисових (Cupressaceae).

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    ニオイヒバ: Brief Summary ( Japanese )
    provided by wikipedia 日本語

    ニオイヒバ (学名:Thuja occidentalis)は、ヒノキ科クロベ属の常緑針葉樹の高木。北アメリカ北部からカナダにかけて分布し、葉にはレモンに似た芳香があり、名前の由来となっている。様々な園芸種も生み出されている。

     src= ニオイヒバの園芸品種、ヨーロッパゴールド
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    ウィキペディアの著者と編集者
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    北美香柏: Brief Summary ( Chinese )
    provided by wikipedia 中文维基百科

    北美香柏(学名:Thuja occidentalis)是柏科崖柏属的植物。分布于原产北美以及中国大陆上海庐山南京武汉青岛等地,目前已由人工引种栽培。

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Comprehensive Description

    Abendländischer Lebensbaum ( German )
    provided by wikipedia Deutsch
    Wissenschaftlicher Name Thuja occidentalis L.

    Der Abendländische Lebensbaum (Thuja occidentalis), auch Abendländische Thuja oder Gewöhnliche Thuja genannt, ist eine Pflanzenart aus der Gattung der Lebensbäume (Thuja) in der Familie der Zypressengewächse (Cupressaceae).

    Beschreibung

     src=
    Illustration
     src=
    Zweig mit Zapfen

    Vegetative Merkmale

    Der Abendländische Lebensbaum ist ein immergrüner Baum. Er erreicht Wuchshöhen von etwa 20 Metern (in Einzelfällen bis maximal 38 Metern) bei einem Stammdurchmesser von 0,9 Metern (maximal 1,8 Metern). Er wächst sehr langsam; der jährliche Höhenzuwachs beträgt maximal etwa 20 Zentimeter. Exemplare über 10 Metern stehen häufig etwas schief und werden dann oft vom Sturm umgeworfen. Der Abendländische Lebensbaum kann bis zu 180 Jahre alt werden.

    Die Borke ist orangebraun und längsrissig. Die meist dünne und locker beastete Baumkrone wächst kegelförmig mit schmaler, runder Spitze und aufwärts gerichteten Zweigen. Die häufig hängenden Zweige enden in nach oben gedrehten Zweigspitzen. Die schuppenförmigen Blätter haben eine gleichförmig hellgrüne bis gelbliche Blattunterseite.

    Generative Merkmale

    Der Abendländische Lebensbaum ist einhäusig getrenntgeschlechtig (monözisch), es befinden sich also männliche und weibliche Zapfen an einem Pflanzenexemplar. Die männlichen Zapfen sind rötlich und 1 bis 2 Millimeter groß. Die weiblichen Zapfen sind hellbraun und bilden sich oft so reichlich, dass die ganze Baumkrone hellbräunlich aussieht. Sie besitzen meist zwei Paare fertile Samenschuppen. Die aufrecht stehenden, 6 bis 14 Millimeter großen Zapfen klaffen schon bald bis zum Basisansatz der Schuppen auf und enthalten etwa acht Samen. Der rötliche Same ist einschließlich der Flügel 4 bis 7 Millimeter groß.

    Die Chromosomenzahl beträgt 2n = 22.[1]

    Inhaltsstoffe

    Das Holz, die Zapfen sowie die Zweigspitzen enthalten ätherische Öle aus Monoterpenen, wobei Thujon den größten Teil ausmacht. Somit ist der Verzehr giftig. Schon durch das Berühren der Zweigspitzen kann es auf den betroffenen Stellen zu Rötungen und Juckreiz kommen. Nach Verzehr giftiger Pflanzenbestandteile kann es neben Schleimhautreizungen zu Magen-Darm-Beschwerden mit Übelkeit, Brechreiz, Blähungen und Durchfall kommen. In seltenen Fällen wurden Schäden an Nieren und Leber sowie Krampfanfälle beobachtet.[2][3] Für Tiere kann der Verzehr tödlich sein.[4]

     src=
    Natürliches Verbreitungsgebiet im Jahre 1938

    Vorkommen und Nutzung

    Der Abendländische Lebensbaum ist in Ostkanada und den nordöstlichen USA mit einem Hauptverbreitungsgebiet rund um die Großen Seen heimisch. Dort gehört er zu den bedeutendsten Waldbaumarten.

    In Europa wird er überall häufig angepflanzt, und zwar überwiegend als zypressenähnlicher Baum auf Friedhöfen sowie als ganzjährig blickdichte Hecke in Gartenumfriedungen. Regelrecht in Massen werden die zahlreichen oft zwergwüchsigen Zuchtformen angepflanzt.

    Auf nassen Böden wächst der Abendländische Lebensbaum am besten, verträgt aber auch trockene Standorte, vor allem wenn sie schattig sind.

    Zuchtformen

    • ‘Fastigiata’: 1865 entstanden. Schmal kegelförmig, aber weniger säulenförmig als 'Spiralis'. Diese Zuchtform wird bis 15 Meter hoch und hat schlanke und aufrechte Zweige.
    • ‘Lutea’, auch bekannt als ‘George Peabody’ („Gelber Lebensbaum“):[5] Diese Zuchtform wächst meist schöner als der Typ, ist aber dennoch selten. Sie wird bis 17 Meter hoch und bildet an einem kräftigen Stamm eine dichte Krone aus; die junge Belaubung ist goldgelb gefärbt.[6]
    • ‘Rheingold’: Diese Form ist meist vielstämmig und wird nur etwa 4 Meter hoch mit rundlich-kegelförmiger Krone. Die Belaubung ist ganz hellgelb, im Frühjahr fast orange und im Winter etwas bräunlich.[6]
    • ‘Rosenthalii’ („Säulenlebensbaum“):[5] Ein bis 5,5 Meter hoher, säulenförmig wachsender Baum.[7]
    • ‘Spiralis’: 1923 entstanden. Sehr schmale und spitze Säulenform mit tiefgrüner Belaubung, die im Winter etwas bräunlich wird. Sie erreicht eine Wuchshöhe von etwa 15 Meter; die Zweige sind kurz, spiralig gedreht und aufwärts gebogen.[8]
    • ‘Brabant’: Kegelförmig, mittelhoher Baum, dichtverzweigt. Höhe 20 bis 25 Meter, Breite 3 bis 4 Meter. Ganzjährig grün, im Winter nicht verfärbend.
    • ‘Columna’: Schmal säulenförmiger Großstrauch bis Kleinbaum und langsamwüchsig. Höhe 5 bis 8 Meter, Breite 1 bis 1,5 Meter. Beständige Säulenform, im Alter nicht ausgebreitet.
    • ‘Holmstrup’: In der Jugend säulenförmig und im Alter schmale Kegelform, langsamwüchsig und dicht verzweigt. Höhe 3 bis 4 Meter, Breite 0,8 bis 1,5 Meter. Frosthart und besonders windresistent.
    • ‘Smaragd’: Kegelförmiger Großstrauch, dicht und gedrungen langsamwüchsig. Höhe 3 bis 5 Meter, Breite 1 bis 2 Meter. Frischgrün, im Winter nicht verfärbend. Frostharte, robuste und windresistente Sorte. Beste Heckenpflanze.
    • ‘Sunkist’: In der Jugend sehr schmal kegelförmig und langsamwüchsig, im Alter breit kegelförmig und stark wachsend. Höhe 3 bis 4 Meter, Breite 0,8 bis 1,5 Meter. In der Jugend goldgelb, im Alter zitronengelb bis hellgrün, im Winter bronzefarben.
    • ‘Tiny Tim’: Kugelförmiger Zwergstrauch. Höhe 0,5 bis 1 Meter, Breite 0,8 bis 1,5 Meter. Frischgrün, im Winter bronzefarben.

    Bilder

    Thuja occidentalis:

    •  src=

      Sorte 'Smaragd' als Heckenpflanze

    •  src=

      Immergrüne Hecke

    •  src=

      Zweig

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      im Frühjahr

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      Illustration

    Quellen

    • Christopher J. Earle: Thuja occidentalis. In: The Gymnosperm Database. 23. Januar 2011, abgerufen am 24. Oktober 2011 (englisch).

    Einzelnachweise

    1. Tropicos. [1]
    2. Informationszentrale gegen Vergiftungen / Giftzentrale Bonn / Pflanzen: Lebensbaum (Thuja occidentalis)
    3. Informationszentrale gegen Vergiftungen / Giftzentrale Bonn / Pflanzen: Abendländischer Lebensbaum (Thuja occidentalis)
    4. Pferde in Thüringen durch Grünschnitt vergiftet in Spiegel Online vom 11. Mai 2014
    5. a b Uni Hohenheim: Thuja Occidentalis
    6. a b University of Connecticut: Thuja Occidentalis
    7. Plant Encyclopedia: Thuja occidentalis ‘Rosenthalii’
    8. Plant Encyclopedia: Thuja occidentalis 'Spiralis'

    Weblinks

     src= Commons: Abendländischer Lebensbaum (Thuja occidentalis) – Album mit Bildern, Videos und Audiodateien
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    Batı mazısı ( Turkish )
    provided by wikipedia TR

    Batı mazısı (Thuja occidentalis), servigiller (Cupressaceae) familyasından Kuzey Amerika'nın doğu kesimlerinde yaygın olan 20 m yüksekliğinde bir mazı türü.

    Genellikle toprak yüzeyine yakın bir noktadan çatallanarak birkaç ana gövdeye ayrılır. Gövdeler kırmızımsı kahverengi bir kabukla örtülüdür. Kozalakları oluşturan 8-10 puldan yalnızca dört tanesi verimlidir.

    Park ve bahçecilikte değerli olan ince, uzun piramitsi çeşitleri vardır.

    Dış bağlantılar

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    Kanadantuija ( Finnish )
    provided by wikipedia FI

    Kanadantuija (Thuja occidentalis) on sypressikasveihin kuuluva havupuu, joka kasvaa luonnonvaraisena Kanadan kaakkoisosassa ja Yhdysvaltojen koillisosassa. Kanadantuija oli varhaisimpia Pohjois-Amerikasta Eurooppaan tuotuja puita (noin vuonna 1566).[2]

    Kuvaus

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    Kanadantuijan runko.

    Kanadantuija kasvaa yleensä 10–20 metrin korkuiseksi ja 40 cm paksuksi. Suurin tunnettu yksilö on 34 metriä pitkä ja halkaisijaltaan 175 cm. Kaarna on punaruskeaa, uurteista ja siitä irtoaa kapeita pitkittäisiä suikaleita. Vanhin tunnettu elävä yksilö on yli tuhatvuotias, mutta kuolleesta puusta on laskettu yli 1 500 vuosirengasta.[2] Nämä vanhat yksilöt ovat iästään huolimatta pienikokoisia ja kitukasvuisia kasvupaikastaan johtuen.

    Kasvupaikat

    Kanadantuijan kasvupaikkoja ovat kosteat metsät, suot, jokien ja järvien rannat, rinteet ja jyrkänteet. Kanadantuija voi olla tietyissä kasvuolosuhteissa erittäin pitkäikäinen puu. Huomattavan vanhoja yksilöitä kasvaa jyrkänteillä, missä ne ovat suojassa metsäpaloilta ja sitä ravinnokseen käyttäviltä hirvieläimiltä.

    Käyttö

    Kanadantuijaa käytetään yleisesti koristekasvina esimerkiksi aitakasvina, puistoissa ja hautausmailla. Lajikkeita on jalostettu yli 120.

    Lajikkeita

    • kartiotuija, ('Pyramidalis', 'Pyramidalis Compacta')
    • kultatuija, ('Europe Gold', 'Golden Globe')
    • pallotuija, ('Danica', 'Globosa')
    • pilarituija ('Columna', 'Fastigiata')
    • timanttituija ('Smaragd')[3]

    Lähteet

    1. Thuja occidentalis IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for Conservation of Nature, IUCN, Iucnredlist.org. (englanniksi)
    2. a b Gymnosperm Database: Thuja occidentalis
    3. Ella Räty, Pentti Alanko: Viljelykasvien nimistö. Helsinki: Puutarhaliiton julkaisuja, 2004. ISBN 951-8942-57-9.

    Aiheesta muualla

    Tämä kasveihin liittyvä artikkeli on tynkä. Voit auttaa Wikipediaa laajentamalla artikkelia.
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    Thuja occidentalis ( Spanish; Castilian )
    provided by wikipedia Español
    Symbol question.svg
    Tuya del Canadá Thuja occidentalis.jpg
    Follaje y conos de Thuja occidentalis
    Estado de conservación Preocupación menor (LR/LC)
    Preocupación menor (UICN 2.3)TaxonomíaReino: PlantaeDivisión: PinophytaClase: PinopsidaOrden: PinalesFamilia: CupressaceaeGénero: ThujaEspecie: Thuja occidentalis
    L.

    Thuja occidentalis, la tuya del Canadá,[1]​ o tuya occidental es una especie arbórea de la familia de las Cupresáceas. Es una conífera siempreverde originaria del nordeste de EE.UU. y sudeste de Canadá, desde el centro de Saskatchewan, este de Nuevo Brunswick, sur y este de Tennessee en los Apalaches.

     src=
    Un muy cuidado seto de Thuja occidentalis
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    Hojas de Thuja occidentalis
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    Vista del árbol
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    En su hábitat

    Descripción[editar]

    Aunque está muy relacionada con Thuja plicata es solamente un pequeño árbol, de 10-20 m de altura y 40 cm de diámetro de tronco, (excepcionalmente de 30 m y 16 dm diámetro). La corteza es rojo-parda, marcada por angostos, y estrías longitudinales. El follaje se forma en chatas ramitas con hojas de 3-5 mm de longitud. Los conos son delgados, amarillo-verdosos, y al madurar pardos, de 10-15 mm de long. y 4-5 mm de ancho, con 6-8 escamas sobrepuestas.

    Ecología[editar]

    Thuja occidentalis crece naturalmente en bosques húmedos, siendo particularmente abundante en pantanos donde otras especies grandes y de rápido crecimiento no compiten con éxito. También aparece en sitios con reducida competición arbórea, como en acantilados. Aunque no está en la lista de especies en riesgo, las poblaciones silvestres de Thuja occidentalis están amenazadas en muchas áreas por la alta concentración de ciervos. Estos encuentran su suave follaje siempreverde muy atractivo como alimento invernal. La tuya más alta registrada, en South Manitou Island, condado de Leelanau, Míchigan, tenía una altura de 34 m, y 175 cm de diámetro. Puede llegar a ser muy longeva en ciertas condiciones, como estar a cubierto de ciervos y de fuego; llegando a vivir más de un milenio. Un espécimen muerto tenía 1.500 años.

    Usos[editar]

    Es frecuente su uso como árbol ornamental. Se han seleccionado más de 300 cultivares para jardinería; en el mercado horticultural pueden encontrarse las siguientes variedades: 'Degroot's Spire', 'Ellwangeriana', 'Hetz Wintergreen', 'Lutea', 'Rheingold', 'Smaragd' (alias 'Emerald Green'), 'Techny', 'Wareana'. Se introdujo en Europa en 1540 y se cultiva ampliamente, especialmente en parques y cementerios.

    Los aceites de Thuja occidentalis se hallan en alimento orgánico que se supone eliminarían verrugas, incluyendo el Virus del Papiloma Humano. Ninguna evidencia científica avala esa aplicación (referencia: "Fuerzas de la Naturaleza: no más verrugas").

    Sus agujas pueden usarse hervidas en agua para hacer un té que contiene 50 mg de Vitamina C/100 g, haciendo de él un auxiliar en curas de hipovitaminosis. Montañas Changbai

    Taxonomía[editar]

    Thuja occidentalis fue descrita por Carlos Linneo y publicado en Species Plantarum 2: 1002. 1753.[2]

    Etimología

    Thuja: nombre genérico que proviene del griego antiguo θυα, y luego el Latín thya, -ae, que Plinio el Viejo (13, XXX, 100), describe ampliamente y que corresponde a Thuja articulata (hoy en el género Tetraclinis). El vocablo thya, thyon designaba, en un primer tiempo -en Homero- las maderas y árboles de olor perfumado y, más tarde, se amplió erróneamente su aceptación a todos los perfumes.[3][4]

    occidentalis: epíteto geográfico que alude a su localización en occidente.

