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Siberian Pine

Pinus sibirica Du Tour

Comments

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A vulnerable species in China. Plants named as Pinus hingganensis represent the E limits of P. sibirica; they are considerably disjunct from the main distribution center, and grow at lower elevations (800-1300 m), but are nevertheless indistinguishable from P. sibirica.

The timber is used for construction and furniture.

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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
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Flora of China @ eFloras.org
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Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
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eFloras.org
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Description

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Trees to 35 m tall; trunk to 1.8 m d.b.h.; bark pale brown or gray-brown; branchlets yellow or brownish yellow, thick, densely pale yellow pubescent; winter buds red-brown, conical. Needles 5 per bundle, slightly curved, almost triangular in cross section, 6-11 cm × 0.5-1.7 mm, stiff, stomatal lines 3-5 along each abaxial surface, gray-white, vascular bundle 1, resin canals 3, median, base with sheath shed, margin serrulate. Seed cones erect, conical-ovoid, 5-8 × 3-5.5 cm, indehiscent or slightly dehiscent at maturity. Seed scales widely cuneate proximally, thickened distally; apophyses purple-brown, broadly rhombic or broadly triangular-semiorbicular, densely pilose; umbo yellow-brown, obvious. Seeds yellow-brown, obovoid, ca. 10 × 5-6 mm, slightly ridged, wingless. Pollination Apr, seed maturity Sep-Oct of 2nd year.
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Distribution

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Heilongjiang (Tuqiang), Nei Mongol, Xinjiang [Kazakhstan, Mongolia, E Russia]
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cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
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eFloras

Habitat

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Mountains, river basins; 800-2400 m.
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Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
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eFloras

Synonym

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Pinus cembra Linnaeus subsp. sibirica (Du Tour) Krylov; P. cembra var. sibirica (Du Tour) G. Don; P. hingganensis H. J. Zhang; P. sibirica var. hingganensis (H. J. Zhang) Silba.
license
cc-by-nc-sa-3.0
copyright
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA
bibliographic citation
Flora of China Vol. 4: 22 in eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed Nov 12, 2008.
source
Flora of China @ eFloras.org
editor
Wu Zhengyi, Peter H. Raven & Hong Deyuan
project
eFloras.org
original
visit source
partner site
eFloras

Pinus sibirica

provided by wikipedia EN

Pinus sibirica, or Siberian pine, in the family Pinaceae is a species of pine tree that occurs in Siberia from 58°E in the Ural Mountains east to 126°E in the Stanovoy Range in southern Sakha Republic, and from Igarka at 68°N in the lower Yenisei valley, south to 45°N in central Mongolia.

Distribution

In the north of its range, it grows at low altitudes, typically 100–200 m, whereas further south, it is a mountain tree, growing at 1,000-2,400 m altitude. It often reaches the alpine tree line in this area. The mature size is up to 30–40 m height, and 1.5 m trunk diameter. Its maximum lifetime is 800–850 years.

Description

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Flowering pine cones

Pinus sibirica is a member of the white pine group, Pinus subgenus Strobus, and like all members of that group, the leaves ('needles') are in fascicles (bundles) of five, with a deciduous sheath. They are 5–10 cm long. Siberian pine cones are 5–9 cm long. The 9–12 mm long seeds have only a vestigial wing and are dispersed by spotted nutcrackers.

Siberian pine is treated as a variety or subspecies of the very similar Swiss pine (Pinus cembra) by some botanists. It differs in having slightly larger cones, and needles with three resin canals instead of two in Swiss pine.

Like other European and Asian white pines, Siberian pine is very resistant to white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). This fungal disease was accidentally introduced from Europe into North America, where it has caused severe mortality in the American native white pines in many areas, notably the closely related whitebark pine. Siberian pine is of great value for research into hybridisation and genetic modification to develop rust resistance in these species.

Cultivation

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Young trees growing in a park

Siberian pine, Pinus sibirica, is a popular ornamental tree in parks and large gardens where the climate is cold, such as central Canada, giving steady though not fast growth on a wide range of sites. It is very tolerant of severe winter cold, hardy down to at least –60 °C, and also of wind exposure.

The seeds are also harvested and sold as pine nuts, which in Russia are marketed as Cedar nuts (Russian: Кедровые орехи).

"Siberian cedar"

The Russian name Сибирский кедр (tr. Sibirsky kedr)[3] is usually translated in English as “Siberian cedar.” References to “cedar” or "dwarf cedar" in texts translated from Russian usually refer to this tree or related pines, not to true cedars.

Chemistry

Pinostilbene is a stilbenoid found, along with resveratrol, in the bark of P. sibirica.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ Farjon, A. (2013). "Pinus sibirica". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2013: e.T42415A2978539. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T42415A2978539.en. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  2. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species".
  3. ^ "Кедровая сосна" [Cedar pine]. Great Russian Encyclopedia (in Russian). Volume 13. Moscow. 2009. p. 783. ISBN 978-5-85270-344-6. Retrieved 2018-01-16. |volume= has extra text (help)
  4. ^ Hydroxystilbenes from the bark of Pinus sibirica. N. A. Tyukavkina, A. S. Gromova, V. I. Lutskii and V. K. Voronov, Chemistry of Natural Compounds, September 1972, Volume 8, Issue 5, pages 570-572, doi:10.1007/BF00564298

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Pinus sibirica: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

Pinus sibirica, or Siberian pine, in the family Pinaceae is a species of pine tree that occurs in Siberia from 58°E in the Ural Mountains east to 126°E in the Stanovoy Range in southern Sakha Republic, and from Igarka at 68°N in the lower Yenisei valley, south to 45°N in central Mongolia.

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