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Pinus quadrifolia Parl. ex Sudw.

Brief Summary

    Pinus quadrifolia: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Pinus quadrifolia, the Parry pinyon, is a pine in the pinyon pine group native to southernmost California in the United States and northern Baja California in Mexico, from 33° 30' N south to 30° 30' N. It occurs at moderate altitudes from 1,300 metres (4,300 ft) to 1,800 metres (5,900 ft), rarely as low as 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) and as high as 2,500 metres (8,200 ft). It is scarce and often scattered in this region, forming open woodlands, usually mixed with junipers. Other common names include nut pine and fourleaf pinyon pine.

Comprehensive Description

    Pinus quadrifolia
    provided by wikipedia

    Pinus quadrifolia, the Parry pinyon, is a pine in the pinyon pine group native to southernmost California in the United States and northern Baja California in Mexico, from 33° 30' N south to 30° 30' N.[5] It occurs at moderate altitudes from 1,300 metres (4,300 ft) to 1,800 metres (5,900 ft), rarely as low as 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) and as high as 2,500 metres (8,200 ft). It is scarce and often scattered in this region, forming open woodlands, usually mixed with junipers. Other common names include nut pine[1] and fourleaf pinyon pine.[4]

    Description

    Pinus quadrifolia is a small to medium size tree, reaching 8 to 15 m (26 to 49 ft) tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 40 cm (16 in), rarely more. The bark is thick, rough and scaly. The leaves (needles) are in fascicles of 4–5, moderately stout, 2.5–5.5 cm (1–2 18 in) long; glossy dark green with no stomata on the outer face, and a dense bright white band of stomata on the inner surfaces. The cones are globose, 4–5.5 cm (1 582 18 in) long and broad when closed, green at first, ripening yellow to orange-buff when 18–20 months old, with only a small number of thick scales, with typically 5–10 fertile scales.

    The cones open to 5 to 7 cm (2 to 2 34 in) broad when mature, holding the seeds on the scales after opening. The seeds are 10–14 mm (1332916 in) long, with a thin shell, a white endosperm, and a vestigial 1–2 mm (132332 in) wing; they are dispersed by the pinyon jay, which plucks the seeds out of the open cones. The jay, which uses the seeds as a food resource, stores many of the seeds for later use, and some of these stored seeds are not used and are able to grow into new trees.

    Hybrids

    The Parry pinyon frequently hybridises with single-leaf pinyon (P. monophylla) where their ranges meet in southern California and northern Baja California. Hybrids are distinguished by intermediate features, with needles usually fascicles of 2–3 with some stomata on the outer surface. It has been suggested by some botanists that the holotype specimen of P. quadrifolia is itself from a hybrid; presumed pure, non-hybrid specimens having been given the new name Pinus juarezensis, the Juárez pinyon, after the Sierra de Juárez of northern Baja California. However, there is no proof that these specimens are genetically 'purer' than the original type specimen, and few botanists accept P. juarezensis as other than a synonym of P. quadrifolia.

    Despite the ease of hybridisation with single-leaf pinyon, Parry pinyon is genetically probably more closely related to the Johann's pinyon (P. johannis) and Potosí pinyon (P. culminicola), despite being separated from them by well over 1,000 km (620 mi).

    Uses

    The edible seeds, pine nuts, are collected throughout its range, though it is much less important than Colorado pinyon (P. edulis) for the crop. Parry pinyon is also occasionally planted as an ornamental tree and sometimes used as a christmas tree. Due to the limited distribution of the species, the seeds of the Parry pinyon are not gathered commercially. They are more often consumed by birds, rodents and other mammals.[6] The Cahuilla tribe of southern California used the resin to make a face cream commonly used by girls to prevent sunburn. The nuts were useful as well. For the Cahuilla, the nuts were given to the babies to eat as an alternative from breast milk and were also grounded then mixed with water as a beverage. The nuts were roasted and eaten whole or made into mush. They were important to the Cahuilla as a trade item with neighboring tribes. The pine needles and roots were used as material for basketry and the bark was a reliable substance for making the roofs of houses. The resin was a glue for mending pottery and reattaching arrowheads to the arrow shafts. The wood was burnt for firewood and incense, since it had high combustibility and it gave a pleasant smell.[7]

    The Diegueno also ate the nuts, but also the seeds as well.[7]