    Sinonimia
    • Cupressus arborvitae O.Targ.Tozz.
    • Juniperus ericoides Mast.
    • Retinispora devriesiana Mast.
    • Retinispora dubia Carrière
    • Retinispora ellwangeriana Carrière
    • Retinispora glaucescens Hochst. ex Beissn.
    • Retinispora keteleeri Beissn.
    • Retinispora meldensis Carrière
    • Retinispora nobleana Beissn.
    • Retinispora pygmaea Beissn.
    • Retinispora troubetzkoyana auct.
    • Thuja bodmeri Beissn.
    • Thuja canadensis K.Koch
    • Thuja caucasica Gordon
    • Thuja compacta Standish ex Gordon
    • Thuja devriesiana Carrière
    • Thuja ellwangeriana Carrière
    • Thuja ericoides Gordon
    • Thuja globosa Beissn.
    • Thuja hoveyi Gordon
    • Thuja minor Carrière
    • Thuja nana Carrière
    • Thuja obtusa Moench
    • Thuja odorata Marshall
    • Thuja procera Salisb.
    • Thuja recurva Beissn.
    • Thuja recurvata Beissn.
    • Thuja sibirica Gordon
    • Thuja tatarica Gordon
    • Thuja theophrasti Nieuwl.
    • Thuja variegata Marshall
    • Thuja vervaeneana Van Geert ex Gordon[5]

    Véase también[editar]

    Referencias[editar]

    1. Nombre vulgar preferido en español. Árboles: guía de campo; Johnson, Owen y More, David; traductor: Pijoan Rotger, Manuel, ed. Omega, 2006. ISBN 978-84-282-1400-1. Versión en español de la Collins Tree Guide.
    2. «Thuja occidentalis». Tropicos.org. Jardín Botánico de Misuri. Consultado el 23 de febrero de 2014.
    3. Pline l'ancien, Histoire naturelle, Livre 13, Edition Emile Littré, Dubochet, Paris, 1848-1850
    4. B. Thayer, Pliny the Elder: the Natural History, Liber XIII, XXX, 100
    5. Thuja occidentalis en PlantList

    Bibliografía[editar]

    1. Comitñe editorial de Flora of China. 1999. Flora of China (Cycadaceae through Fagaceae). 4: 1–453. En C. Y. Wu, P. H. Raven y D. Y. Hong (eds.) Fl. China. Science Press y Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Pekín y San Luis.

    Enlaces externos[editar]

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    This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

    Thuja occidentalis, also known as northern white-cedar or eastern arborvitae, is an evergreen coniferous tree, in the cypress family Cupressaceae, which is native to eastern Canada and much of the north, central and upper Northeastern United States,[2][3] but widely cultivated as an ornamental plant. The species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753, and the binomial name remains current.

    Common names

    Common names include:

    • northern white-cedar or whitecedar[3]
    • eastern white-cedar or whitecedar[3]
    • white cedar
    • swamp cedar[2]
    • false white cedar
    • arborvitae[2]
    • American arborvitae[3]
    • eastern arborvitae[3]

    The name arborvitae is particularly used in the horticultural trade in the United States. It is Latin for "tree of life" - due to the supposed medicinal properties of the sap, bark and twigs.[4] Despite its common names, it is not a true cedar in the genus Cedrus, nor is it related to the Australian white cedar, Melia azedarach.

    Description

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    Trunk

    Unlike the closely related western red-cedar (Thuja plicata), northern white-cedar is only a small or medium-sized tree, growing to a height of 15 m (49 ft) tall with a 0.9 m (3.0 ft) trunk diameter, exceptionally to 38 metres (125 ft) tall and 1.8 metres (5.9 ft) diameter.[5] The tree is often stunted or prostrate in less favorable locations. The bark is red-brown, furrowed and peels in narrow, longitudinal strips.

    Northern white-cedar has fan-like branches and scaly leaves. The foliage forms in flat sprays with scale-like leaves 3–5 millimetres (18316 in) long.

    The seed cones are slender, yellow-green, ripening to brown, 9–14 millimetres (38916 in) long and 4–5 millimetres (532316 in) broad,[citation needed] with 6-8 overlapping scales. They contain about 8 seeds each.[5] The branches may take root if the tree falls.[3]

    Distribution

    Northern white-cedar is native to an area in the southern part of eastern Canada and the adjacent part of the northern United States. It extends from southeastern Manitoba east throughout the Great Lakes region and into Ontario, Québec, New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. There are isolated populations in west-central Manitoba, and to the south in Massachusetts, Connecticut, Ohio, and Illinois and in the Appalachian Mountains of Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia.[3] In Canada, its range reaches the Arctic treeline and the southern tip of Hudson Bay. It grows mainly in places with cooler summers, with an average temperature of 16 to 22 °C (61 to 72 °F) in July, and a shorter growing season, from 90 to 180 days.[6]

    Ecology

     src=
    A swamp along the Superior Hiking Trail in November with white-cedars (left) and other trees and shrubs

    Northern white-cedar grows naturally in wet forests, being particularly abundant in coniferous swamps where other larger and faster-growing trees cannot compete successfully. It also occurs on other sites with reduced tree competition, such as cliffs. Although not currently listed as endangered, wild white-cedar populations are threatened in many areas by high deer numbers; deer find the soft evergreen foliage a very attractive winter food, and strip it rapidly. The largest known specimen is 34 m (112 ft) tall and 175 cm (69 in) diameter, on South Manitou Island within Leelanau County, Michigan.

    Northern white-cedar can be a very long-lived tree in certain conditions, with notably old specimens growing on cliffs where they are inaccessible to deer and wildfire; the oldest known living specimen is[when?] just over 1,100 years old, but a dead specimen with over 1,650 growth rings has been found.[7] Despite their age, these very old trees are small and stunted due to the difficult growing conditions. The Witch Tree, a T. occidentalis growing out of a cliff face on Lake Superior in Minnesota, was described by the French explorer Sieur de la Verendrye as being a mature tree in 1731; it is still alive today.

     src=
    Old trees growing on a rock ledge in Potawatomi State Park, Wisconsin

    White-cedar specimens found growing on cliff faces in southern Ontario are the oldest trees in Eastern North America and all of Canada, growing to ages in excess of 1,653 years.[3]

    Uses

    White-cedar is a tree with important uses in traditional Ojibwe culture. Honored with the name Nookomis Giizhik ("Grandmother Cedar"), the tree is the subject of sacred legends and is considered a gift to humanity for its myriad uses, among them crafts, construction, and medicine.[8] It is one of the four plants of the Ojibwe medicine wheel, associated with the north. White-cedar foliage is rich in Vitamin C and is believed to be the annedda which cured the scurvy of Jacques Cartier and his party in the winter of 1535–1536.[6] Due to the presence of the neurotoxic compound thujone, internal use can be harmful if used for prolonged periods or while pregnant.

    Northern white-cedar is commercially used for rustic fencing and posts, lumber, poles, shingles and in the construction of log cabins.[6] White-cedar is the preferred wood for the structural elements, such as ribs and planking, of birchbark canoes and the planking of wooden canoes.[9]

    The essential oil within the plant has been used for cleansers, disinfectants, hair preparations, insecticides, liniment, room sprays, and soft soaps. There are some reports that the Ojibwa made a soup from the inner bark of the soft twigs. Others have used the twigs to make teas to relieve constipation and headache.[9]

    In the 19th century, T. occidentalis extract was in common use as an externally applied tincture or ointment for the treatment of warts, ringworm, and thrush.[10] "An injection of the tincture into venereal warts is said to cause them to disappear."[11]

    Strips of clear, northern white-cedar wood were used to make the original Au Sable river boats, formerly known as the "pickup trucks of the Au Sable". The light, rot resistant wood was preferred but is now commonly replaced by marine grade plywood. Since the plywood is available in lengths of 8 feet, the modern boats are slightly shorter than the older boats which were around 25 feet long.

    Cultivation

     src=
    A grove of a columnar ornamental variety in Powsin Botanical Garden, Warsaw, Poland

    Northern white-cedar, often under the name arborvitae, is widely used as an ornamental tree, particularly for screens and hedges, in gardens, parks and cemeteries. Over 300 cultivars exist, showing great variation in colour, shape and size, with some of the more common ones being: 'Degroot's Spire', 'Ellwangeriana', 'Hetz Wintergreen', 'Lutea', 'Rheingold', 'Smaragd' (a.k.a. 'Emerald Green'), 'Techny', and 'Wareana'. It was introduced into Europe as early as 1540.

    The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-

    See also

    References

    1. ^ Farjon, A. (2013). "Thuja occidentalis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2013: e.T42262A2967995. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T42262A2967995.en. Retrieved 14 December 2017..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ a b c "Thuja occidentalis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
    3. ^ a b c d e f g h Earle, Christopher J., ed. (2018). "Thuja occidentalis". The Gymnosperm Database.
    4. ^ Thuja, American Cancer Society, last revised 6/19/2007. available online
    5. ^ a b Chambers, Kenton L. (1993). "Thuja occidentalis". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee. Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 2. New York and Oxford. Retrieved 24 September 2016 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    6. ^ a b c Johnston, William F. (1990). "Thuja occidentalis". In Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H. Conifers. Silvics of North America. Washington, D.C.: United States Forest Service (USFS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 1 – via Southern Research Station (www.srs.fs.fed.us).
    7. ^ "Eastern OLDLIST a database of ancient trees and their ages". Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research, Inc. & Eastern Kentucky University. 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
    8. ^ Geniusz, Wendy Makoons (2009). Our Knowledge is not Primitive. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press
    9. ^ a b "USDA/NRCS Plant Guide: Northern White Cedar, Thuja occidentalis L." (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2008-02-15.
    10. ^ David Hoffmann, Medical Herbalism: Principles and Practices, Healing Arts Press, 2003, p.588
    11. ^ M Grieve, A Modern Herbal, London: Jonathan Cape, 1931, p.177
    12. ^ "RHS Plant Selector – Thuja occidentalis 'Danica'". Retrieved 6 June 2013.
    13. ^ "RHS Plant Selector – Thuja occidentalis 'Holmstrup'". Retrieved 6 June 2013.
    14. ^ "RHS Plant Selector – Thuja occidentalis 'Rheingold'". Retrieved 6 June 2013.
    15. ^ "RHS Plant Selector – Thuja occidentalis 'Smaragd'". Retrieved 6 June 2013.

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    Thuja occidentalis ( Vietnamese )
    provided by wikipedia VI

    Thuja occidentalis là một loài thực vật hạt trần trong họ Cupressaceae. Loài này được L. mô tả khoa học đầu tiên năm 1753.[1]

    Chú thích

    1. ^ The Plant List (2010). Thuja occidentalis. Truy cập ngày 28 tháng 5 năm 2014.

    Liên kết ngoài


    Hình tượng sơ khai Bài viết liên quan đến Bộ Thông này vẫn còn sơ khai. Bạn có thể giúp Wikipedia bằng cách mở rộng nội dung để bài được hoàn chỉnh hơn.
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    Thuja occidentalis ( Catalan; Valencian )
    provided by wikipedia CA

    Thuja occidentalis (en anglès:Eastern Arborvitae, Northern Whitecedar) és una espècie de conífera del gènere Thuja cultivada com arbre ornamental sota el nom d'Arbor Vitae americà.[1] És endèmic del nord-est d'Amèrica del Nord.

    En anglès té molts noms comuns incloent: Tree of Life, Yellow Cedar, American Arborvitae, Arbor Vitae, Atlantic White Cedar, Cedrus Lycea, Eastern White Cedar, False White Cedar, Hackmatack, Lebensbaum, Thuia du Canada, Thuja.

    Descripció

     src=
    Il·lustració de l'any 1913

    És un arbret que fa només uns 3-6 m d'alt. L'escorça és marró-vermellosa, el fullatge es disposa de manera plana. les pinyes són primes marrons quan maduren de 10 a 15 mm de llarg i de 4 a 5 mm d'amplada. Les branques poden arrelar si l'arbre es tomba.[2]

    Usos

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    A Varsòvia

    En la cultura tradicional dels amerindis Ojibwe en deien Nookomis Giizhik ("El Cedre Àvia"), i era el tema de llegendes sagrades i d'usos medicinals.[3] Les fulles d'aquest arbret són riques en vitamina C i es creu que van guarir l'escorbut Jacques Cartier i el seu equip l'any 1535[4] Pel seu compost neurotòxic tuiona el seu ús perllongat pot ser perillós.

    Durant el segle XIX se'n va aplicar externament la tintura o ungüent contra els cucs i altres afeccions.[5][6]

    Galeria

    Referències

    En altres projectes de Wikimedia:
    Commons
    Commons (Galeria)
    Commons
    Commons (Categoria) Modifica l'enllaç a Wikidata
    1. http://www.probertencyclopaedia.com/cgi-bin/res.pl?keyword=Arbor&offset=0
    2. «Thuja occidentalis Linnaeus 1753». conifers.org. Gymnosperm Database.
    3. Geniusz, Wendy Makoons (2009). Our Knowledge is not Primitive. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press
    4. Russell M. Burns and Barbara H. Honkala (Technical Coordinators). «Thuja occidentalis L.: Northern White-Cedar». Silvics of North America (Agriculture Handbook 654), December 1990.
    5. Hoffmann, David. Medical Herbalism: Principles and Practices. Healing Arts Press, 2003, p. 588.
    6. Grieve, M. A Modern Herbal. London: Jonathan Cape, 1931, p. 177.

    Enllaços externs

    1. Conifer Specialist Group (1998). Thuja occidentalis. Llista Vermella de la UICN, Unió Internacional per a la Conservació de la Natura, 2006. Consultat el 12 maig 2006 (en anglès).
    2. Gymnosperm Database: Thuja occidentalis
    3. Borealforest.org: Thuja occidentalis


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    Thuja occidentalis ( Portuguese )
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    Encontre fontes: Google (notícias, livros e acadêmico) Nome binomial Thuja occidentalis
    L.

    A Thuja occidentalis (ou Tuia-vulgar) é uma planta conífera da família Cupressaceae do género Thuja.

    É uma planta muito frondosa e intensamente perfumada. Tem origem no nordeste dos Estados Unidos da América e sudeste do Canadá, sendo uma das primeiras árvores americanas a aclimatar-se na Europa. Foi introduzida na Europa no século XVI.

    Os princípios ativos da Tuia consistem numa essência de composição complexa e algo tóxica devido à presença de uma cetona, a tuiona (ou tujona); a planta contém também taninos.

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    Ícone de esboço Este artigo sobre coníferas, integrado no Projeto Plantas é um esboço. Você pode ajudar a Wikipédia expandindo-o.
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    Thuya occidental ( French )
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    Thuja occidentalis

    Page d'aide sur l'homonymie Pour les articles homonymes, voir balai (homonymie) et balai.
    Le Thuya occidental (Thuja occidentalis L.) est une espèce de conifère du genre Thuja de la famille des Cupressacées, originaire du Nord-Est de l'Amérique du Nord[1]. Il est appelé aussi « cèdre blanc » ou « cèdre » dans les régions francophones d'Amérique du Nord, où ses populations sont appelées « cédrières ».

    Cet arbre est parfois appelé Cèdre blanc du Canada ou Thuya du Canada et plus rarement Thuya d'Occident ou Balai.

    Distribution et habitat

    Du sud au nord, l'arbre pousse du sud du lac Michigan jusqu'au sud de la baie James; à l'ouest, une population isolée se situe au nord du lac Winnipeg. Son aire principale de distribution commence au sud-est du Manitoba,et va jusqu'à l'île d'Anticosti et l'ouest de la Nouvelle-Écosse à l'est. Le thuya occidental pousse également dans les Appalaches[1]. Poussant seul ou parfois avec des pins de Weymouth ou des pruches du Canada, il fut introduit en Europe dès 1540[1]. L'arbre résiste bien au gel et n'a pas besoin d'un sol riche. Cet arbre pousse naturellement dans les forêts humides et se développe en abondance dans les marécages, là où les autres arbres plus grands et à croissance plus rapide ne peuvent pas les concurrencer efficacement. On le rencontre aussi dans d'autres sites tels que les falaises où la concurrence d'autres arbres est réduite.

    Description

     src=
    Feuillage et cônes

    Le Thuya du Canada est un petit arbre de 15 à 20 mètres de haut avec un tronc de 40 cm de diamètre (dimensions qui peuvent atteindre exceptionnellement 30 m et 1,6 m respectivement).

    L'écorce de couleur rouge brun est sillonnée et s'exfolie en étroite bandes longitudinales[1].

    Le feuillage est constitué de rameaux aplatis recouverts de feuilles en forme d'écaille de 3 à 5 mm de long. La couleur de la face supérieure est vert foncé alors que la face inférieure est vert jaunâtre[1].

    Les cônes élancés, vert jaune devenant bruns à maturité, mesurent de 8 à 12 mm de long sur 4 à 5 mm de large et sont formés de 4 à 5 écailles ovulifères[1]. La semence est plate à bord membraneux[1].

    •  src=

      Haie taillée de thuya du Canada

    •  src=

      Écorce et bois

    •  src=

      Effet de lumière et de pluie dans un thuya en Suède

    Huiles essentielles

    Les rameaux du Thuya contiennent 0,4 à 1 % d'huile essentielle incolore ou jaune verdâtre. Elle est composée d'un mélange de divers hydrocarbures, pinène, fenchone, éther acétique et formique du bornéol, de la thuyone (surtout de l'α-thuyone).

