Xylotrupes gideon

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The brown rhinoceros beetle, Xylotrupes gideon, is a species of large scarab beetle belonging to the subfamily Dynastinae.[1][2]

Subspecies

Seven subspecies have been identified.[3][4]

  • Xylotrupes gideon australicus[5]
  • Xylotrupes gideon borneensis Minck, 1920
  • Xylotrupes gideon gideon (Linnaeus, 1767)
  • Xylotrupes gideon kaszabi[6]
  • Xylotrupes gideon lakorensis Silvestre, 2002
  • Xylotrupes gideon sawuensis Silvestre, 2002
  • Xylotrupes gideon sondaicus Silvestre, 2002

Distribution

This species is widespread in India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Indonesia: Java (nominotypical form), Borneo (borneensis), Sunda Islands and Moluccas.

Description

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Xylotrupes gideon, male and females. Museum specimen

Xylotrupes gideon can reach a length of 3.5–7 centimetres (1.4–2.8 in).[7] As usual with rhinoceros beetles there is a great difference between the genders. Males are larger than females. They have two chitinous bifurcated horns, a thick thoracic horn and a smaller cephalic horn, which they use to eliminate their rivals during the mating period.[7] These beetles are shiny dark red, dark brown, or black in coloration. The eyes are located on each side of the head. When disturbed these beetles make a hissing noise, produced by rubbing the tip of the abdomen against the edge the elytra.[8][9]

Males with transverse, scantily punctured head; clypeus elongate, scantily and minutely punctured. Antenna with 10 segments. Pronotum and scutellum scantily and minutely punctured. Elytra and pygidium coriaceous, finely and scantily punctured. Dorsum of female is rugose, with coarsely and densely punctured pronotum. Pygidium finely rugose.[1][10]

Biology

One source gives the average duration of the different developmental stages; females lay about 55 eggs at one time in decaying logs; eggs mature in 21 days, where the larvae hatch from decaying coconut logs; the total larval period is 188 days, followed by 14 days of prepupal and 32 days of pupal periods; adult females are live about 102 days, whereas adult males survive 90 days.[11] Other sources indicate that the larvae develop in decaying vegetable matter and usually take two years in development, the adult beetles live 2–4 months. A female can lay about 20-30 eggs but it depends on the place where they live.[12]

This species is considered as a serious pest on coconut and also a minor pest on plum, okra,[13] oil palm, sugarcane, Persea bombycina,[14] rubber, banana, bamboo, Delonix regia, Cacao tree,[15] poinciana, cassia, litchi, potato,[16] apple and pear.[17]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Taxonomic account of Dynastinae fauna (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) of Buxa Tiger Reserve (West Bengal, India)" (PDF). Romanian Journal of Biology-Zoology, 2014. Retrieved 2021-07-18.
  2. ^ Huxley, Julian S. (1927-03-01). "Studies on heterogonic growth. (IV) the bimodal cephalic horn ofXylotrupes gideon". Journal of Genetics. pp. 45–53. doi:10.1007/BF03052600. Retrieved 2021-07-19.
  3. ^ Biolib
  4. ^ Catalogue of life
  5. ^ Allsopp, P. G. (1991). "Morphological variation in adult Xylotrupes gideon australicus (Scarabaeidae, Coleoptera, Insecta)". Journal of Morphology. pp. 53–58. doi:10.1002/jmor.1052070107. Retrieved 2021-07-19.
  6. ^ "Biological characteristics and artificial culture of Xylotrupes gideon kaszabi". www.cabdirect.org. Retrieved 2021-07-19.
  7. ^ a b Natural World
  8. ^ "Xylotrupes gideon (Rhinoceros beetle) - JCU". Retrieved 2009-08-29.
  9. ^ Komariah, Ade; Tatara, Roberto A.; Bustami, Del A. (2017-02-01). "Efficacy of Rhinoceros Beetle (Xylotrupes Gideon) Nano Chitosan and Calcium Mouthwash in Reducing Quantity Oral Cavity Bacteria among Elementary School Age Children". International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research. pp. 41–47. doi:10.26655/ijabbr.2017.1.6. Retrieved 2021-07-19.
  10. ^ Geisler, T. (2012). "Analysis of the structure and mechanism of wing folding and flexion in Xylotrupes gideon beetle (L. 1767) (Coloptera, Scarabaeidae)". Acta Mechanica et Automatica. pp. 37–44. Retrieved 2021-07-19.
  11. ^ Bedford, G. O. (1975). "Observations on the biology of Xylotrupes gideon (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) in Melanesia". Australian Journal of Entomology. pp. 213–216. doi:10.1111/j.1440-6055.1975.tb02028.x. Retrieved 2021-07-19.
  12. ^ Brisbane Insects
  13. ^ "A new record of Xylotrupes gideon (L.) on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.])". www.cabdirect.org. Retrieved 2021-07-19.
  14. ^ "A new record of Xylotrupes gideon (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on Persia bombycina, Kost. from India". www.cabdirect.org. Retrieved 2021-07-19.
  15. ^ "New report of Xylotrupes gideon (Linnaeus)(Col.: Scarabaeidae) on som, Persea bombycina Kost, a food plant of muga silkworm, Antheraea assamensis" (PDF). Munis Entomology & Zoology, 2011. Retrieved 2021-07-18.
  16. ^ "A new record of Xylotrupes gideon (Linnaeus)(Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on Persea bombycina, Kost. from India" (PDF). Mun. Ent. Zool. Vol. 6, No. 1, January 2011. Retrieved 2021-07-18.
  17. ^ Wongdao, Sirinthip; Black, Robert (1987-01-01). "Xylotrupes gideon eating bark of apple and pear trees in Northern Thailand". Tropical Pest Management. pp. 236–236. doi:10.1080/09670878709371159. Retrieved 2021-07-19.

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Xylotrupes gideon: Brief Summary

provided by wikipedia EN

The brown rhinoceros beetle, Xylotrupes gideon, is a species of large scarab beetle belonging to the subfamily Dynastinae.

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cc-by-sa-3.0
copyright
Wikipedia authors and editors
original
visit source
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