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Brief Summary

Comprehensive Description

    Description
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    Greenhouse frogs have a pointed nose (Carmichael and Williams 1991). The vomerine teeth, behind the internal nares, are in transverse series. Toepads are truncated, and the toes are long and slender with strongly developed tubercles at the joints and terminal discs. There is no webbing between the toes (Wright and Wright 1949; Behler 1979; Dundee and Rossman 1989; Conant and Collins 1991). This frog is generally brown with a red tone. The snout tip is red and there is usually a black interorbital blotch (Dundee and Rossman 1989). The legs are banded with brown colors. The eyes are red and the belly or ventral surface is white. There are two color morphs, a striped morph with longitudinal light stripes, and a mottled morph with irregular dark and light markings (Behler 1979; Ashton and Ashton 1988; Dundee and Rossman 1989; Conant and Collins 1991).

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    Greenhouse frog
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    The greenhouse frog, Eleutherodactylus planirostris, is a species of frog in the family Eleutherodactylidae, native to Cuba, the Bahamas, and the Cayman Islands, and it has been introduced to other areas, such as Florida, Hawaii, Guam and Shenzhen, China.[1][2]

    Description

    The greenhouse frog is a very small species, ranging from 17 to 31 mm (0.67 to 1.22 in) in length. These frogs are usually drab or olive-brown in colour, and occur in two forms; one has two broad stripes running longitudinally down the back, and the other is mottled. The undersides of both are a paler colour than the back, and the eyes are red.[3]

    Distribution and habitat

    The greenhouse frog is native to Cuba and some other islands in the West Indies. It has been introduced to Hawaii and Florida, where it has become common. It has been sporadically found in southern Georgia, southern Alabama and eastern Louisiana.[4] It is an introduced species in Jamaica , Guam and Shenzhen, China.[1] It lives in moist leaf litter, often near human habitations, but is seldom seen because it is nocturnal.[3] It sometimes emerges on warm, rainy days in summer, and in Florida, it has been found hibernating in March under the flaking bark of a wild tamarind (Lysiloma) tree.[4]

    Diet

    The diet of the greenhouse frog consists of small invertebrates, such as ants, beetles, mites, spiders, and roaches.[4]

    Reproduction

    The greenhouse frog is unusual in that its eggs are not laid in water or in a frothy mass as is the case in some tree frogs. Instead, the eggs are enclosed in a thick membrane and laid singly in concealed, damp locations, such as beneath a log, buried in debris, or even under a flower pot.[4] Clutch sizes vary between three and 26 eggs in Florida. They pass through their tadpole stage while still in the egg, and emerge as fully developed juvenile frogs about 5 mm (0.20 in) long with a short tail that soon gets reabsorbed. In warm conditions, hatching may occur on the 13th day of development. The tadpoles have an "egg tooth" on the end of their snouts to help them to emerge from the egg case. Afterwards, this is no longer of use, so is shed.[3] The adult frog may provide some parental care by guarding the eggs, as frogs have been observed lurking in the vicinity of egg clumps.[5]

    References

    1. ^ a b Hedges, B., et al. 2004. Eleutherodactylus planirostris. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. Downloaded on 21 July 2013.
    2. ^ Wostl, Elijah, Eric N. Smith, and Robert N. Reed. 2016. Origin and Identity of Fejervarya (Anura: Dicroglossidae) on Guam. Pacific Science 70(2):233-241. https://doi.org/10.2984/70.2.9
    3. ^ a b c Badger, David (1995). Frog. Shrewsbury: Swan Hill Press. p. 112. ISBN 1853107409..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    4. ^ a b c d "Eleutherodactylus planirostris". AmphibiaWeb. 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-25.
    5. ^ Porter, G. (1967). The World of the Frog and the Toad. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. ISBN 0397005091.
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Distribution

    Distribution and Habitat
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    Greenhouse frogs are native to Cuba, Isla de Pinos, the Cayman Islands including Grand Cayman and Cayman Brac, and the Bahama islands including Grand Bahama, Great Abaco, New Providence, Eleuthera, Andros, the Berry Islands, the Bimini Islands, the Exuma Cays, Green Cay, Cat, Long, and San Salvador (Schwartz 1974). Greenhouse frogs have been introduced in Florida, Louisiana near New Orleans (Dundee and Rossman 1989; Conant and Collins 1991), Georgia (Winn et al. 1999), Hawaii (Kraus et al. 1999), Guam (Christy et al. 2007), Jamaica (Pough et al. 1977), and Honduras (McCranie et al. 2008). There are also records from the Mexican mainland (Veracruz), although this species has not been seen there since the 1970s (Schwartz 1974; Hedges et al. 2004). The altitudinal range is from sea level to 727 m asl (Hedges et al. 2004).

    These frogs can be found in a variety of terrestrial habitats, including forests, caves, gardens, and urban areas. On Grand Cayman it inhabits arboreal bromeliads (Hedges et al. 2004).

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Trends

    Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
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    This frog is a direct-developing species, meaning eggs hatch directly into subadult fully terrestrial frogs. The free-swimming larval stage common in many frogs is completely absent. E. planirostris is generally terrestrial but individuals on Grand Cayman Island have been found in arboreal bromeliads (Hedges et al. 2004).

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Threats

    Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
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    This is an adaptable species that is common in many different types of habitat and is not currently under threat (Hedges et al. 2004). Although it has been thought that E. planirostris was introduced into Florida around 1875 (Dundee and Rossman 1989), subsequent phylogenetic analysis has revealed that a single dispersal probably occurred from western Cuba (Matanzas) to the Florida Keys between 70-400,000 years ago (Heinicke et al. 2011). Today E. planirostris can be found throughout most of Florida (Wilson and Porras 1983; Smith and Kohler 1987; Ashton and Ashton 1988; Conant and Collins 1991).

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