    Utilisation

    Son bois très peu putrescible, léger, odorant et facilement inflammable sert à de multiples usages :

    • Poteaux et planches de clôtures
    • Coffres de rangement de vêtements, naturellement antimite
    • Planches de décoration murales
    • Bardeaux de recouvrement extérieur
    • Bois d'allumage
    • Le thuya occidental est très largement utilisé comme arbre d'ornement, en particulier pour constituer des écrans et des haies dans les jardins; plus de 300 cultivars ont été sélectionnés pour un emploi dans les jardins.

    Remède anti-scorbut

     src=
    Bouquet de Thuya occidentalis,
    Bas-St-Laurent, Québec.
    Âge approximatif 80 ans

    Lors du deuxième voyage de Jacques Cartier en 1535, pendant l'hiver passé à Stadaconé, une épidémie de scorbut décimait son équipage. Les Amérindiens lui révèlent un remède efficace contre cette maladie, l'annedda. Cartier a ramené des spécimens en France, mais les registres s'étant perdus, il a fallu attendre le XXe siècle pour connaître l'origine de la plante. Au terme d'une longue recherche, le botaniste et érudit québécois Jacques Rousseau a déterminé que la tisane qui avait guéri les marins de l'explorateur malouin était faite avec les feuilles et l'écorce pilées du cèdre blanc, riche en vitamine C[2],[3].

    Notes et références

    1. a b c d e f et g (fr) Arbres - Jaromir Pokorny - p. 74 - (ISBN 2-7000-1818-4) - Éditions Gründ - 1987
    2. Couture et Laverdière 2000, p. 138
    3. Jacques Rousseau, « L'Annedda, l'arbre employé par Jacques Cartier contre le scorbut », Chronica Botanica, vol. 9, nos 2/3,‎ automne 1945, p. 151-153 (lire en ligne)
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    Tuia obișnuită ( Romanian; Moldavian; Moldovan )
    provided by wikipedia RO

    Tuia (Thuja occidentalis L.) sau tuia obișnuită, este un conifer din genul Tuia din familia Cupressaceae. Forma conică, cu ramuri scurte și dese, cu numeroși lăstari, cu ramificare aplatizată. Frunzele sunt solziforme, de culoare verde pe timpul perioadei de vegetație, iar pe timpul iernii capătă o nuanță bronz. Conurile sunt mici (8 mm) de culoare brun-deschis. Poate atinge înălțimea de 10-12 m și diametru de 2-4 m, un ritm de creștere lent și se dezvoltă bine în plin soare și în semiumbră. Rezistă bine la ger, preferă soluri revene, bine drenate și calcaroase. Nu suportă excesul de umiditate din sol, suportă bine tunderea.

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    Tuja ( Swedish )
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    För farao Amenhotep IIIs svärmor, se Tuja (artonde dynastin).

    Tuja eller vanlig tuja (Thuja occidentalis) är ett barrträd i familjen cypressväxter. Det växer inte vilt i Sverige men är mycket vanlig i parker och trädgårdar. Tuja kallas ibland "livsträd".[1]

    Beskrivning

    Stammen löper rak och lodrät från marken till toppen. Huvudgrenarna sträcker sig vågrätt ut från stammen eller något hängande. Barken är ljusgrön först och blir rödbrun när den är lite äldre. När den är ännu äldre spricker den upp i långa smala fåror mellan avfallande remsor. Knopparna syns inte och lövverket består av flata skottsystem med breda fjällika barr.

    Plantering

    Tujaväxten kan sprida eldslågor och bör därför ej vara placerad nära husfasader.[källa behövs]

    Beskärning

    En barrväxt bör egentligen "putsas" snarare än beskäras. Putsning hänvisar till att ta bort topparna av grenarna. Detta är det bästa sättet att bibehålla en tuja. Man ska inte klippa tillbaka ända ner till veden, då de resulterande kala fläckarna inte kommer att producera nya skott. Det är bäst att bestämma önskad form och storlek i förväg, så man inte väntar tills häcken blivit för stor innan man trimmar den. Klipp grenarna på tujan några centimeter djupare än önskad storlek, men inte mer än 5 cm djupare. Om man avstår från att beskära ett år, kommer häcken att växa mer än 5 cm. Detta betyder att häcken kan fortsätta växa utan att behöva någon drastisk beskärning.[förtydliga]

    Tujan behöver inte omfattande beskärning förrän andra eller tredje året. Den bästa tiden att beskära är i september och man bör inte beskära på en varm, solig dag, då detta kan orsaka växten brännskador.

    I mars kan man beskära tujan efter att ha tagit bort alla döda eller frostskadade grenar. Man klipper tillbaka dessa till levande ved, men inte för djupt. Barrväxten kommer då snabbt att återhämta sig.

    Användning

    Tujan används inom folkmedicinen som medel mot vårtor. Tujatinktur anses verksam inte bara mot vårtor utan rekommenderas även som motmedel mot papillom och kondylom. Använd växtdel är årsskotten. För invärtes bruk avråds från användning av tujan, som kan ge illamående, kräkningar, hjärtklappning och i svårare fall leverskador.[1]

    Sorter

    Detta är ett urval av ett stort antal sorter som finns.

    • Thuja occidentalis 'Brabant'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Colombia'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Danica'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Elegantissima'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Falke'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Fastigiata'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Globosa'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Golden Globe'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Holmstrup'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Holmstropii'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Little Champion'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Little Giant'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Pyramidalis Aurea'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Recurva Nana'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Rheingold'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Smaragd'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Smaragd Variegata'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Sunkist'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Tiny Tim'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Woodwardii'
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Yellow Ribbon'

    Se även

    Referenser

    1. ^ [a b] Raimo Heino, Våra läkande växter – En naturlig väg till ett friskare liv, PRISMA 2001.

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    Westerse levensboom ( Dutch; Flemish )
    provided by wikipedia NL

    De westerse levensboom (Thuja occidentalis) is een groenblijvende conifeer uit de cipresfamilie (Cupressaceae) die van nature voorkomt in het oosten van Canada en in de noordelijke en oostelijke delen van de Verenigde Staten.

    In tegenstelling tot de reuzenlevensboom blijft de westerse levensboom vrij klein. De meeste bomen worden niet groter dan 15 meter, met een stamomtrek van 90 centimeter. Veelal vormt hij een kwijnende of gedrongen boom. De geribbelde schors is roodbruin, maar grijsachtiger dan de reuzenlevensboom. De bladeren zijn 3 à 5 mm lang en geschubd. De zaadkegels zijn slank, geelgroen en later bruin, 9 à 14 mm lang en 4 à 5 mm breed. Ze bestaan uit 6 tot 8 overlappende schubben en bevatten zo'n 8 zaden.

    De westerse levensboom groeit in natte bossen en doet het erg goed in moerassen met naaldbomen waar andere, sneller groeiende bomen geen kans maken. Het verspreidingsgebied loopt grofweg van Zuidoost-Manitoba en Minnesota in het westen via de Grote Merenregio tot bij Nova Scotia in het oosten. Ten zuiden van de Grote Meren zijn er geïsoleerde populaties tot in Tennessee en North Carolina.

    Op plaatsen waar de bomen niet aangetast kunnen worden door hertachtigen of bosbrand, zoals kliffen, kan de westerse levensboom erg oud worden. Het oudst bekende levende exemplaar is meer dan 1100 jaar oud. Er is een dode boom gevonden met meer dan 1650 jaarringen.

    De westerse levensboom is net als de reuzenlevensboom wijdverspreid als haag- en sierplant in tuinen en parken. De soort werd in 1536 of 1540 als een van de eerste Amerikaanse planten in Europa geïntroduceerd. Levensbomen groeien snel, zijn winterhard en vormen snel een gesloten haag.

    Zie ook

    Wikimedia Commons Zie de categorie Thuja occidentalis van Wikimedia Commons voor mediabestanden over dit onderwerp.
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    Zerav západní ( Czech )
    provided by wikipedia CZ

    Zerav západní (Thuja occidentalis) je stálezelený jehličnatý strom čeledi cypřišovitých. Pochází ze Severní Ameriky a v Evropě je pěstován od 16. století. Dnes je oblíbený zejména k vytváření živých plotů.[2] Je známý pod lidovými názvy túje či peručí.[3]

    Popis

    Zerav západní dorůstá výšky až 15–20 m. Úzká, ale hustá koruna připomíná tvar kužele. Terminální výhon je vztyčený. Borka je šedohnědá, loupe se v podélných pruzích.[4]

    Větve, listy

    Větve zeravu rostou rozložené vodorovně, ploché šupinaté jehlice jsou svrchu tmavě zelené, ze spodní strany žlutozelené. V zimě se mohou zbarvovat do rezavé barvy.[2] Postavení jehlic je vstřícné křižmostojné, jehlice jsou oblé bez zřetelné špičky a nemají bílou kresbu. U prvních listů se může vyskytovat kulovitá siličná žlázka, která po rozemnutí trpce voní.[5] Další listy mají volnou, dovnitř vtočenou špičku.[6]

    Šišky, semena

    V dubnu až v květnu jsou na konci větévek jednopohlavné šištice, samičí se zbarvují žlutohnědě, samčí červeně. Šištice dozrávají v srpnu až v září, při dozrávání šupiny šištic dřevnatí a rozevírají se. Na hřbetu šupiny je malý osten.[7] Zralé šišky zůstávají na zeravu až do zimy následujícího roku, neopadávají hned po dozrání.[4] Podlouhlé šišky jsou vzpřímené, velké 8–12 mm, mají 4-5 párů plodních šupin. Okřídlené semeno zeravu je drobné, ploché, tmavě zbarvené.[2]

    Výskyt

    Přirozené rozšíření zeravu v Severní Americe – v oblasti Velkých jezer a dále severně až k Hudsonovu zálivu. Vyskytuje se také v Appalačském pohoří v USA. Roste především ve smíšených lesích spolu s jedlovcem kanadským, borovicí vejmutovkou a javory. Hojně také roste na vápencovém podkladu či zabahněných lokalitách, kde vytváří čisté porosty.

    Asi od poloviny 16. století, kdy byl zerav zaveden do Evropy, se hojně pěstuje v parcích, zahradách a hřbitovech.[2]

    Ekologie

    Pro svoji nenáročnost na vnější podmínky je zerav velice oblíbeným stromem ve střední a západní Evropě. Je mrazuvzdorný, dobře snáší jak nedostatek světla, tak vedro a sucho. Dobře se vypořádá také se sestřihem, proto je velmi populární dřevinou živých plotů.[6]

    Nejběžnějším parazitem je drobný motýl molovka tújová. Její napadení se projeví zahnědnutím konců letorostů.[8]

    Rozmnožování

    Přirozeně se zerav rozmnožuje generativně, stejně jako ostatní nahosemenné rostliny. Umělé vysazení zeravu je uskutečněno výsevem, řízkováním nebo roubováním.

    Výsev

    Sbírají se dozrávající šišky na přelomu srpna a září, které se dosušují. Semena, která z šišek po dosušení vypadají, se skladují přes zimu a na jaře (duben-květen) se zasévají. Je doporučeno poslední měsíc před výsevem semena stratifikovat, tj. uskladnit při nižší teplotě a tím podpořit následné klíčení. Po výsevu se zemina pokryje tenkou vrstvou písku. Klíční rostlinky jsou dvouděložné, po 5 dnech jsou patrny první dvojice jehlic, po 25 dnech čtyřčlenné přesleny.[6]

    Řízkování

    Řízky většiny kultivarů velice dobře zakořeňují, proto je řízkování vůbec nejoblíbenější metodou rozmnožování. Řízky se odebírají od června do prosince a je doporučeno je ošetřit stimulátorem růstu.

    Roubování

    Roubování není příliš obvyklé, protože většina kultivarů se velice dobře rozmnožuje řízkováním. Roubování je však také možné, provádí se přelomu zimy a jara.[9]

    Jedovatost

    Všechny části rostliny jsou jedovaté.[7] Jed thujon dráždí pokožku, dostane-li se na kůži alergikovi, po vnitřním užití vyvolává zvracení, krvavé průjmy, poškození ledvin a u těhotných žen může dojít k potratu.[3]

    Využití

    Díky své husté koruně a dobré snášenlivosti na řez a tvarování je zerav využíván především do živých plotů a to zejména kultivar Thuja occidentalis brabant.[7] Do dnešní doby bylo vypěstováno přes 140 kultivarů[10] , z nichž některé jsou odlišné barevně, některé vzrůstem či typem koruny. Využívají se také v upravených zahradách francouzského typu.

    Zerav je také vhodný k zalesňování bažinatých půd, neboť se ve svém přirozeném prostředí Severní Ameriky často vyskytuje na bažinaté půdě.[6]

    Uplatnění má zerav i v oblasti léčitelství – jeho mladé větvičky se sbírají od dubna do června. Z nich se vyrábí tinktura, která se používá zevně na různé výrůstky na kůži, např. bradavice. Silně ředěná tinktura se doporučuje na bolesti zad.[3]

    Odkazy

    Reference

    1. Červený seznam IUCN 2018.1. 5. července 2018. Dostupné online. [cit. 2018-08-11]
    2. a b c d Jaromír Pokorný. Stromy. [s.l.]: Aventinum, 1990. 223 s. ISBN 80-7151-045-9. S. 74-75.
    3. a b c SEKYT, Viktor. Bezpečné bylinkářství. [s.l.]: GEMMA89, 1994. 137 s. ISBN 80-85206-20-X. S. 109.
    4. a b zerav západní [online]. prirodopis.eu [cit. 2013-04-09]. Dostupné online.
    5. ČIHAŘ, Jiří. Příroda v ČSSR. [s.l.]: Práce, 1988. 426 s. S. 77.
    6. a b c d AMANN, Gottfried. Stromy a keře lesa. [s.l.]: Nakladatelství J. Steinbrener Vimperk, 1997. 228 s. ISBN 80-901324-9-9. S. 26, 99, 119.
    7. a b c MIKULA, Alois. Plody planých a parkových rostlin. [s.l.]: SPN, 1989. 288 s. ISBN 80-04-23826-2.
    8. molovka tújvá [online]. prirodnizahrada.eu [cit. 2013-04-09]. Dostupné online.
    9. Andreas Bärtels. Rozmnožování dřevin. [s.l.]: SZN, 1988. 452 s. S. 403-404.
    10. Thuja occidentalis - zerav západní (túje západní) [online]. botanika.wendys.cz [cit. 2013-04-09]. Dostupné online.

    Externí odkazy

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    Østamerikansk tuja ( i18n: No )
    provided by wikipedia Norwegian
    Østamerikansk tuja Østamerikansk tuja (Thuja occidentalis)
    Østamerikansk tuja (Thuja occidentalis) Vitenskapelig(e)
    navn
    : Thuja occidentalis Norsk(e) navn: Østamerikansk tuja Biologisk klassifikasjon: Rike: Planteriket Divisjon: Karplanter Klasse: Nakenfrøede planter Orden: Bartrær Familie: Sypressfamilien Slekt: Thuja IUCNs rødliste: livskraftig

    Østamerikansk tuja (latin: Thuja occidentalis) er en av to arter av tujaslekten som vokser i Nord-Amerika, og den er også spredt i Norge.[1] Arten er svært giftig.

    Denne eviggrønne arten blir 5–20 meter høy, og er tett greinet med tett dekkende bladverk, grenene peker oppover. Kronen er smalt kjegleformet. Tujabladene er eviggrønne og skjellaktige, og skjellbladene er lagt i fire rader langsetter kvistene. Toppskuddet er opprett, og dette skiller den fra vanlig sypress.

    Ovenfra ser skuddene mørkt grønne ut, men nedenfra lysegrønne. Bladene har en sterkt aromatisk lukt. Bladene er rik på vitamin C, og ble brukt av indianere og tidlige europeiske pionerer som kur for skjørbuk. De er mat for flere forskjellige dyr, som larver og forskjellige sorter sommerfugler.

    Hannkonglene er små og lite iøynefallende og sitter på tuppene av kvistene. Hunnkonglene er i begynnelsen lite iøynefallende, men vokser til omtrent 1–1,2 cm med 6–12 overlappende, tynne, læraktige skjell. Hannblomstene er gulbrune og kuleformete, hunnblomstene er nesten usynlige.

    Arten kommer fra det østlige Nord-Amerika. I Norge er den alltid forvillet fra hager og parker, men synes også å spre seg spesielt i Østfold, ved Moss, Halden, og i Oslo, Ringsaker, Bergen (Hordaland), Balestrand (Sogn og Fjordane), og Snåsa (Nord-Trøndelag).

    På fuktige steder vokser den sammen med balsamgran, svartgran, kvitgran, rødgran, amerikalerk, svartask og rødlønn. På tørrere steder er gulbjørk, papirbjørk, amerikaosp, balsampoppel, canadahemlokk og weymouthfuru vanlige. I undervegetasjonen finnes busker som topplønn, alaskakornell, bærlyng og krypberglyng.[2]

    Referanser

    1. ^ Lennart Stenberg (red), Steinar Moen (norsk red), Gyldendels store nordiske Flora, 2003 (2007), side 66.
    2. ^ W.F. Johnston. «Northern White-Cedar». Silvics of North America. Besøkt 25. februar 2019.

