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Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott

Brief Summary

    Polygonatum biflorum: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Polygonatum biflorum (smooth Solomon's-seal, great Solomon's-seal, Solomon's seal). The plant is said to possess scars on the rhizome that resemble the ancient Hebrew seal of King Solomon. This is a species of the genus Polygonatum native to eastern and central North America. It is often confused with Solomon's plume which has upright flowers.

Comprehensive Description

    Polygonatum biflorum
    provided by wikipedia

    Polygonatum biflorum (smooth Solomon's-seal, great Solomon's-seal, Solomon's seal). The plant is said to possess scars on the rhizome that resemble the ancient Hebrew seal of King Solomon. This is a species of the genus Polygonatum native to eastern and central North America.[2] It is often confused with Solomon's plume which has upright flowers.

    Description

    Unbranched leaf stalks of one to several feet in length, with simple, alternate leaves and parallel veins. In May, clusters of small white-green flowers droop from the stalks and later produce small blue berries. If dug up, the scars resembling Solomon's Seal may be visible on the nodes between sections of rhizomes.

    Taxonomy

    Polygonatum is derived from Greek, poly meaning many, and gony meaning knees; biflorum is from Latin biflorus meaning two flowers.

    P. biflorum is now regarded as including a number of other species and varieties, e.g. P. biflorum var. commutatum or P. commutatum.

    Uses

    Historically, the Native Americans consumed the starch-rich rhizomes of smooth Solomon's-seal as a "potato-like food" used to make breads and soups. The young shoots are also edible, raw or boiled for an asparagus-like food.[3] Smooth Solomon's-seal was also used in herbal medicine. For example, the rhizome was used in making a tonic for gout and rheumatism.[4] Smooth Solomon's-seal has had nearly a dozen uses in herbal medicine including as an anti-inflammatory, sedative, and tonic.[5] Smooth Solomon's-seal is not used in large-scale agriculture.

    References

    1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 17 May 2015..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ Flora of North American. 26. pp. 211–211.
    3. ^ Eric Toensmeier (December 13, 2009). "Polygonatum biflorum var. commutatum – giant Solomon's seal". Retrieved July 28, 2013.
    4. ^ Bausor, S. C. (1937). "Medicinal Plants of Our Local Flora". Torreya. 373 (3): 45. JSTOR 40597114.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
    5. ^ Duke, J. A. (2002). Handbook of medicinal herbs (2nd ed., pp. 25-26). Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Man., Ont., Que., Sask.; Ala., Ariz., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.; ne Mexico.

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    As a polyploid complex, Polygonatum biflorum is variable as to plant size, flower number, and ecology. Tetraploids, which have been recognized as var. commutatum, are usually larger and coarser than diploids, var. biflorum, with more flowers per peduncle and more major veins per leaf. They have also been called P. commutatum, P. giganteum, and P. canaliculatum (Mühlenberg) Pursh (misapplied). Some diploids, however, are fully as large as any tetraploids. Range-wide separation of species has been problematic (R. P. Ownbey 1944; E. G. Voss 1972–1985; J. A. Steyermark 1963; G. Yatskievych 1999+), while local distinction may be possible (M. L. Fernald 1944b; M. W. Richardson and D. Ugent 1974). Detailed molecular and enzymatic analysis at the population level is needed range-wide, in conjunction with karyological and morphological study. Local populations of Polygonatum biflorum with honey-yellow flowers from southeastern Michigan and adjacent Ontario (E. G. Voss 1972–1985; R. P. Ownbey 1944) have been recognized as var. melleum. Disjunct populations in the trans-Pecos Texas and the mountains of Arizona and New Mexico have been called P. cobrense.
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Rhizomes deeply set, 1–3 cm thick. Stems erect to arching, 5–20 dm; sheathing bract usually absent. Leaves sessile to clasping, (5–)9–20(–25) × 3–9(–13) cm; blade narrowly lanceolate to broadly elliptic, glabrous; prominent veins 1–19. Inflorescences in most leaf axils except distal 2–3 and proximal 2–7; peduncle flattened, not strongly reflexed, axillary 2–10(–15)-flowered, 6–9 cm in fruit. Flowers: perianth whitish to greenish yellow, tube (13–)17–22 mm, distinct tips gently spreading, 4–6.5 mm; stamens inserted near middle of perianth tube; filaments glabrous, sometimes minutely warty; pedicel 1–4 cm in fruit. Berries 8–12 mm. 2n = 20, 40.

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Convallaria biflora Walter, Fl. Carol., 122. 1788; Polygonatum biflorum var. commutatum (Schultes f.) Morong; P. biflorum var. melleum (Farwell) R. P. Ownbey; P. cobrense (Wooton & Standley) R. R. Gates; P. commutatum (Schultes f.) A. Dietrich; P. giganteum A. Dietrich; P. melleum Farwell

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Dry to moist deciduous woods, in sandy soil, roadsides, railway embankments, old fields; 0--3000m.

Cyclicity

    Flowering/Fruiting
    provided by eFloras
    Flowering early--late spring.