    References

    1. ^ a b Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus quadrifolia. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. Downloaded on 31 July 2013.
    2. ^ "Pinus quadrifolia". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 10 January 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    3. ^ Chase, J. Smeaton (1911). Cone-bearing Trees of the California Mountains. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co. p. 99. LCCN 11004975. OCLC 3477527. LCC QK495.C75 C4, with illustrations by Carl EytelKurut, Gary F. (2009), "Carl Eytel: Southern California Desert Artist", California State Library Foundation, Bulletin No. 95, pp. 17–20 retrieved Nov. 13, 2011
    4. ^ a b Pinus quadrifolia. NatureServe. 2012.
    5. ^ Moore, G.; et al. (2008). National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Trees of North America. New York: Sterling. p. 93. ISBN 1-4027-3875-7.
    6. ^ Little, E. (1980). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees, Western Region (10 ed.). p. 288. ISBN 0394507614.
    7. ^ a b "Pinus quadrifolia". herb.umd.umich.edu. Retrieved 2015. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: tree

    Parry pinyon is the most widespread coniferous tree in northern Baja
    California [21]. It is mainly a Mexican species, growing in the Sierra
    de Juarez and Sierra San Pedro Martir. In the United States, Parry
    pinyon occurs in California. Several stands of Parry pinyon grow in
    southeastern San Diego County, and in the southwest corner of Imperial
    County, close to the Mexican border. A small population of Parry pinyon
    grows in south-central Riverside County, 30 miles (50 km) from the main
    distribution [34]. Ranges of singleleaf pinyon and Parry pinyon overlap
    in southwestern California and northern Baja California [7].
    Occurrence in North America
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    CA MEXICO
    Regional Distribution in the Western United States
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

    3 Southern Pacific Border
    7 Lower Basin and Range

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    Pinus quadrifolia is the rarest pinyon in the flora. It hybridizes naturally with P . monophylla .
    Description
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: cone, tree

    Parry pinyon is a long-lived, slow-growing, native tree that grows from
    16.5 to 33 feet (5-10 m) tall [26]. According to Keeley [12], pinyons
    often live 200 to 500 years. The branches of Parry pinyon are stiff,
    low, and spreading, giving younger trees the appearance of a pyramid.
    Older trees develop a more rounded, irregular crown. The bark is thin
    and smooth on young trees, becoming deeply furrowed and scaly with age.
    Needles usually occur in bundles of four, but bundles of three and
    sometimes five are found on the same tree [22,26]. Conelets are borne
    singly or in clusters of two to four. Cones are 1.2 to 2 inches (3-5
    cm) long, with thick cone scales [26].

    Growth of pinyons is dependent upon soil moisture stored from winter
    snows. Pinyons have vertical taproots as well as lateral roots; both are
    capable of active absorption. In shallow soils, lateral root systems
    extend well beyond the radius of the crown [36].
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Trees to 10m; trunk to 0.5m diam., straight, much branched; crown dense, becoming rounded. Bark red-brown, irregularly furrowed and cross-checked to irregularly rectangular, plates scaly. Branches spreading to ascending, persistent to trunk base; twigs slender, pale orange-brown, puberulent-glandular, aging brown to gray-brown. Buds ovoid, light red-brown, ca. 0.4--0.5cm, slightly resinous. Leaves (3--)4(--5) per fascicle, persisting 3--4 years, (2--)3--6cm ´ (1--)1.2--1.7mm, curved, connivent, stiff, green to blue-green, margins entire to minutely scaly-denticulate, finely serrulate, apex subulate, adaxial surfaces mostly strongly whitened with stomatal bands, abaxial surface not so but 2 subepidermal resin bands evident; sheath 0.5--0.6cm, scales soon recurved, forming rosette, shed early. Pollen cones ovoid, ca. 10mm, yellowish. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, shedding seeds and falling soon thereafter, spreading, symmetric, ovoid before opening, broadly ovoid to depressed-globose when open, (3--)4--8(--10)cm, pale yellow-brown, sessile to short-stalked, apophyses thickened, strongly raised, diamond-shaped, transversely keeled, umbo subcentral, low-pyramidal or sunken, blunt. Seeds obovoid, body ca. 15mm, brown, wingless.
    Physical Description
    provided by USDA PLANTS text
    Tree, Evergreen, Monoecious, Habit erect, Trees without or rarely having knees, Tree with bark rough or scaly, Young shoots 3-dimensional, Buds resinous, Leaves needle-like, Leaves alternate, Needle-like leaf margins finely serrulate (use magnification or slide your finger along the leaf), Leaf apex acute, Leaves < 5 cm long, Leaves > 5 cm long, Leaves < 10 cm long, Leaves blue-green, Leaves not blue-green, Leaves white-striped, Needle-like leaves triangular, Needle-like leaves not twisted, Needle-like leaf habit erect, Needle-like leaves per fascicle mostly 4, Needle-like leaves per fascicle mostly 5, Needle-like leaf sheath early deciduous, Twigs pubescent, Twigs viscid, Twigs not viscid, Twigs without peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Berry-like cones orange, Woody seed cones < 5 cm long, Woody seed cones > 5 cm long, Seed cones bearing a scarlike umbo, Umbo with obvious prickle, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds brown, Seeds wingless, Seed wings narrower than body.