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    Nasiona

    Żywotnik zachodni (Thuja occidentalis) – gatunek drzewa z rodziny cyprysowatych. Pochodzi ze wschodniej części Ameryki Północnej – południowej Kanady i północnych rejonów USA. Popularnie sadzony jako drzewo ozdobne w Europie, dokąd wprowadzony został w latach 30. XVI wieku[4]. W Polsce gatunek uprawiany, lokalnie uważany za zadomowiony (kenofit)[5]. Żywotnik zachodni jest stosowany w homeopatii oraz w fitoterapii. Wyciąg wchodzi w skład złożonego leku ziołowego do stosowania doustnego w leczeniu przeziębienia, ostrych i przewlekłych infekcji górnych dróg oddechowych oraz pomocniczo wraz z antybiotykiem w leczeniu zakażeń bakteryjnych[6]. Olejek eteryczny, którego głównym składnikiem jest tujon, wchodzi w skład preparatów złożonych do stosowania zewnętrznego w przypadku brodawek na rękach i stopach[7]. Gatunek jest trujący dla człowieka i koni[8].

    Morfologia

    Pokrój
    Początkowo korona wąskostożkowata lub kolumnowa, z czasem cylindryczna.
    Pień
    Osiąga wysokość do 20 m (w Polsce dorasta do 15 m), średnica pnia do 0,4 m (wyjątkowo osiąga wysokość 30 m i średnicę pnia 1,6 m). Początkowo rośnie szybko, po 15-20 latach tempo wzrostu maleje. Kora ciemnobrązowa, łuszcząca się wąskimi pasemkami[4]. Silnie spłaszczone, jasnozielone gałązki w zimie przybierają brunatny odcień.
    Liście
    Łuskowate, zimozielone igły, na końcach zaostrzone, odstające, rozmieszczone rzadko, długości 3-4(5) mm, na gałązkach silnie przylegające, długości około 2,5 mm. Łuski rosnące na dolnej i górnej płaszczyźnie gałązki opatrzone wypukłym gruczołkiem żywicznym, boczne krótsze i bez gruczołków.
    Szyszki
    Wąskojajowate, początkowo żółtozielone, dojrzałe jasnobrązowe, długości 8–12 mm, złożone z 8-10 łusek zbliżonej długości. Wyrastają na krótkich rozgałęzieniach.

    Biologia

    Anatomia

    Drewno
    Lekkie, miękkie, o jasnym, żółtawym zabarwieniu. Pozbawione jest żywicy a jednak pozostaje wyjątkowo trwałe i odporne na gnicie (znacznie trwalsze niż drewno dębowe).

    Rozwój

    Gatunek wolno rosnący[4]. Osobniki rosnące na trudno dostępnych stanowiskach, nienarażone na zgryzanie przez zwierzynę płową i niezagrożone pożarami, osiągają wiek 1000 i więcej lat. Są więc najstarszymi drzewami wschodniej części Ameryki Północnej. Najwięcej takich wiekowych drzew stwierdzono na skałach Kuesty Niagary (w tym na wyspie Flowerpot) w kanadyjskiej prowincji Ontario. Tam też w 2004 r. znaleziono żyjący okaz, który wykiełkował w roku 688 (liczył więc sobie 1316 lat – był wówczas najstarszym drzewem prowincji Ontario)[9]. Tam również znaleziono martwe osobniki tego gatunku, których wiek obliczono na 1567, 1653[10][11], a nawet 1890 lat[9].

    Fitochemia

    Świeża roślina zawiera 0,4%–1%[8] olejku eterycznego, cukry redukujące, polisacharydy, rozpuszczalne w wodzie minerały, kwas taninowy oraz taniny[6]. Głównymi składnikami olejku eterycznego otrzymanego ze świeżych liści są: tujon (65%), izotujon, fenchon oraz inne monoterpeny (alfa-pinen, myricen, alfa-terpinen, limonen, gamma-terpinen, terpinolen, sabinen[12]) i glikoproteiny o wysokiej masie cząsteczkowej[6]. Do innych zidentyfikowanych związków chemicznych należą: kamfen, borneol, lignany, flawonoidy (kwercetyna, mirycetyna)[12]. Zawartość olejku eterycznego w suchej roślinie Herba Thujae occidentalis wynosi od 1,4 do 4%[6]. Olejek eteryczny pozyskuje się z liści, gałązek i kory okazów przynajmniej 15-letnich przez destylację z parą wodną[7]. Olejek ma gorzki, balsamiczny zapach. Jest wykorzystywany w medycynie oraz w przemyśle perfumeryjnym[7].

    Działanie toksyczne

    Trująca jest cała roślina, przy czym za działanie ogólnotoksyczne i drażniące odpowiada tujon. Żywotnik jest toksyczny dla człowieka (do zatruć dochodzi niemal wyłącznie z powodu spożywania wywarów z tui i używania ich do przepłukiwań pochwy w celu wywołania poronienia) i koni (w przypadku zjadania pędów żywotnika). Tujon ma charakter hydrofobowy i szybko wchłania się z przewodu pokarmowego i wykazuje powinowactwo do lipidów, zwłaszcza tkanki nerwowej. Przy długotrwałym spożywaniu małych dawek są one kumulowane prowadząc do zmian zwyrodnieniowych w tkance nerwowej (uszkodzenia tkanki mózgowia powodują zmiany osobowości) oraz w narządach miąższowych. Działanie pobudzające ośrodkowy układ nerwowy skutkuje skutkować może drgawkami. Przy zatruciach śmiertelnych dochodzi do śpiączki, drgawek i bezpośrednią przyczyną zgonu są ciężkie uszkodzenia organów miąższowych i ośrodkowego układu nerwowego[8].

    Główne objawy zatrucia po spożyciu świeżej rośliny są z reguły łagodne i obejmują[6][12]:

    W przypadku przedawkowania preparatów doustnych zawierających wyciąg z żywotnika zachodniego objawy są poważniejsze i obejmują dodatkowo[6][12]:

    W medycynie ludowej wyciąg z żywotnika zachodniego był stosowany jako środek wywołujący aborcję[12]. Badania nie potwierdziły działania aborcyjnego żywotnika, ani innych roślin zawierających tujon[6]. Odwary z żywotnika były tradycyjnie stosowane w tym celu (najprawdopodobniej razem z jałowcem sabińskim), często prowadząc do zgonu kobiety[6], gdyż mocne i długotrwałe skurcze macicy występują dopiero, gdy dojdzie do śmiertelnego zatrucia[12].

    Ekologia

    Biotop, wymagania
    Gatunek rośnie na terenach nizinnych, w dolinach rzek. Preferuje podmokłe gleby wapienne, najlepiej rośnie w klimacie chłodnym i wilgotnym. Tworzy lasy jednogatunkowe lub mieszane razem z choiną kanadyjską i sosną wejmutką. Wytrzymały na niskie temperatury i odporny nawet na duże zanieczyszczenia powietrza. Rośnie w miejscach nasłonecznionych, jak i w cieniu. Dobrze znosi przycinanie[4].

    Zastosowanie

    Roślina ozdobna

    Gatunek jest chętnie sadzony w parkach miejskich i jako element zieleni osiedlowej. Szczególnie cenione są liczne odmiany, także ze względu na odporność na zanieczyszczenia powietrza oraz wytrzymałość na mrozy. Dobrze znosi przycinanie i może być stosowany do formowania zimozielonych żywopłotów. Najpopularniejsze odmiany ozdobne najczęściej zostały wyhodowane w ciągu ostatnich kilkudziesięciu lat w szkółkach hodowlanych.

    Odmiany uprawne

    Pokrój kulisty:

    • 'Globosa'
    • 'Golden Globe'
    • 'Danica'

    Pokrój kolumnowy:

    • 'Smaragd'
    • 'Brabant'
    • 'Yellow Ribbon'
    • 'Holmstrupii'

    Inne:

    • 'Sunkist'
    • 'Rheingold'

    Roślina lecznicza

    Żywotnik zachodni stosowany jest w fitoterapii oraz homeopatii[13] u ludzi i zwierząt[12].

    • Olejek eteryczny – wchodzi w skład preparatów do stosowania zewnętrznego w leczeniu brodawek na stopach i rękach[14], które muszą być stosowane ostrożnie, gdyż mogą wywoływać podrażnienia skóry. Preparaty zewnętrzne z olejkiem z żywotnika nie powinny być stosowane przez kobiety w ciąży. Nie wolno ich też podawać doustnie, gdyż są trujące.
    • Wyciąg – wchodzi w skład złożonego leku ziołowego (Esberitox) do stosowania doustnego w leczeniu przeziębienia, ostrych i przewlekłych infekcji górnych dróg oddechowych oraz pomocniczo wraz z antybiotykiem w leczeniu zakażeń bakteryjnych[6].
    • W homeopatii – stosuje się doustnie tylko odpowiednio wysokie potencje (D6, D30) otrzymane przez wielokrotne rozcieńczanie urtinktury żywotnika, np. w profilaktyce poszczepiennych działań niepożądanych u małych dzieci[15][16] oraz leczeniu konstytucyjnym. Zewnętrznie w homeopatii stosuje się tinkturę z żywotnika do smarowania brodawek.
    Właściwości farmakologiczne
    • Olejek eteryczny żywotnika zachodniego

    Głównemu składnikowi olejku eterycznego z żywotnika zachodniego, czyli tujonowi, przypisuje się właściwości przeciwgrzybicze, bakteriobójcze[7] i przeciwrobacze[12]. Olejek eteryczny żywotnika jest trucizną przy podaniu doustnym, zaś stosowany zewnętrznie działa silnie drażniąco.

    • Alkoholowo-wodny wyciąg z żywotnika zachodniego

    Polisacharydy i proteiny, obecne w dużych ilościach w rozpuszczalnym w wodzie ekstrakcie z żywotnika zachodniego, mają działanie stymulujące układ odpornościowy[12].

    Działanie przeciwwirusowe oraz immunostymulujące żywotnika stało się przedmiotem badań naukowych, przeprowadzonych in vivo i in vitro[13], które potwierdziły wzmacnianie odporności, związane z aktywacją makrofagów[6], po doustnym zastosowaniu etanolowo-wodnego wyciągu.

    Większość badań klinicznych ziołowego preparatu złożonego, zawierającego wodno-etanolowe wyciągi z żywotnika oraz jeżówki purpurowej, bladej i baptysji barwierskiej (nazwa handlowa Esberitox) potwierdziło skuteczność terapeutyczną leku w leczeniu ostrych infekcji układu oddechowego i przeziębienia. Preparat okazał się także pomocny w leczeniu bakteryjnego zakażenia dróg oddechowych w skojarzeniu z antybiotykiem[6].

    Efekty uboczne

    Na podstawie wyników badań klinicznych oceniono, że stosowanie u dorosłych i dzieci zarejestrowanego preparatu leczniczego, zawierającego alkoholowy wyciąg z żywotnika zachodniego, jest bezpieczne. W okresie od stycznia 1999 do sierpnia 2003 preparat złożony z żywotnikiem (Esberitox) zażyło ponad 12 milionów pacjentów i zarejestrowano 63 przypadki działań niepożądanych, z których większość miała łagodny, przejściowy charakter i dotyczyła skóry, np. wysypka. Dzienna dawka Esberitoksu dla dorosłych oraz dla dzieci plasuje się dużo poniżej maksymalnej dawki uznanej za bezpieczną dla ludzi (w przeliczeniu na tujon wynosi doustnie 1,25 miligrama/kg masy ciała) oraz poniżej dawki tujonu dopuszczalnej w napojach alkoholowych (około 0,08 mg tujonu/kg masy ciała osoby dorosłej)[6].

    Kontakt skóry z żywotnikiem może prowadzić do kontaktowego wyprysku alergicznego[12], za który najprawdopodobniej są odpowiedzialne kwasy żywiczne[12].

    Dawkowanie

    Zalecana dawka dzienna Esberitoksu[6]:

    • dla dorosłych 18 do 36 mg żywotnika (odpowiada 18 do 36 mikrogramów tujonu)
    • dla dzieci 12 do 24 mg żywotnika (odpowiada 12 do 24 mikrogramom tujonu)

    Leki zawierające w swoim składzie żywotnik nie powinny być zażywane przez kobiety w ciąży oraz karmiące bez uprzedniego skonsultowania się z lekarzem[6].

    Przypisy

    1. P. F. Stevens: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website - Seed Plant Evolution. 2001–.
    2. Christenhusz, M.J.M., J.L. Reveal, A. Farjon, M.F. Gardner, R.R. Mill, and M.W. Chase (2011). A new classification and linear sequence of extant gymnosperms. Phytotaxa 19: 55-70.
    3. a b Thuja occidentalis L.. W: The Plant List [on-line]. [dostęp 2013-05-12].
    4. a b c d Alicja Szweykowska, Jerzy Szweykowski (red.): Słownik botaniczny. Wyd. wydanie II, zmienione i uzupełnione. Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna, 2003, s. 1058. ISBN 83-214-1305-6.
    5. B. Tokarska-Guzik, Z. Dajdok, M. Zając, A. Zając, A. Urbisz, W. Danielewicz: Rośliny obcego pochodzenia w Polsce ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem gatunków inwazyjnych. Warszawa: Generalna Dyrekcja Ochrony Srodowiska, 2012. ISBN 978-83-62940-34-9.
    6. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n ecam.oxfordjournals.org B. Naser, C. Bodinet, M. Tegtmeier, U. Lindequist Thuja occidentalis (Arbor vitae): A Review of its Pharmaceutical, Pharmacological and Clinical Properties (ang.)
    7. a b c d Zwitserseapotheek.be Aromatherapie – Thuja (niderl.)
    8. a b c Maria Henneberg, Elżbieta Skrzydlewska (red.): Zatrucia roślinami wyższymi i grzybami. Warszawa: Państwowy Zakład Wydawnictw Lekarskich, 1984, s. 159-161. ISBN 83-200-0419-5.
    9. a b Ontario’s oldest trees. Ancient Forest Exploration & Research. [dostęp 2017-12-27].
    10. a database of old trees. Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research. [dostęp 2017-12-27].
    11. Eastern OLDLIST. Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research, Inc. & the Tree Ring Laboratory of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and Columbia University. [dostęp 2017-12-27].
    12. a b c d e f g h i j k EMEA.Europa.eu Thuja occidentalis – summary report (April 1999) (ang.)
    13. a b B. Naser, C. Bodinet, M. Tegtmeier, U. Lindequist. Thuja occidentalis (Arbor vitae): A Review of its Pharmaceutical, Pharmacological and Clinical Properties.. „Evid Based Complement Alternat Med”. 2 (1), s. 69-78, Mar 2005. DOI: 10.1093/ecam/neh065. PMID: 15841280.
    14. Wrattenolie (niderl.)
    15. Tujababy druppels (niderl.)
    16. Thuja occidentalis (niderl.)
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    Туя западная ( Russian )
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    Шишки туи западной

    Шишки яйцевидные, мелкие (7—12 мм), состоящие из тонких чешуй, содержат два сплюснутых, с двумя узкими соломенно-жёлтыми крылышками семени[7].

    Древесина ядровая, красноватая, сравнительно мягкая, очень прочная, без смоляных ходов; имеет приятный аромат и не подвержена гниению.

    Корневая система компактная.

    На родине — кальцефил.

    Естественный ареал

    Основной естественный ареал туи западной располагается в юго-восточной части Канады и северной части США. В частности, он простирается на запад от острова Антикости в заливе Святого Лаврентия к южной части залива Джеймса, через центр провинции Онтарио к юго-восточной части провинции Манитоба; затем южнее через центр штата Миннесота и Висконсин, узкой полосой размещаясь вокруг южной оконечности озера Мичиган; на восток - через юг штата Мичиган, южную часть штата Нью-Йорк, центральный Вермонт, Нью-Гэмпшир и Мэн. Этот вид также растёт местами на северо-западе провинции Онтарио, на западе и в центре провинции Манитоба, юго-востоке штата Миннесота, юге Висконсина, на севере и в центре Иллинойса, в Огайо, на юге Новой Англии, в Аппалачских горах западной Пенсильвании, юге западной части Северной Каролины и востоке Теннесси[8].

    В Европу туя была ввезена в 1540 году[9].

    Особенности и условия произрастания

     src=
    Выращивание туи в питомнике

    Условия посадки, ухода и размножения, токсичность[6][10]:

    • Размножение: семенами (требуется стратификация) и зелеными черенками.
    • Требования к влажности: средние (влаголюбива, но переносит сухость).
    • Требования к освещению: теневынослива, но предпочитает свет.
    • Минимальная температура: - 36 °C.
    • Глубина залегания корней: не менее 76 см.
    • Токсичность для окружающих растений: нет.
    • Токсичность для домашних животных: нет.

