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Brief Summary

    Leptodactylus podicipinus: Brief Summary
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    Leptodactylus podicipinus (common name: pointedbelly frog) is a species of frog in the family Leptodactylidae. It is found in northern Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia, and Brazil.

    Leptodactylus podicipinus live in grasslands and open habitats, often near ponds and flooded areas. They are common in suitable habitats. Eggs are laid in foam nests at the edges of permanent or temporary ponds and flooded areas.

    Male Leptodactylus podicipinus grow to a snout–vent length of 24 and 43 mm (0.94 and 1.69 in) and females to 30 and 54 mm (1.2 and 2.1 in).

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    Brief Summary
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    The pointedbelly frog, Leptodactylus podicipinus, is a medium-sized South American leptodactylid frog, brownish in color dorsally, with a darker underside speckled with white spots. Females range in snout-vent length between 30-54 mm whereas males are smaller, 24-43 mm.Tadpoles grow to 28 mm long, and have dark brown coloration, sometimes with white tail flecks (Heyer et al. 2004; Heyer 1994).

    Part of the 13-species L. podicipinus-wagneri species complex in the L. melanotus group, L. podicipinus is widely distributed with the most southern distribution of the species in this group.L. podicipinus is known from open formations of Paraguay, Northern Uruguay, Northern Argentina and Bolivia.It also inhabits the Amazon basin of central Brazil, but only along the river Madiera to the river Amazonas, and east along the river Amazonas; Heyer suggests that this distribution indicates a recent invasion of the species to Amazonia.Heyer (1994) also reported a distinct isolated population in Igarapé Belém, Amazonas, Brazil (although his map indicates that perhaps this population is in western Brazil, on the Amazonas river near the border of Columbia and Peru), but he rejects this as a true locality for this species, suggesting instead that the frogs collected here were confused with collections from another site (Heyer et al. 2004; Heyer 1994).

    Pointedbelly frogs live only in open habitats - grasslands and disturbed areas at altitudes up to 550 m (3800 feet) asl and are adaptable to urban areas. Adult frogs are nocturnal, sit and wait generalist predators that eat a wide range of prey (Rodrigues et al. 2004).Males create small protective basins on the edge of temporary or permanent ponds, a strategy thought effective against aquatic predators. These basins fill with water from the adjacent water source and protected by a roof of leaves and brush above their hole, the males then call from within.Females then lay pink eggs into a foam nest in the depression, and attend the eggs and tadpoles until metamorphosis.In later stages tadpoles migrate out into the quiet pond waters (Prado et al. 2002).

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    Brief Summary
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    Diagnosis A medium size frog (females 30-54 mm SVL, males 24-43 mm snout vent length) with dorsolateral folds rarely long and never well developed; yellowish glandular patches on sides and groin; have small, distinct, light belly spots; ventral and posterior thigh patterns merge; posterior thighs are mottled with no indication of light stripes and have either narrow or just-swollen toe tips. Brownish above, belly dark gray scattered with white spots.
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Comprehensive Description

    Leptodactylus podicipinus
    provided by wikipedia

    Leptodactylus podicipinus (common name: pointedbelly frog) is a species of frog in the family Leptodactylidae. It is found in northern Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia, and Brazil.[2]

    Leptodactylus podicipinus live in grasslands and open habitats, often near ponds and flooded areas. They are common in suitable habitats. Eggs are laid in foam nests at the edges of permanent or temporary ponds and flooded areas.[1]

    Male Leptodactylus podicipinus grow to a snout–vent length of 24 and 43 mm (0.94 and 1.69 in) and females to 30 and 54 mm (1.2 and 2.1 in).[3]

    Description

    Leptodactylus podicipinus is a medium-sized member of its genus, with females having a snout-to-vent length between 30 and 54 mm (1.2 and 2.1 in) and males between 24 and 43 mm (0.94 and 1.69 in). The dorsolateral folds are short and poorly developed, and there are yellowish glandular parches on the flanks and in the groin. The dorsal surface is brown and the underparts are dark grey, usually spotted or mottled with white; this patterning merges into mottling on the back of the thigh. The tips of the toes are either straight or are slightly bulbous. The tadpoles grow to a total length of about 28 mm (1.1 in) and are brown, sometimes with white speckles on the tail.[3][4]

    Distribution and habitat

    Leptodactylus podicipinus is found in the northern half of South America. Its range extends from central and western Brazil southward to northern and eastern Bolivia, Paraguay, northeastern Argentina and northern Uruguay. It typically inhabits open areas near rivers which experience seasonal flooding, moist grassland and the vicinity of ponds. It occurs at altitudes of up to 1,000 m (3,300 ft).[1]