    Особенности произрастания[6][10]:

    • pH почвы: 5,2-7.
    • Диапазон осадков: 890-1400 мм в год.
    • Плотность насаждения: 750-3000 на гектар.
    • Требования к структуре почвы: малотребовательная, но предпочитает свежие, плодородные или средние почвы.
    • Минимальное число дней без заморозков: 100.
    • Устойчивость к засолению почвы: нет.
    • Потребность к почвенному азоту: высокая.
    • Устойчивость к содержанию в почве извести: высокая.

    Болезни и вредители

    Грибы[11]:

    Насекомые:

    Короед[11]

    Клещ[11]

    • Паутинный клещ лат. Oligonychus ununguis

    Тля[12]:

    • Тля туевая побеговая лат. Cinara thujaphilina
    • Тля туевая лат. Cinara juniperina
    • лат. Cupressobium tujafilinum
    • Тля кипарисовая лат. Cupressobium cupressi, в других источниках: лат. Cinara cupressi

    Щитовка

    • Щитовка туевая лат. Carulaspis minima

    Ложнощитовка

    • Ложнощитовка туевая лат. Parthenolecanium fletcheri

    Моль-пестрянка

    • Моль-пестрянка туевая лат. Argyresthia thuiella

    Значение и применение

    Декоративное применение

     src=
    Один из культурных сортов туи западной (Kørnik)

    Культивируют тую западную (плакучие, карликовые, пёстролистные формы — имеет около 120 культиваров) в садах и парках европейских стран; в России — в степной и лесной зонах до Архангельска, в Сибири, на Дальнем Востоке.

    Пыле-, дымо-, газоустойчива, хорошо переносит пересадку, обрезку, стрижку. Зимостойка.

    Основная статья: Сорта туи западной

    Прикладное применение

    Древесина туи мягкая, прочная, используется на родине на шпалы, столбы, мебель, дранку.

    В Канаде свежие ветки туи используют в качестве веников, имеющих приятный запах[4].

    Из листьев получают эфирное масло, входящее в состав некоторых инсектицидов, а также применяемое в медицине (дезинфицирующие средства) и парфюмерии (моющие средства для тела и для волос, фитобальзамы и ароматические масла) [13].

    Широко используется в народной медицине для лечения доброкачественных опухолей кожи, рака, новообразований, кондилом и папиллом, бородавок, полипов и опухолей. Также сообщается применение различных настоев и отваров листьев и коры туи в качестве потогонного, мочегонного, лактогонного и слабительного средства; средства от ожогов, простуды, кашля, лихорадки, головной и зубной боли, ревматизма и пр[13].

    Таксономическое положение

    род содержит еще 4 вида,
    среди которых в РФ наиболее
    известна Туя складчатая порядок
    лат. ordo
    Хвойные
    лат. Pinales семейство
    лат. familia
    Кипарисовые
    лат. Cupressaceae род
    лат. genus
    Туя
    лат. Thuja отдел
    лат. divisio
    Хвойные
    лат. Pinophyta вид
    лат. species
    Туя западная единственный
    в отделе
    и классе

    См. также

    Туя восточная (Плосковеточник)

    Примечания

    1. Trees of the Northwoods. Thuja occidentalis. (англ.) (Проверено 27 июля 2009)
    2. Edward F. Gilman and Dennis G. Watson. Thuja occidentalis. White-Cedar. (англ.) (pdf) (недоступная ссылка). 680 Tree Fact Sheets. University of Florida. Проверено 27 июля 2009. Архивировано 8 апреля 2008 года.
    3. USDA Plant Hardiness Zones Map (англ.). The United States National Arboretum. Проверено 27 июля 2009. Архивировано 17 августа 2011 года.
    4. 1 2 Cedar, Yellow (англ.). A Modern Herbal. Botanical.com. Проверено 29 июля 2009. Архивировано 24 августа 2011 года.
    5. (англ.) USDA NRCS — Thuja occidentalis — Plant guide (Проверено 27 июля 2009)
    6. 1 2 3 Туя западная (неопр.). Энциклопедия декоративных садовых растений. Проверено 27 июля 2009. Архивировано 24 августа 2011 года.
    7. Туя западная — Thuja occidentalis L. (неопр.). Деревянистые растения России. Экологический центр "Экосистема". Проверено 27 июля 2009. Архивировано 24 августа 2011 года.
    8. William F. Johnston. Northern White-Cedar (англ.). Forestry. About.com. Проверено 12 августа 2009. Архивировано 24 августа 2011 года.
    9. Покорны Я. Деревья вокруг нас. — Прага: Артия, 1980. — С. 67. — 188 с.
    10. 1 2 Thuja Occidentalis (англ.). Arborvitae - Plant Information. GardenGuides.com. Проверено 29 июля 2009. Архивировано 24 августа 2011 года.
    11. 1 2 3 Marilyn D. Dykstra, M. Sabourin. Pests and deseases of the eastern white cedar (англ.) (pdf). Pest Diagnostic Clinic Factsheet Archive. University of Guelph (Canada). Проверено 29 июля 2009. Архивировано 24 августа 2011 года.
    12. Журавлев В.В. Тли рода Cupressobium Восточной Европы, Кавказа и Средней Азии./ Вестник зоологии №37(5). — Институт зоологии им. И.И. Шмальгаузена Национальной Академии наук Украины, 2003 год, с. 13-30
    13. 1 2 James A. Duke. Thuja occidentalis L. (англ.). Crop Index. Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture at Purdue University (USA). Проверено 29 июля 2009. Архивировано 24 августа 2011 года.
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    Туя західна ( Ukrainian )
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    У Вікіпедії є статті про інші значення цього терміна: Туя західна (значення).

    Ту́я за́хідна (Thuja occidentalis) — вид хвойних дерев роду Туя (Thuja) родини кипарисових (Cupressaceae).

    Опис

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    Туя західна у природньому середовищі

    Це вічнозелене однодомне дерево, до 30 м заввишки. Крона густа, пірамідальна. Кора стовбура темно-бура або сірувато-коричнева, повздовжньо-борозенчаста, однорічних пагонів — зелена, при основі — червоно-коричнева. Листки лусковидні (у ювенільних рослин — голковидні), розміщені супротивно. Чоловічі шишечки (мікростробіли) приверхівкові, в пазухах листків, майже сидячі, дрібні (до 2 мм у діаметрі), округлі, жовтаві. Жіночі шишечки (мегастробіли) овально-яйцевидні, світло-зелені, розміщені на кінцях укорочених охвоєних гілочок. Стиглі шишки донизу відігнуті, світло-коричневі або коричнево-бурі, видовженоовальні, їхні луски шкірясто-дерев'янисті, черепичасто налягають одна на одну. Запилюється у першій половині квітня. Насіння достигає у рік запилення.

    Поширення

    Батьківщина туї західної — Північна Америка. Майже по всій території України її культивують як декоративну рослину.

    Заготівля і зберігання

    Для виготовлення ліків використовують молоді охвоєні пагони (Turiones Thujae occidentalis) туї. Заготовляють їх у квітні — травні і використовують свіжими або сушать.

    Хімічний склад

    Пагони туї містять ефірну олію (0,12%), аромадендрин, токсифолін, пініпікрин, пілен, пінін, дубильні речовини і смолу. У складі ефірної олії є туйон, пінен, каріофілен, відрен, цедрол та інші речовини.

    Фармакологічні властивості і використання

    Останнім часом у науковій медицині тую західну не використовують. Раніше настойку свіжих пагонів туї використовували для приготування комплексних препаратів акофіту і мерифіту. Акофіт застосовували при гострих радикулітах, радикуло-ішалгіях і фунікуло-невритах, що виникають на ґрунті гострих інфекцій, при люмбаго, плекситах і нейроміотозах. Мерифіт використовували при лікуванні хронічних тонзилітів і хронічних фарингітів. У гомеопатії препарати із свіжих пагонів туї вживають при хронічному запаленні волосяних мішечків (сикоз), від бородавок, як протиревматичний засіб і в оториноларингології. У народній медицині тую західну використовують як діуретичний, жовчогінний, відхаркувальний, потогінний, кровоспинний, антисептичний і такий, що викликає гіперемію, засіб.

    Усередину настій пагінців приймають при кровохарканні, кишкових і маткових кровотечах, бронхіальній астмі, при хворобах сечового міхура, нирок і печінки, при нирковокам'яній та жовчнокам'яній хворобах, при подагрі, ревматизмі, водянці, простатиті й аденомі простати, гонореї, сифілісі й аскаридозі. Вагітним жінкам препарати туї протипоказані (діють абортивно). При зовнішньому застосуванні позитивний терапевтичний ефект спостерігається при лікуванні запалення волосяних мішечків шкіри (обмивання настоєм), червоного вовчака і ознобишів (змащування настойкою), при виведенні бородавок (посипання порошком, змащування свіжим соком або настойкою).

    Посилання


    туя це- невисоке дерево і про розмір хвоїнки дуже важко знайти

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    ニオイヒバ ( Japanese )
    provided by wikipedia 日本語
    ニオイヒバ
     src=
    園芸品種スマラグ。別名エメラルド・グリーン。左後方はヨーロッパゴールド
    分類 : 植物界 Plantae : 裸子植物門 Pinophyta : マツ綱 Pinopsida : マツ目 Pinales : ヒノキ科 Cupressaceae : クロベ属 Thuja : ニオイヒバ Thuja occidentalis 学名 Thuja occidentalis 和名 ニオイヒバ 英名 Thuja occidentalis

    ニオイヒバ (学名:Thuja occidentalis)は、ヒノキ科クロベ属の常緑針葉樹の高木[1]。北アメリカ北部からカナダにかけて分布し、葉にはレモンに似た芳香があり、名前の由来となっている。様々な園芸種も生み出されている[1][2]

     src=
    ニオイヒバの園芸品種、ヨーロッパゴールド

    概要[編集]

    日本へは明治時代に取り入れられた。属名の Thuja はギリシャ語の「thyia(ある種の常緑樹)」に由来している。種小名の occidentalis は「西方の」という意味を持つ。原種は高さ15m前後まで成長する。細根で根張りが良好であるために水分や肥料を好む[1]ミノムシの食害を受ける事がある[1]。半日陰の湿潤な環境を好む[1]。外観はヒノキサワラに類似しているが、性質は大きくことなる面がある[1]。生育しやすい品種が多いために園芸品種は比較的安価に流通し、初心者向きとされる[1]。繁殖は挿木で増やす[2]

    園芸種[編集]

     src=
    ストルウィシュク’左後方は、ブルーヘブン、右後方はビャクシン・ピラミダリス

    円錐形[編集]

    • エメラルド - 別名エメラルドグリーン、スマラグなど。広円錐形の園芸品種。強健で育て易い品種。樹高6mくらいまで成長する。葉は緑色で艶がある。樹高4m程度まで成長し寒暖の差に強く[1]、樹形も剪定なしで整いやすいが、葉が密になって蒸れて枯れすい[1]。ニオイヒバの中では最も樹形が美しいとされる[2]。樹高は4-5m[2]
    • グリーンコーン - エメラルドと比較すると、横幅が出ないので狭い敷地でも植えることが出来る。大きく育つと傾く事があるが[1]、移植や管理は容易とされる[2]。樹高5m程度まで成長する[1]。冬はややベージュ色を帯びる。秋にはオレンジ色の球果を付ける[2]
    • ヨーロッパゴールド - 黄金色の葉の代表品種[2]。小さいうちは芯が立ちにくい[1]
    • イエローリボン - ヨーロッパゴールドに似る黄金種だが、こちらの方が横幅が出ず細円錐状となる[1]。樹高4m程度に育つ[1]
    • Thuja occidentalis‘Degroots Spirr’デグルートスパイアー - 樹高4m。グリーンコーンの矮性種[1]。乾燥にやや弱く、強い日差しにも弱い[1]。冬は葉が少し茶褐色に染まる[1]。樹形はニオイヒバとしては細長くまとまる[2]。グリーンコーンの細長タイプ[2]。成長は遅い[3]
    • マリセンズ・サルファー - 鶯色の珍しい葉色の品種[1]。乾燥地には向いておらず、強い直射日光にも弱いなど気難しい面がある[1]。樹高は4m[1]
    • ホルムストラップ - グリーンコーンの矮性種で、成長速度は1/2以下[1]。樹高は3m程度。狭い場所に向き、冬は茶褐色を帯びる[1]
    • サンキスト - 苗のうちは球状だが、成長すると広円錐形となる[2]。樹高は2.5-4.0m[2]。ヨーロッパゴールドに似るが、下葉が茂り末広がりの形状となる[2]。成長はやや遅い[2]
    • ストルウィシュク - ゴツゴツとした大型の葉を持ちながら密に茂る品種。成長は遅い。葉先は夏場まで白色調を示す。やや独特の外観。自然に広円錐形となる[4]

    球形[編集]

    • Globosa Aurea グロボーサオーレア - 別名ゴールデングローブ。球形に育つ矮性種[1]。直径1.5m程度に育つ[1]。強健種。春先は黄金色の葉色となるが緑色を帯び冬は褐色調となる[1]
    • Globosa Variegaata グロボーサバリエガータ - 斑入りのグロポーザ。班日陰に向く[5]
    • グロボーサボール - 非常に成長が遅く、自然に半球状の姿に落ち着く[1][2]。冬には褐色を帯びるが、それ以外の季節は緑色となる[1][2]
    • Thuja occidentalis 'Woodwardiiウッドワーデイー - グロボーサオーレアの緑色種[1][2]。やや成長が早く自然に球形にまとまる。
    • ダニカ - 成長が遅く、直径1mに成長する球形種[1][2]。鉢栽培に向く[1]。半日陰が好ましい[1]
    • ミラー - 半球状の品種[1]。成長が遅く鉢植えにも向いている[1]
    • Rheinngold ラインゴールド - コニファーには珍しいオレンジ色の葉色を持つ[1]。枝が細く雪害を受けやすい[1]。夏場の乾燥にも弱い[1]。冬季は枯れたような茶色となる[1]。鉢栽培に向く[1]。最初は半球状を呈するが年月がたつと芯が立って広円錐形となる[1]。肥料が切れると葉色が悪くなりやすい[2]

    ギャラリー[編集]

    •  src=

      ラインゴールド(冬)

    •  src=

      デグルートスパイアー

    •  src=

      デグルートスパイアーの葉

    •  src=

      ウッドワーディー

    出典[編集]

    1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am 高橋護 コニファーガーデン―園主が教える選び方・育て方 (コツのコツシリーズ) 単行本 – 2007/7 農山漁村文化協会 ISBN 9784540051784
    2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r コニファー きれいに育てる全テクニック 監修 尾上信行 小学館 ISBN 4-09-305242-5
    3. ^ 花工房 コニファーガイド ニオイヒバ‘デグルートスパイアー’ 2016年1月16日閲覧
    4. ^ 花工房 コニファーガイド ニオイヒバ‘ストルウィシュク’ 2016年1月16日閲覧
    5. ^ 花工房 グロボーサバリエガータ 2016年1月25日参照


    執筆の途中です この項目は、植物に関連した書きかけの項目です。この項目を加筆・訂正などしてくださる協力者を求めていますプロジェクト:植物Portal:植物)。
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    ウィキペディアの著者と編集者
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    北美香柏 ( Chinese )
    provided by wikipedia 中文维基百科
    Star of life caution.svg 维基百科中的醫療相关内容仅供参考,詳見醫學聲明。如需专业意见请咨询专业人士。
    二名法 Thuja occidentalis
    Linn. Thuja occidentalis range map.png

    北美香柏学名Thuja occidentalis)是柏科崖柏属的植物。分布于原产北美以及中国大陆上海庐山南京武汉青岛等地,目前已由人工引种栽培。

    别名

    香柏(通用名),美国侧柏(中国树木分类学),黄心柏木(中国木材学)

    参考文献

    • 昆明植物研究所. 北美香柏. 《中国高等植物数据库全库》. 中国科学院微生物研究所. [2009-02-26]. (原始内容存档于2016-03-05).


    小作品圖示这是一篇與藥用植物相關的小作品。你可以通过编辑或修订扩充其内容。
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Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Northern white-cedar occurs in southeastern Canada and the adjacent
    northern United States. It is distributed from southwestern Nova
    Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, the Gaspe Peninsula in
    Quebec, and Anticosti Island in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence; west to
    northern Ontario and southeastern Manitoba; south to southeastern
    Minnesota and northern Illinois; and east through extreme northwestern
    Indiana, Michigan, and the New England states. Island populations occur
    in the Appalachian Mountains in western Pennsylvania, West Virginia,
    Virginia, and eastern Tennessee. Local populations also occur in
    west-central Manitoba, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Illinois, and Ohio [26,33].
    Historical evidence indicates that northern white-cedar is native to
    North Carolina as well, but no known native population occurs there now
    [10].
    license
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    bibliographic citation
    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    ID
    THUOCC_GENERAL_DISTRIBUTION
    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Man., N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Conn., Ill., Ind., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., N.H., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of North America Vol. 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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    Flora of North America Editorial Committee
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    ID
    20775_distribution
    Occurrence in North America
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    CT HI IL IN ME MD MA MI MN NH
    NY OH PA RI TN VT VA WV WI MB
    NB NS ON PE PQ
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    THUOCC_STATES
    Distribution ( Spanish; Castilian )
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    Chile Central
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    Universidad de Santiago de Chile
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    Pablo Gutierrez
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    15965_plic_pcfcore_distribution
    Distribution
    provided by Silvics of North America
    The main range of northern white-cedar extends through the southern part of the eastern half of Canada and the adjacent northern part of the United States. Specifically, it extends westward from Anticosti Island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the southern part of James Bay and through central Ontario to southeastern Manitoba; then south through central Minnesota and Wisconsin to a narrow fringe around the southern tip of Lake Michigan; then east through southern Michigan, southern New York, central Vermont and New Hampshire, and Maine. The species also grows locally in northwestern Ontario, west-central Manitoba, southeastern Minnesota, southern Wisconsin, north-central Illinois, Ohio, southern New England, and in the Appalachian Mountains from western Pennsylvania south to western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee.


    - The native range of northern white-cedar.

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Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    Isolated stands of Thuja occidentalis occur north and east of its general range in Canada (to 51° 31' N latitude in Ontario, 50° N in Quebec). In the United States south of the Great Lakes and in southern New England, it occurs locally in scattered stands and is rare or extirpated at numerous former sites. In some areas, heavy winter browsing by deer greatly reduces reproductive success through elimination of seedlings or saplings.

    Thuja occidentalis is widely utilized in ornamental silviculture and has more than 120 named cultivars. It was probably the first North American tree introduced into Europe (ca. 1566). It is an important timber tree; the wood is used for applications requiring decay resistance.

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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of North America Vol. 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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    Flora of North America @ eFloras.org
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    ID
    20773
    Comments
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    Planted for timber.
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
    bibliographic citation
    Flora of China Vol. 4: 64 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
    source
    Flora of China @ eFloras.org
    editor
    Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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    ID
    20782
    Description
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: monoecious, tree

    Northern white-cedar is a monoecious, native, evergreen tree with a
    narrow, almost columnar crown. Branches on open-grown trees extend to
    the ground. The trunk is often divided into two or more secondary
    trunks of equal size. Northern white-cedar has scalelike foliage and
    fibrous, sometimes shredding bark [25,26].

    At maturity northern white-cedar is 40 to 50 feet (12-15 m) tall and 12
    to 24 inches (30-60 cm) in d.b.h. Infrequently it reaches heights of 70
    to 80 feet (21-24 m) and diameters of 48 to 60 inches (120-150 cm) [26].
    This species is extremely slow growing; after 50 years, it might reach
    40 feet (12 m) in height on good sites, but only 15 feet (4.6 m) or less
    on poor sites [27].

    Northern white-cedar reaches ages in excess of 800 years [5,32]. Two
    trees on the Niagara Escarpment in southern Ontario were dated at 935
    and 1,032 years [32].

    Seedlings develop deep roots in well-drained soil and shallow roots in
    saturated soil. With age, northern white-cedar develops a widespreading
    root system which is well adapted to secure water and nutrients from
    cracks in rocks [26].
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    THUOCC_GENERAL_BOTANICAL_CHARACTERISTICS
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Trees to 15(--38) m, stunted or prostrate in harsh environments; trunk to 0.9(--1.8) m diam., sometimes divided into 2--3 secondary stems, often reproducing by layering or forming erect, rooted branches from fallen trunks; crown conical. Bark reddish brown or grayish brown, 6--9 mm thick, fibrous, fissured. Leaves of branchlets (1.5--)3--5 mm, acute, dull yellowish green on both surfaces of branchlets. Pollen cones 1--2 mm, reddish. Seed cones ellipsoid, (6--)9--14 mm, brown; fertile scales usually 2 pairs, each minutely mucronate. Seeds ca. 8 per cone, 4--7 mm (including wings), reddish brown. 2 n = 22.
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    Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
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    Flora of North America Vol. 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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    ID
    20772
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Trees to 15(-38) m tall; trunk 0.9(-1.8) m d.b.h.; bark reddish brown or grayish brown, fibrous, fissured; crown conical. Leaves on both sides of branchlets dull yellowish-green; facial leaves (1.5-)3-5 mm, abaxial gland conspicuous, apex acute; lateral leaves slightly shorter than or as long as facial leaves, apex incurved. Pollen cones reddish, 1-2 mm. Seed cones brown, ellipsoid, (0.6-)0.9-1.4 cm; fertile cone scales ca. 4. Seeds reddish-brown, 4-7 mm including wings.
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    bibliographic citation
    Flora of China Vol. 4: 64 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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    Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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    Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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    20781
    Physical Description
    provided by USDA PLANTS text
    Tree, Evergreen, Monoecious, Habit erect, Trees without or rarely having knees, Tree with bark rough or scaly, Tree with bark shaggy or peeling, Young shoots in flat sprays, Buds not resinous, Leaves scale-like, Leaves opposite, Non-needle-like leaf margins entire, Leaf apex acute, Leaves < 5 cm long, Leaves < 10 cm long, Leaves yellow-green above, Leaves yellow-green below, Leaves not blue-green, Scale leaves without raised glands, Scale leaf glands not ruptured, Scale leaves overlapping, Twigs glabrous, Twigs not viscid, Twigs without peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Berry-like cones orange, Woody seed cones < 5 cm long, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds red, Seeds brown, Seeds winged, Seeds equally winged.
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    Aaron Liston
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    ID
    THOC2_Thuja_occidentalis_USDA_keys_object

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Thuja obtusa Moench; T. theophrasti C. Bauhin ex Nieuwland.
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    Flora of China Vol. 4: 64 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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    ID
    20780

Habitat

    Climate
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Northern white-cedar grows in a relatively humid climate. Annual precipitation commonly ranges from 710 to 1170 mm (28 to 46 in), but the extremes range from about 510 mm (20 in) at the tree's northern and western limits to 1400 mm (55 in) in the southern Appalachians. One-third to one-half of the precipitation occurs during the warm season. Snowfall ranges from about 100 cm (40 in) to more than 380 cm (150 in) annually.

    Temperatures are often cool during a moderately short growing season. The northern limit of the range extends to the forest-tundra transition (subarctic zone) in Canada. The southern limit has an average annual temperature of less than 10° C (50° F) in the Lake States and up to 16° C (60° F) in the southern Appalachians. Average January temperatures commonly range from -12° to -4° C (10° to 24° F) and those of July from 16° to 22° C (60° to 72° F). The average frost-free period commonly ranges from about 90 to 180 days, but the extremes range from less than 80 days at the tree's northern limit to about 200 days in the southern Appalachians (16).

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    Thuja_occidentalis_silvics_Climate
    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    On mostly calcareous substrates, neutral to basic swamps, shores of lakes and rivers, uplands, cliffs, and talus; 0--900m.
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    Flora of North America Vol. 2 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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    20775
    Habitat & Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Planted for timber. Anhui, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Zhejiang [native to E Canada, NE United States].
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    Flora of China Vol. 4: 64 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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    Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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    ID
    20783
    Habitat characteristics
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: association, bog, ecotype, litter, minerotrophic, peat, seed, shrub, swamp, tree

    Northern white-cedar grows on both uplands and lowlands. The uplands
    are primarily seepage areas, old fields, and limestone cliffs and
    boulder fields. The lowland sites include swamps, streambanks, and
    lakeshores. Northern white-cedar occurs from near sea level to more
    than 2,000 feet (600 m) in elevation. It grows up to 4,270 feet (1,300
    m) in the Adirondack Mountains in New York on sites where water is
    flowing over rocks [26].

    On lowland sites, northern white-cedar generally grows where there is a
    strong flow of moderately mineral-rich soil water of near neutral pH
    (minerotrophic and weakly minerotrophic swamps) and where the organic
    peat is moderately to well decomposed. The peat is usually 1 to 6 feet
    (0.3-1.8 m) thick and contains rotten wood. Northern white-cedar grows
    best where soils are neutral to moderately alkaline [19,24,26].

    On upland sites, northern white-cedar grows primarily in calcareous
    soils including calcareous clays and shallow loam overlying broken
    limestone [26].

    Habeck [50] has suggested that northern white-cedar growing in limestone
    uplands is an ecotype distinct from wet lowland northern white-cedar.
    Specimens growing on cliffs tend to be deformed with multiple leaders
    and twisted trunks, whereas those in wet lowlands tend to be more erect
    with well-defined trunks. However, four studies that looked at tree
    morphology [8], seed morphology [7], growth patterns [36], and xylem
    water potential [12] found no evidence of ecotypic variation. There
    tended to be more variation within a single site than between lowland
    and upland sites. Seedlings, from seeds collected from the two
    contrasting habitats, were grown under different moisture conditions.
    Xerically grown seedlings had significantly (p less than 0.05) more negative xylem
    water potential than did seedlings grown under moist conditions,
    independent of seed origin. The seedlings acclimated to the conditions
    and demonstrated that northern white-cedar has broad physiological
    tolerance to habitat moisture [12].

    Overstory associates not mentioned in DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
    include white spruce (Picea glauca), quaking aspen (Populus
    tremuloides), balsam poplar (P. balsamifera), and bigtooth aspen. Shrub
    associates on good sites include speckled alder, mountain maple (Acer
    spicatum), red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), and American fly
    honeysuckle (Lonicera canadensis). Bog Labrador-tea (Ledum
    groenlandicum), blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), and wintergreen
    (Gaultheria procumbens) occur on poorer sites. Creeping wintergreen (G.
    hispidula) occurs on both good and poor sites [26].

    Herbs that occur in swamps with northern white-cedar include dwarf red
    blackberry (Rubus pubescens), Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense),
    woodfern (Dryopteris spp.), bunchberry dogwood (Cornus canadensis),
    false Solomons-seal (Smilacina spp.), and pitcherplant (Sarracenia
    purpurea) [26]. Dwarf lake iris (Iris lacustris), a federally threatened
    species endemic to the northern shores of Lake Michigan and Lake Huron,
    is found in association with narrow beach strands of northern
    white-cedar [43].

    The groundcover in northern white-cedar swamp forests includes sphagnum
    and other mosses, liverworts, decaying logs, and litter [26].
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    THUOCC_SITE_CHARACTERISTICS
    Habitat: Cover Types
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

    5 Balsam fir
    12 Black spruce
    13 Black spruce - tamarack
    21 Eastern white pine
    23 Eastern hemlock
    24 Hemlock - yellow birch
    30 Red spruce - yellow birch
    32 Red spruce
    33 Red spruce - balsam fir
    35 Paper birch - red spruce - balsam fir
    37 Northern white-cedar
    38 Tamarack
    39 Black ash - American elm - red maple
    108 Red maple
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    THUOCC_SAF_COVER_TYPES
    Habitat: Ecosystem
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

    FRES10 White - red - jack pine
    FRES11 Spruce - fir
    FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood
    FRES18 Maple - beech - birch
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    THUOCC_ECOSYSTEMS
    Habitat: Plant Associations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

    More info for the terms: bog, forest

    K093 Great Lakes spruce - fir forest
    K094 Conifer bog
    K095 Great Lakes pine forest
    K096 Northeastern spruce - fir forest
    K101 Elm - ash forest
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Key Plant Community Associations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: bog, fen, forest, hardwood, swamp

    Northern white-cedar is an important species in the wet-mesic coniferous
    forests of the northern lowlands [14]. It is often present in the
    ecotone between sphagnum bog and upland hardwood communities [15]. It
    may dominate rich swamp forests, poor swamp forests, and the cedar
    string bog and fen complex [24].

    The following published classifications list northern white-cedar as
    dominant or codominant:

    The vegetation of Wisconsin [14]
    Virgin plant communities of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area [37]
    Plant communities of Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, U.S.A. [30]
    Habitat classification system for Upper Peninsula of Michigan and
    northeast Wisconsin [11]
    Classification and gradient analysis of forest vegetation of Cape
    Enrage, Bic Park, Quebec [49]
    The principal plant associations of the Saint Lawrence Valley [16]
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    THUOCC_HABITAT_TYPES_AND_PLANT_COMMUNITIES
    Soils and Topography
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Northern white-cedar grows on a wide variety of organic soils (Histosols) and mineral soils (especially Inceptisols and Entisols); however, it does not develop well on extremely wet or extremely dry sites. It is most often associated with cool, moist, nutrient-rich sites, particularly on organic soils near streams or other drainage-ways, or on calcareous mineral soils. In Minnesota, however, white-cedar stands on uplands are primarily determined by an interaction of vegetation and lack of disturbance (21). Northern white-cedar commonly grows on soils ranging from pH 5.5 to 7.2 (9,36).

    Northern white-cedar is usually dominant in rich swamps (forested rich fens) that have a strong flow of moderately mineral-rich soil water. The organic soil (peat) is usually moderately to well decomposed, 0.3 to 1.8 m (1 to 6 ft) thick, and often contains much rotted wood. It can also dominate the peat ridges in bog and fen complexes that have a sluggish movement of weakly enriched water (22).

    On mineral soil (upland) sites northern white-cedar is characteristic of seepage areas, limestone uplands, and old fields. It is common on shallow loam over broken limestone in southeastern Ontario and often forms pure stands in old fields and pastures on moist, well-drained soils in Maine (9), southern Quebec, and southeastern Ontario. The tree also grows on calcareous clays, limestone cliffs, outcrops of acidic trap rock, and sandstone bluffs (10,29).

    Northern white-cedar generally grows best on limestone-derived soils that are neutral or slightly alkaline and moist but well drained. Nevertheless, most commercial stands are in swamps, where northern white-cedar can compete well with its associates (13) and is normally protected from fire (23). Although old-field soils differ greatly, the tree's form and volume growth are much better on old fields than in poorly drained swamps (9).

    Northern white-cedar grows from near sea level to more than 600 m (2,000 ft), but within most of its range it is found between 150 and 600 m (500 and 2,000 ft).

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Associations

    Associated Forest Cover
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Northern white-cedar most commonly grows in mixed stands but is also found in pure stands. It comprises a majority of the stocking or is pure in the Northern White-Cedar forest cover type (Society of American Foresters Type 37) and is an associate species in the following types (13):

        5  Balsam Fir
      12  Black Spruce
      13  Black Spruce-Tamarack
      21  Eastern White Pine
      23  Eastern Hemlock
      24  Hemlock-Yellow Birch
      30  Red Spruce-Yellow Birch
      32  Red Spruce
      33  Red Spruce-Balsam Fir
      35  Paper Birch-Red Spruce-Balsam Fir
      38  Tamarack
      39  Black Ash-American Elm-Red Maple
    108  Red Maple

    The northern white-cedar type commonly includes some balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and tamarack (Larix laricina) in the boreal region of Canada but tends to be mixed with additional species farther south. Balsam fir, black spruce (Picea mariana), white spruce (P. glauca), red spruce (P. rubens), tamarack, black ash (Fraxinus nigra), and red maple (Acer rubrum) are common associates on the wetter sites, especially swamps. Yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), paper birch (B. papyrifera), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), bigtooth aspen (P. grandidentata), balsam poplar (P. balsamifera), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), and eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) are common on the better drained sites, especially uplands.

    Except when dense, northern white-cedar stands usually have an undergrowth of shrubs and herbs. Speckled alder (Alnus rugosa) is commonly the most important shrub on the better sites. Other characteristic shrubs on the better sites (especially in swamps) include mountain maple (Acer spicatum), red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), and fly honeysuckle (Lonicera canadensis). On poorer sites they include Labrador-tea (Ledum groenlandicum), blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), and wintergreen (teaberry) (Gaultheria procumbens); creeping snowberry (G. hispidula) is common on both kinds of sites (see 16 for a more complete list). Characteristic herbs on the better sites (especially in swamps) include dwarf raspberry (Rubus pubescens), false lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum canadense), woodfern (Dryopteris spp.), and bunchberry (Cornus canadensis). On poorer sites they include false Solomons-seal (Smilacina trifolia) and pitcherplant (Sarracenia purpurea). Ground cover is usually a mosaic of sphagnum (Sphagnum spp.) and other mosses, liverworts, decaying logs, and litter (13).

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Diseases and Parasites

    Damaging Agents
    provided by Silvics of North America
    On wet sites such as swamps, restricted soil aeration resulting from abnormally high water levels usually reduces the growth rate of northern white-cedar and may kill entire stands. Wetland road crossings and beaver damming are the primary causes of flooding. Road-caused flooding has killed white-cedar or reduced its growth on thousands of hectares in northern Minnesota (45); natural gas and petroleum pipelines will probably have similar effects unless cross drainage is provided (4).