    Ecology

    Like other members of the genus, Leptodactylus podicipinus has a strong skull and legs adapted for digging; the male uses both its snout and legs when digging. Another characteristic it shares is the creation by the male of a foam nest for the eggs. Among populations in the Pantanal of Brazil, males have been observed finding or digging depressions in the ground close to the edge of ponds, rather than in the larger bodies of water, the foam nests being then made in these small, water-filed basins.[5] Other populations elsewhere in its range have not been observed engaging in this behaviour, which is an intermediate stage between the subterranean nests of the Leptodactylus fuscus group of species, and the floating nests of other less-derived species.[5]

    Status

    In most of its wide range, Leptodactylus podicipinus is a common frog. It does not appear to have any specific threats and is adaptable, living in areas disturbed by man including urban areas of northern Argentina. It also occurs in a number of preserved areas. For all these reasons, the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed its conservation status as being of "least concern".[1]

    References

    1. ^ a b c d Heyer, R.; Reichle, S.; Silvano, D.; Azevedo-Ramos, C.; Baldo, D & Gascon, C. (2004). "Leptodactylus podicipinus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T57157A11577393. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T57157A11577393.en. Retrieved 11 January 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Leptodactylus podicipinus (Cope, 1862)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
    3. ^ a b Heyer, W. R. (1994). "Variation within the Leptodactylus podicipinus–wagneri complex of frogs (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae)" (PDF). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 546: 1–124. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.546.i.
    4. ^ Campbell, Dana. "Leptodactylus podicipinus". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
    5. ^ a b Ponssa, María Laura; Brusquetti, Francisco; Souza, Franco L. (2011). "Osteology and Intraspecific Variation of Leptodactylus podicipinus (Anura: Leptodactylidae), with Comments on the Relationship between Osteology and Reproductive Modes". Journal of Herpetology. 45 (1): 79–93. doi:10.1670/09-190.1. JSTOR 41415249.
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Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by IABIN
    In open formations of Paraguay, adjacent Argentina, Bolivia, north of Uruguay, central Brazil, and extending along the Rio Madiera and Rio Amazonas within the Amazon basin, with a problematical outliner from Igarapé Belém, Amazonas, Brasil; with a known altitudinal range up to 550 m.
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Diagnostic Description

    Diagnostic Description
    provided by IABIN
    Adult morphology A medium size frog, males smaller than females. Head ogival, slightly larger than wide. Snout rounded, the upper jaw slightly projecting beyond the lower. Somewhat protruding nose; nostrils superolateral, very close to the tip of snout. Internarinal interval equal to the interocular distance, which is subequal to the width of upper eyelid. Canthus rostralis rounded; loreal region slightly concave, ineeting with a very obtuse angle the upper lip. Eyes prominent, laterally located. Maxillar teeth developed; vomerine teeth in two heavy patches between and behind the choanae. Tongue cordifom, notched posteriorly. Tympanum round, distinct, more than 2/3 of the eye diameter. A moderate tympanic fold, reaching the axilla. Fingers free bur distinctly fringed. Rate of the finger lengths: IV-II-I-III. Metacarpal and subarticular tubercles moderate: a crescentic pad at the base of thumb. Two acuminate black horny spines on the first finger of males. Toes webbed at the base and widely fringed. Metatarsal tubercles moderate and blunt; conical subarticular tubercles of toes prominent. Tarsal fold large and distinct. Skin pustular and warty, mostly on the back and hindlegs; yellowish ventro-lateral glandular patches and larger glands on the posterior region of the femur. Belly smooth; lower posterior surface of thighs coarsely granular. A male vocal sac present. Dorsally dark brown, with dilute spots: a triangular, light-edged dark interocular spot. Ventrally dark olive-brown, closelv scettared with round uncolored dots, also evident on the sides. Larval morphology The body is oval and slender wider in the region of the spiracle. The tail length is twice the length of the body, its high transparent fins ending in the acuminate tip. The anal tube is opening medially. The nostrils are located at about the same distance between eye and tip of snout, round and sloping. Dorsally is dark brown, with metallic blendings; ventrally light, Rows of the lateral line system are remarkably evident. The mouth, encircled by close papillae. The tooth rows formula is usually 2(1)/3.
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Conservation Status

    Conservation Status
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    LC. Least Concern.
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