    Wind-induced uprooting and breakage sometimes occur in older stands on both upland and swamp sites, especially along exposed edges and in stands opened by partial cutting (27). Large trees and those with basal defect are most susceptible to wind damage.

    Northern white-cedar is highly susceptible to fire damage because its bark is thin and has a high oil content; its shallow roots are easily damaged even by light ground fires (6). On the Laurentian Shield in northeastern Minnesota, this species has been driven to the lakeshores by fire (23). The risk of wildfire is low, however, on most white-cedar areas in the United States and good fire protection now results in little loss (27).

    Snow and ice often damage northern white-cedar by breaking limbs (6); they also break stems or force trees into a permanent leaning position (7,9).

    Agents that turn northern white-cedar foliage yellow or brown and sometimes cause severe damage or death include unfavorable winter weather, deicing salts, and drought. Plantings are particularly susceptible to winterkill caused by dehydration (40). The tree's tolerance of deicing salts is only moderate or intermediate (15,46); so branches exposed to salt spray along highways commonly have severe dieback. In Iowa windbreaks, white-cedar had more drought damage than other evergreens during a very dry winter (37). When the oldest foliage turns rusty red in the fall, however, it is a natural shedding of branchlets (cladoptosis) (39).

    Northern white-cedar is relatively free from serious insect injury (9,39). Carpenter ants and leafminers are probably its principal insect pests. The black carpenter ant (Camponotus pennsylvanicus) commonly reduces the timber value of large trees and often makes them subject to windbreakage. The red carpenter ant (C. ferrugineus) has caused significant damage in Minnesota (2).

    Leafminers are common pests of northern white-cedar. They have caused severe "scorching" of foliage and often subsequent twig, branch, or tree mortality in southeastern Canada (39). Outbreaks of the arborvitae leafminer (Argyresthia thuiella) have severely damaged white-cedar stands in Maine, and damage to ornamentals and nursery seedlings is often severe. Ornamental white-cedars are also subject to serious injury by another leafminer, Coleotechnites thujaella (2).

    Several other insects and related organisms (such as mites) feed on northern white-cedar, but only a few are important. The bagworm (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis), juniper scale (Carulaspis juniperi), and spruce spider mite (Oligonychus ununguis) can significantly damage ornamental white-cedars (39,50). Heavy infestations of the Fletcher scale (Lecanium fletcheri), arborvitae aphid (Cinara tujafilina), and arborvitae weevil (Phyllobius intrusus) have occurred in nurseries (2).

    Northern white-cedar has few serious diseases as a forest tree, especially in immature stands; whereas in cultivation it is subject to several seedling and foliage diseases. Seedlings seem to be resistant to damping-off fungi, however. The foliage-blight fungi Phomopsis juniperovora and Didymascella thujina are among the main organisms causing seedling diseases. Beyond the seedling stage Phomopsis juniperovora blights foliage and shoots under humid conditions, and Didymascella thujina causes some unsightliness. In Quebec a snow-blight fungus (Phacidium sp.) has caused important damage in nurseries and hedges (24).

    Although several root- and butt-rot fungi attack northern white-cedar, they mainly attack old or damaged trees. Because fruiting bodies of these fungi seldom appear on living trees, the most common outward sign of rot is woodpecker holes. Poria subacida, causing a white stringy butt rot, and balsam (or brown) butt rot (Tyromyces balsameus) and red-brown butt rot (Phaeolus schweinitzii), both causing cubical rots, are common in trees on knolls or other drier parts of swamps (16). Balsam butt rot can also cause extensive root rot in suppressed white-cedars (24).

    Winter browsing by white-tailed deer often severely damages older seedling- and sapling-stage northern white-cedar in the Lake States and can prevent the satisfactory reestablishment of the type after harvesting (27), especially in deeryards. In some areas, however, damage from snowshoe hares is as great as, or greater than, from deer (16).

    Porcupines sometimes kill white-cedar trees or lower their growth and timber quality by feeding heavily on foliage and by girdling stems and branches. Red squirrels frequently clip branchlets with flower buds and cone clusters, and thus may significantly reduce the supply of seed available for reproduction (6). Both porcupine and squirrel damage contribute to the prevalence of stag-headedness in old trees (9).

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General Ecology

    Fire Ecology
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: cover, crown fire, density, fire regime, forest, fuel, organic soils, peat, seed

    Northern white cedar is highly susceptible to fire because of thin bark,
    shallow roots, and high oil content [26]. In the understory of a pine,
    aspen, or birch (Betula spp.) forest, northern white-cedar acts as a fuel
    ladder, carrying fire into the overstory [23].

    The risk of fire on most northern white-cedar sites is low, but fires
    occasionally originate on drier sites and spread into northern
    white-cedar stands [34]. Forested peatlands with a moss ground cover
    will not carry spring fires because of a high water table, but forested
    fens with a ground cover of sedges (Carex spp.) and grasses carry fire
    in the spring when the grasses and sedges are dry. Most fires in
    peatlands with a moss ground cover occur in July, August, or September.
    Given sufficient winds, northern white-cedar stands can carry a crown
    fire [22].

    Northern white-cedar reproduces well on moist organic soils exposed by
    fire if a seed source is nearby. Many northern white-cedar forests in
    the Lake States originated after fire [14]. However, if the peat burns
    and the humus is destroyed, northern white-cedar may not become
    established for a long time [34].

    Vogl [47] classifies northern white-cedar as a fire-initiated species in
    which fire simultaneously terminates and initiates a long-lived species.
    Fires are infrequent and usually severe. The longest lived specimens
    occur in locations where fire is infrequent or nonexistent because of
    rocky substrate, sparse ground cover, or low stand density [5].
    Examples of such sites include the lakeshores and islands of Lake
    Duparquet, Quebec [6] and the Niagara Escarpment in Ontario [32].
    Recurring fire may be responsible for the exclusion of northern
    white-cedar from some sites [6].

    FIRE REGIMES :
    Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
    species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
    "Find FIRE REGIMES".
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Fire Management Considerations
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    More info for the terms: cover, prescribed fire

    Prescribed fire is recommended after northern white-cedar harvest unless
    there is ample advance regeneration or if the organic soil is
    unsaturated. Fire removes the heavy slash that prevents regeneration
    and also prepares a favorable seedbed [27,46]. However, deep ground
    fires can start if the soil is not saturated [27].

    If removing slash is the primary objective, prescribed fires are usually
    conducted under the following conditions: 3 to 10 days after a rainfall
    of more than 0.1 inch (0.3 cm), a minimum relative humidity of 30 to 60
    percent, a maximum air temperature of 60 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit (16-32
    deg C), and a maximum wind speed of 5 to 15 miles per hour (8-24 km/h).
    If the objective is to remove slash and prepare a seedbed, the fire must
    be hotter and is usually conducted under the following conditions: at
    least 7 days since a rainfall of more than 0.1 inch (0.3 cm), less than
    45 percent relative humidity, air temperatures greater than or equal to
    80 degrees Fahrenheit (27 deg C), and 5 to 15 miles per hour (8-24 km/h)
    wind speed [27].

    The effect of three different slash treatments on northern white-cedar
    regeneration after winter clearcutting was investigated. The treatments
    were (1) a prescribed broadcast fire in August to burn the slash, (2)
    skidding entire trees out of the study area and delimbing elsewhere, and
    (3) leaving the slash in place. Five growing seasons after
    clearcutting, northern white-cedar less than or equal to 23.6 inches (60
    cm) tall averaged 33.3 stems per miliacre (8.2 stems/sq m) on burned
    plots, and 11.5 and 22.2 stems per miliacre (2.8 and 5.5 stems/sq m) on
    full-tree skidded and slash-left plots, respectively. Ten growing
    seasons after clearcutting, northern white-cedar had increased to 40.2
    stems per miliacre (9.9 stems/sq m) on burned plots but showed no change
    on the other treatment plots [46].

    Northern white-cedar slash is a fire hazard for 20 to 30 years because
    of its resistance to decay [42].

    Prescribed fire can be used to eliminate northern white-cedar that
    invades fens in the absence of fire. A low intensity fall fire (rarely
    exceeding 70 BTU/sec/sq ft) resulted in a statistically significant
    reduction in the percent cover of northern white-cedar for three
    postfire growing seasons. Annual prescribed burning is recommended for
    restoring fens [40,41].
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)
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    More info on this topic.

    More info for the term: phanerophyte

    Phanerophyte
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Immediate Effect of Fire
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    More info for the terms: cover, surface fire

    Northern white-cedar is usually killed by surface fire. Large trees may
    survive if ground cover is sparse.
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Life Form
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    More info for the term: tree

    Tree
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Plant Response to Fire
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    More info for the terms: competition, seed

    Northern white-cedar becomes established by seed on recently burned
    sites if a seed source is nearby and the exposed soil is moist
    [14,34,47]. Fire serves to remove competition and also removes the moss
    layer that dries out in the summer and results in seedling mortality
    [31].
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Post-fire Regeneration
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    More info for the terms: root crown, secondary colonizer

    Tree without adventitious-bud root crown
    Secondary colonizer - off-site seed
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    Reaction to Competition
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    Northern white-cedar is classed as shade tolerant, but it has been placed in three classes: very tolerant, tolerant, and intermediate. This variation probably exists because vegetative reproduction is considered more tolerant than seedlings (9). Northern white-cedar is less tolerant than balsam fir but slightly more tolerant than black spruce. White-cedar can withstand severe suppression for several years, and it responds well to release not only during the reproduction period but at nearly all ages (3,16).

    Response to thinning northern white-cedar depends upon site quality, residual stand density, and stand age. In a well-drained Michigan swamp, a 45-year-old stand with a residual basal area of 15.8 m²/ha (69 ft²/acre) more than doubled its basal area in 8 years following thinning; a similar thinning in a poorly drained swamp showed no beneficial effect (16). In a 65-year-old stand on a medium swamp site in Wisconsin, basal area growth following a second thinning was independent of stand density over a wide range. The growth rate decreased following the second thinning, however, probably because of increasing stand age (14).

    Both even-aged and uneven-aged stands of northern white-cedar are common. Even-aged stands develop in large swamp openings following wildfire or clearcutting (13). In Wisconsin white-cedar often invades speckled alder thickets that form in swamps following wildfire or changes in water level; and it can reproduce directly on burned peat (10). Even-aged stands also develop on abandoned upland fields in Maine (and southeastern Canada)- but apparently only where competition is not severe (9).

    Uneven-aged white-cedar stands are generally associated with the late stages of succession and are found mainly in swamps or on other moist sites (23). They develop where white-cedar reproduces in small openings created by partial cutting or wind damage, especially on poor sites where reproduction is mainly of vegetative origin. Uneven-aged stands also develop where white-cedar gradually succeeds associates- such as balsam poplar, tamarack, and black spruce- that are not as shade tolerant or long-lived (13). However, understory white-cedars sometimes are not much younger than the overstory species; in such cases what appears to have developed through succession may really be due to suppression (23).

    Without major disturbance such as fire, the northern white-cedar type is exceedingly stable because the tree is long-lived and balsam fir is the only important associate sufficiently shade tolerant to grow in dense white-cedar stands (10). Many stands, however, have been either opened by timber harvesting or severely browsed by white-tailed deer. In both cases, succession is often to balsam fir or swamp hardwoods, especially black ash (27).

    In Michigan's Upper Peninsula, northern white-cedar reproduction was most abundant after clearcutting in small blocks and narrow strips, and it should grow best after such cutting because hardwood competition is less than after partial cutting (3). Shelterwood cutting is preferred, however, for the last blocks or strips to ensure adequate natural seeding (27). This method of cutting also provides the partial overstory shade necessary to reproduce white-cedar in areas with frequent hot, dry spells (19).

    Successful deeryard management requires reproducing large, even-aged stands of white-cedar (47). Because deeryard management and timber management are usually inseparable in the white-cedar type, the general recommendation is to produce large patches- 16 to 65 ha (40 to 160 acres)- by harvesting small blocks annually (48), using clearcutting or shelterwood cutting as indicated above. Satisfactory reestablishment of white-cedar after clearcutting, however, often requires some kind of site preparation, particularly broadcast burning of slash (48). Where winter deer densities are high, the entire patch must be completely cleared in 10 years or less to minimize overbrowsing (27); but where they are low, small blocks or narrow strips may be clearcut at 30-year intervals (42).

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    Regeneration Processes
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    More info for the terms: adventitious, layering, organic soils, swamp, tree

    Sexual reproduction: Northern white-cedar begins producing cones as
    young as 6 years of age and begins producing large quantities by age 30.
    The best production occurs after age 75. Good crops occur at 2- to
    5-year intervals with intervening years having fair to medium crops.
    Seeds have lateral wings and are disseminated by wind. Seeds are
    dispersed a distance of 150 to 200 feet (45-60 m) from the source tree
    [13,14,26].

    Germination occurs when daytime temperatures reach about 84 degrees
    Fahrenheit (29 deg C) [21]. Northern white-cedar germinates on a
    variety of substrates including both mineral and organic soils, but
    seedling establishment is limited to sites with a constant moisture
    supply [26]. Drought is a major cause of seedling mortality [14].
    Seedlings that germinate on old stumps are likely to die when the stumps
    dry out in late summer, and seedlings that germinate in fast-growing
    sphagnum moss (Sphagnum spp.) may be smothered [13]. Seedlings prosper
    on recently burned sites [26].

    Seedling growth is slow. Annual height growth averages 3 inches (8 cm)
    in the first few years. Partial light is needed for continued seedling
    growth [26].

    Vegetative reproduction: Under favorable moisture conditions, northern
    white-cedar reproduces vegetatively by layering. Seedlings may
    reproduce by layering at age 5 or earlier. Layering accounts for a
    considerable amount of northern white-cedar reproduction. It is common
    in swamp forests where trees often fall or tip slowly. Trees
    established on logs and stumps may fall as their weight increases and
    the substrate rots [13,14,26].

    Branches on a fallen tree that still has functional roots may begin
    growing vertically. Eventually, with the increased weight of new
    growth, the stem will contact the soil and put out adventitious roots
    [13].
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    Rooting Habit
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    Northern white-cedar seedlings grown in different soil media have shown that as moisture-holding capacity increases, root form changes from a long taproot with few laterals to shorter, thicker roots with many laterals. Root extension is particularly pronounced in rotten wood (9). In Wisconsin, seedlings grown from seed collected in upland stands developed deep root systems in well-drained soils and shallow root systems in saturated soils; their lowland counterparts showed little plasticity in root development (33).

    After the seedling stage northern white-cedar generally develops a shallow, wide-spreading root system; and natural root grafts are fairly common. Because the tree grows on rocky cliffs throughout its range, the root system is apparently well adapted to secure water and nutrients from cracks in rocks (10).

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    Successional Status
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    More info on this topic.

    More info for the terms: climax, seed, succession, swamp, tree

    Although northern white-cedar is generally considered shade tolerant, it
    is not as tolerant as balsam fir or sugar maple (Acer saccharum).
    Seedlings may only be intermediate in shade tolerance [13,26]. They can
    survive severe suppression for several years, but if not released, they
    die [26]. Vegetative shoots are more tolerant than seedlings. Although
    some authors [6,30,31] consider northern white-cedar a climax species
    because of its longevity and shade tolerance, it cannot reproduce by
    seed under dense shade to any marked extent [13].

    Northern white-cedar will invade and form even-aged stands in old
    fields, openings created by windfall or cutting, and recently burned
    swamp sites. It replaces speckled alder thickets that form in swamps
    after fire or after changes in water levels [19,26]. Northern
    white-cedar is a pioneer on limestone cliffs and talus slopes. The
    roots grow in small pockets of organic material between rocks [49].
    Northern white-cedar succeeds less tolerant, shorter lived species such
    as balsam poplar, tamarack (Larix laricina), and black spruce (Picea
    mariana) [26].

    An uneven-aged old-growth northern white-cedar community occurs on the
    Niagara Escarpment in southern Ontario. This self-sustaining population
    occurs in a 3.3 to 16.4-foot (1-5 m) wide strip on the limestone cliff
    edge and face [32]. Uneven-aged stands also form on poor lowland sites
    where vegetative reproduction is the primary mode of reproduction [26].

    Northern white cedar is often succeeded by sugar maple and other more
    shade-tolerant species [1,17]. Replacement is usually tree by tree, but
    major disturbance (excluding fire) can accelerate succession by
    releasing shade-tolerant species [balsam fir, sugar maple, black ash
    (Fraxinus nigra)] growing in the understory [1,19].
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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Cyclicity

    Phenology
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    More info on this topic.

    Flower buds form in autumn and expand the following spring. Pollen is
    dispersed from late April to June. Cones are full grown by mid-August,
    ripen in August and September, and open 7 to 10 days after ripening.
    Seeds germinate the following spring or early summer when sufficiently
    high temperatures occur [26].
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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Reproduction

    Flowering and Fruiting
    provided by Silvics of North America
    Male and female flowers of northern white-cedar, a monoecious species, are usually borne on separate twigs or branchlets; they are tiny, terminal, cone-like bodies. Male flowers are yellowish and arise from branchlets near the base of the shoot; female flowers are pinkish and appear at the tips of short terminal branchlets. Ripe cones are pale cinnamon brown, oblong, and 8 to 13 mm (0.3 to 0.5 in) long.

    In northeastern Minnesota, flower buds, which form during autumn, begin to expand the following spring from about mid-April to early May; pollen dispersal begins from late April to early June (1). In northern Michigan flowering occurs from late April to early May, pollinated conelets begin to grow rapidly in late June, cones are full grown by mid-August, and cones ripen from August to September (16,34,41). The period between cone ripening and cone opening is only from 7 to 10 days.

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    Seed Production and Dissemination
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    Cone production has been induced within 3 months of seed germination using gibberellic acid and a long photoperiod (18). Under normal conditions cones have been found on northern white-cedars as young as 6 years old (9). Seed production in large quantities begins when the trees are about 30 years old but is best after 75 years. An average-sized tree with a fairly full crown can produce about 9 liters (0.25 bu) of cones (16), yielding 60,000 to 260,000 cleaned seeds. Limited data from Michigan indicate that white-cedar trees on upland sites produce more cones per tree, more seeds per cone, and a higher percentage of full seeds than those on swamp sites (6).

    Rangewide, northern white-cedar generally bears good or better seed crops at intervals of 2 to 5 years. However, during a 26-year period (1949-74) in northeastern Wisconsin, such crops were produced every 1 to 3 years, with medium crops to failures in the intervening years. In addition, it was found that good or better white-cedar seed crops can be predicted by similar-sized crops in red maple the preceding spring (20).

    Seed dispersal usually begins in September, although it sometimes begins as early as August. In the northern Lake States cones open from mid-September to late October (1,41). Most of the seeds are released by November, but some seeds continue to fall throughout the winter.

    Northern white-cedar seeds are light chestnut brown, about 6 mm (0.25 in) long, and have lateral wings about as wide as the body; cleaned seeds average 763,000/kg (346,000/lb) (41). Most seed is wind disseminated, with the seeding range estimated to be from 45 to 60 m (150 to 200 ft) under normal conditions (16).

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    Seedling Development
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    Northern white-cedar seeds remain viable for 5 years or more when stored in sealed containers at 6 to 8 percent moisture content and 0° to 3° C (32° to 38° F). As a rule the seeds have only slight internal dormancy. Under forest conditions dormancy is broken while the seeds lie on the ground during the first winter; thus fall sowing is generally recommended (41). Because white-cedar seeds apparently do not remain viable in the forest floor longer than 1 year, such seeds should not be relied on for reproduction after clearcutting or fire (6,17).

    Germination is epigeal, with the cotyledons rising above the ground. The seed seems to germinate best at high temperatures such as 29° C (84° F) (19), so that even though germination normally begins in May or June of the year following seed dispersal, it sometimes does not occur until late July or early August. Alternating day and night temperatures of 30° and 20° C (86° and 68° F), respectively, are recommended for germination tests (41).

    Northern white-cedar seeds germinate readily on a variety of moist substrates, but seedlings become established on only a few. The main requirements for early development seem to be a constant moisture supply and warm temperatures (10,19). Although white-cedar generally grows best on neutral or slightly alkaline soil, seedlings do best on neutral or slightly acid soil but will grow on slightly alkaline soil (16). On cutover white-cedar swamps in Minnesota, seedlings were found only where the pH of the surface soil (upper 10 cm or 4 in) ranged from 6.6 to 7.2 (36).

    On undisturbed areas, seedbeds of decaying (rotten) wood of logs and stumps account for more than 70 percent of the seedlings (10,25). These seedbeds usually are more moist, warmer, and have less litter than other seedbed types (19); they are also commonly dominated by mosses such as Heterophyllium, Pleurozium, and Brotherella (25). Some seedlings become established-but usually much less frequently-on decayed litter, peat or humus, and sphagnum moss.

    On disturbed areas, northern white-cedar seedlings commonly prosper on both upland and swamp burns. Broadcast burning (or wildfire) apparently must be fairly severe, however, to expose favorable, mineral soil seedbeds on uplands or to improve moss seedbeds in swamps (27,48). White-cedar seedlings also reproduce well on skid roads where the compacted moss stays moist (16). A heavy cover of slash hinders seedling establishment, but a light cover is more favorable than none (27,48).

    Northern white-cedar seedlings generally grow slowly under both forest and nursery conditions. Annual height growth averages only about 8 cm (3 in) during the first several years; seedlings can grow this much in 140 days under long photoperiods in growth chambers (18). Stock raised in a nutrient solution and hardened in a nursery was superior to 3-year-old (2-1) nursery transplants (49). In upland plantings transplants averaged 0.9 m (2.9 ft) tall at 9 years of age in the northern Lake States and 2.6 m (8.5 ft) tall at 12 years in Illinois (26,29).

    Although moisture is often the most important factor during the first few years, ample light is needed for continued seedling development. Seedlings were tallest when grown in about half of full light, but their shoots and roots were heaviest in full light (31). In areas with frequent hot, dry spells, partial overstory shade is necessary to reduce losses from drought and herbaceous competition (19).

    Both shoot and radial growth generally begin in May and end by late August or in September in the northern Lake States and New Brunswick (1,16).

    Mortality of northern white-cedar seedlings during their early years is extremely high. Drought is probably the most important cause; seedlings on substrates such as thick moss, stumps, and hummocks often dry out during the summer. Other causes of early loss or damage include smothering by sphagnum moss or logging slash, cutting or girdling by small rodents such as the red-backed vole, and deer browsing (especially on planted stock) (9,16,26,49).

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    Vegetative Reproduction
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    Northern white-cedar can send out roots from any part of a branch or stem if moisture conditions are favorable. Thus it frequently reproduces vegetatively in swamps, especially on poor sites with abundant sphagnum moss. If young seedlings are not considered, many more stems probably originate vegetatively than from seed in most swamps because vegetative reproduction is more tolerant of shade and is never without an adequate root system (9).

    Layering generally accounts for more than half the stems of white-cedar reproduction in northern Michigan and Maine swamps. It is most common in young stands and those with leaning trees, where the lower branches become covered by moss. Seedlings may produce layerings by age 5 or before (16,34).

    New trees also develop vegetatively from uprooted trees whose vertical branches form roots. Sprouts from roots or stumps are generally rare (16). Cuttings are commonly used to propagate cultivars of northern white-cedar; under forest conditions branchlets may be rooted by setting them out in deep sphagnum moss (9).

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Growth

    Growth and Yield
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    Northern white-cedar is a medium-sized tree, commonly 12 to 15 m (40 to 50 ft) tall and 30 to 60 cm (12 to 24 in) in d.b.h. at maturity. Infrequently it reaches 21 to 24 m (70 to 80 ft) tall and 120 to 150 cm (48 to 60 in) in d.b.h. (10). Maximum dimensions reported are more than 30 m (100 ft) in height and 180 cm (72 in) in d.b.h. White-cedar reaches a maximum age of 400 years or more in swamps or on other lowland sites (16).

    The growth rate of northern white-cedar is greatly affected by site productivity and is expressed as site index or the height of dominants at age 50 years. In the Lake States, site index ranges from about 12 m (40 ft) on the best sites to 5 m (15 ft) on the poorest (27). Indications are that the site productivity of white-cedar swamps could be increased substantially by drainage (44). Northern white-cedar generally grows more slowly and attains less height than associated trees, especially in swamps.

    Information on yield of northern white-cedar is limited mainly to normal yield tables for pure, fully stocked, even-aged stands in the Lakes States. Such stands have yields at 120 years as shown in table 1 (27).

    Table 1- Characteristics of fully stocked, even-aged stands of northern white-cedar in the Lakes States (27) Site index at base age 50 years Item 9 m or 30 ft 12 m or 40 ft Height of dominants and codominants, m     15   21 D.b.h., cm¹     23   31 Trees/ha¹ 1112 618 Basal area, m²/ha¹     45   47 Merchantable volume, m³/ha²   244 319 Sawtimber volume (Scribner), m³/ha³   129 279 Height of dominants and codominants, ft     50    69 D.b.h., in¹          8.9       12.4 Trees/acre¹   450  250 Basal area, ft²/acre¹   195  205 Merchantable volume, ft³/acre² 3,480  4,560   Sawtimber volume (Scribner), fbm/acre³ 9,220  19,900     ¹Trees 0.25 cm (0.1 in) and larger in d.b.h.
    ²Peeled volume for trees 13 cm (5.0 in) and larger in d.b.h.
    ³Volume for trees 23 cm (9.0 in) and larger in d.b.h. Northern white-cedar reaches a maximum basal area of about 69 m²/ha (300 ft²/acre) (8). Unfortunately for its value as timber, the tree commonly has a curved butt and poor form, especially in swamps (9).

    Little is known about biomass production, although components of various-sized white-cedars have been analyzed for weight (and nutrient elements) (12). Above-ground biomass in one 70- to 100-year-old white-cedar stand totaled 159 t/ha (71 tons/acre) and had a net annual productivity of about 10 t/ha (4.5 tons/acre) (38).

    Timber rotations for northern white-cedar differ greatly with site productivity and management objective. Rotations for maximizing merchantable cubic volume range from 70 to 90 years for a site index of 12 m (40 ft) and from 80 to 100 years for an index of 9 m (30 ft). Rotations for sawtimber range from 110 to 140 years for a site index of 12 m (40 ft) and from 130 to 160 years for an index of 9 m (30 ft) (27).

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Genetics

    Genetics
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    Population Differences and Races Northern white-cedar is morphologically similar throughout its range, with no races or varieties reported. But a rangewide provenance study indicates that significant genetic variation does exist.

    In the Lake States, provenances from intermediate latitudes generally grew best (26); in Illinois, provenances from south of the species' main range were shortest but a definite geographic pattern was lacking, perhaps because of localized ecotypes (29). In Wisconsin, upland and lowland populations less than 0.7 km (0.4 mi) apart may form separate ecotypes (33), but the extent of differentiation seems to vary from one area to another.

    The existence of more than 120 ornamental cultivars of northern white-cedar, which differ in foliage color and growth habit, also reflects significant genetic variation in natural populations.

    Hybrids No natural or artificial hybrids have been reported (6,33).

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Management

    Management considerations
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    More info for the terms: competition, forest, prescribed fire, tree

    There is interest in regenerating northern white-cedar after harvest
    because of its forage value to white-tailed deer and because of the
    popularity of northern white-cedar log cabins. In the past, forest
    managers have not successfully regenerated this species. Northern
    white-cedar is a slow-growing species, and seedlings are frequently
    damaged by heavy browsing. Many former northern white-cedar stands are
    now dominated by balsam fir (Abies balsamea), spruce (Picea spp.), aspen
    (Populus spp.), or speckled alder (Alnus rugosa) [31].

    A combination of clearcut and shelterwood strips is currently
    recommended for harvesting mature stands of northern white-cedar and
    reproducing new ones, although other possible methods should be
    investigated [27]. If there are less than 10 northern white-cedar
    advance regeneration stems per miliacre (2.5 stems/sq m), a prescribed
    fire after clearcutting is recommended to eliminate heavy slash, set
    back competition, and prepare a seedbed [27,31,46]. See FIRE EFFECTS for
    further details on the influence of fire on regeneration.

    Sapling stands provide the most browse for deer [26]. Overbrowsing can
    retard the growth and even kill a tree if it is less than 7 feet (2.1 m)
    tall [2]. A high browse line is frequently evident on larger trees [9].
    Fifteen to twenty percent annual usage of foliage might maintain a
    constant food supply and still permit a suitable growth rate for
    saplings [2]. Thinning of stands improves deer habitat and timber
    quality [18].

    Northern white-cedar is relatively free of serious insect injury. The
    principal pests are arborvitae leafminer (Argyresthia thuiella) and
    black and red carpenter ants (Camponotus pennsylvanicus and C.
    ferrugineus). Northern white-cedar is affected by few serious diseases
    [26].

    Higher than normal water levels will reduce growth and eventually kill
    trees. Beaver damming and road construction are often responsible for
    impeded drainage [26,27].
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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Benefits

    Cover Value
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    More info for the term: cover

    Stands of northern white-cedar provide thermal cover for white-tailed
    deer, moose, and black bear [4,9,39].
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Importance to Livestock and Wildlife
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    Northern white-cedar provides food and shelter for wildlife.
    White-tailed deer, snowshoe hares, and porcupines heavily browse the
    foliage [26]. Northern white-cedar is one of the best winter browse
    species for white-tailed deer in the northern Lake States, and it is
    often overbrowsed [2]. Moose browse northern white-cedar only when
    other food is scarce. In a study on Isle Royale in Michigan, northern
    white-cedar constituted only 0.7 percent of the moose diet, but 5.8
    percent of the available food [3].

    Pileated woodpeckers feed on carpenter ants that, in turn, nest in and
    feed on the heartwood of northern white-cedar [13]. Other birds that
    are especially abundant in northern white-cedar forests include
    white-throated sparrows, golden-crowned kinglets, yellow-bellied
    flycatchers, ovenbirds, northern parulas, winter wrens, Swainson's
    thrushes, and numerous warblers. Blackburnian warblers, Cape May
    warblers, ovenbirds, and golden-crowned kinglets breed in the densest
    stands [18].
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Nutritional Value
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    Northern white-cedar browse is, on average by wet weight, 2.7 percent
    protein, 5.2 percent fat, 27.5 percent carbohydrates, and 13.9 percent
    crude fiber [44]. It is high in calcium [29]. The browse is considered
    highly nutritious [2] and is more digestible to white-tailed deer than
    bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata) browse [44].
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Other uses and values
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    Northern white-cedar is widely planted as an ornamental. Northern
    white-cedar leaf oil is distilled from boughs and used for perfume and
    medicines. The foliage is rich in vitamin C; Native Americans and early
    European explorers used it to treat scurvy [26].

    Because of its long life span, northern white-cedar is a valuable
    species for dendroclimatic research [5].
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Palatability
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    Northern white-cedar browse is highly palatable to white-tailed deer
    [2].
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Special Uses
    provided by Silvics of North America
    The principal commercial uses of northern white-cedar are for rustic fencing and posts; other important products include cabin logs, lumber, poles, and shingles. Smaller amounts are used for paneling, piling, lagging, pails, potato barrels, tubs, ties, boats (especially canoes), tanks, novelties, and woodenware (28). Recently, white-cedar has been used for making kraft pulp and it appears excellent for particleboard. "Cedar leaf oil" is distilled from boughs and used in medicines and perfumes; boughs are also used in floral arrangements (32).

    The northern white-cedar type is valuable for wildlife habitat, particularly for deeryards during severe winters. The tree is highly preferred by white-tailed deer for both shelter and browse. Sapling stands produce a great amount of deer food (47) and clearcut stands in Michigan yielded almost 6000 kg/ha (5,340 lb/acre) of browse from tops (16). White-cedar is also utilized by such mammals as the snowshoe hare, porcupine, and red squirrel. Its browse is generally rated as highly preferred by hares (5,30) and is sometimes heavily utilized (6). Birds common in white-cedar stands during the summer include several warblers (northern parula, black-throated green, blackburnian, black-and-white, and magnolia), white-throated sparrows, and kinglets (9,11). The pileated woodpecker commonly excavates cavities in mature white-cedars to feed upon carpenter ants.

    Northern white-cedar forms an attractive fringe around some lakes and peatlands. Stands with high basal area, large trees, and little undergrowth are especially attractive (35). The tree's unusual bark and foliage patterns are esthetically appealing to many forest users (27).

    Northern white-cedar is widely used for ornamental plantings in the United States (24), is now common in Newfoundland, and has been grown in Europe since the 16th century. White-cedar is particularly useful for barrier and shelter plantings (29), and it is one of the few conifers recommended for power line rights-of-way (43).

    Northern white-cedar has limited value as a watershed protector because it usually grows on gently sloping terrain. Although harvesting of white-cedar is presently on a small scale, clearcutting on peatland sites has little effect on annual water yields or water tables. Nutrient concentrations in streamflow or temperatures in trout streams should not increase significantly unless harvesting is on a massive scale (27,35).

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    Wood Products Value
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    The wood of northern white-cedar is resistant to decay. It is used for
    products that come in contact with water and soil, such as fence posts,
    shingles, paneling, and boats [25,26]. Northern white-cedar logs are
    especially popular to use for log cabins because the wood has good
    insulating qualities [31]. It is also used for kraft pulp and particle
    board [26].
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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Taxonomy

    Common Names
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    northern white-cedar
    northern whitecedar
    white-cedar
    white cedar
    eastern white-cedar
    eastern arborvitae
    arborvitae
    arbor vitae
    swamp-cedar
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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    Taxonomy
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    The currently accepted scientific name for northern white-cedar is Thuja
    occidentalis L. [33].
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    Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
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