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Pinus cembroides Zuccarini var. parryana Voss; P. juarezensis Lanner; P. parryana Engelmann 1862, not Gordon 1858

Habitat

    Habitat & Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Dry rocky sites; 1200--1800m; Calif.; Mexico in Baja California.
    Habitat characteristics
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Parry pinyon occurs on rocky slopes with thin soils that are typically
    well-drained [5,20]. Parry pinyon grows at elevations of 3,960 to 8,250
    feet (1,200-2,500 m) throughout its range and is rarely found at
    elevations over 8,910 feet (2,700 m) [21,26].
    Habitat: Cover Types
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

    239 Pinyon - juniper
    249 Canyon live oak
    Habitat: Ecosystem
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

    More info for the term: shrub

    FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub
    FRES35 Pinyon - juniper
    Habitat: Plant Associations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

    More info for the term: woodland

    K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland
    K033 Chaparral
    Key Plant Community Associations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: formation, woodland

    Parry pinyon is a dominant member of the pinyon-juniper woodland of
    southern California and northern Baja California. California juniper
    (Juniperus californica) commonly codominates with Parry pinyon [11]. In
    the mountains of northern Baja California, Parry pinyon is associated
    with pine-oak (Pinus-Quercus spp.) woodlands and typical California
    chaparral [32,33]. On the western flank of the interior Sierra de
    Juarez, Parry pinyon forms scattered groves within relatively dense
    chaparral of chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum) and red shank (A.
    sparsifolium). Along the crest and eastern rim of the Sierra de Juarez
    it forms continuous forests with desert chaparral species such as
    peninsular manzanita (Arctostaphylos peninsularis) [21].

    A classifications listing Parry pinyon as a dominant species is:

    Woodland classification: the pinyon-juniper formation [11].

    Common plant associates not previously mentioned include Coulter pine
    (Pinus coulteri), Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi), and interior live oak (Q.
    wislizeni) [15,21,23].
    Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests Habitat
    provided by EOL authors

    This taxon can be found in the Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests. The ecoregion is located in two mountain ranges in the state of Baja California, Mexico: the Sierra de Juarez and the Sierra de San Pedro Martir. Both mountain ranges belong to the physiographical province of Baja California, and constitute the northernmost elevated peaks of the Baja Peninsula. The mountainous range that descends into a large portion of Baja California becomes more abrupt at Juarez and San Pedro Martir; the eastern slope is steeper than the western. Altitudes range between 1100-2800 meters. The granitic mountains of Juarez and San Pedro Martir have young rocky soils and are poorly developed, shallow, and low in organic matter.

    Dominant trees in the ecoregion are:Pinus quadrifolia, P. jeffreyi, P. contorta, P. lambertiana, Abies concolor, and Libocedrus decurren. The herbaceous stratum is formed by Bromus sp. and Artemisia tridentata. Epiphytes and fungi are abundant throughout the forests.

    Characteristic mammals of the ecoregion include: Ornate shrew (Sorex ornatus), Puma (Puma concolor), Fringed Myotis bat (Myotis thysanodes), California chipmunk (Tamias obscurus), Bobcat (Lynx rufus), Coyote (Canis latrans), San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis) and Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis).

    Numerous birds are present in the ecoregion, including the rare Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), Pinyon jay (Gymnohinus cyanocephalus), and White-breasted nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis).

    A number of different reptilian taxa are found in these oak-pine forests; representative reptiles here are: the Banded rock lizard (Petrosaurus mearnsi); Common checkered whiptail (Cnemidophorus tesselatus), who is found in sparsely vegetated areas; Coast horned lizard (Phrynosoma coronatum), often found in locales of sandy soil, where individuals may burrow to escape surface heat; Night desert lizard (Xantusia vigilis), who is often found among bases of yucca, agaves and cacti; and the Baja California spiny lizard (Sceloporus zosteromus).

    The Pacific chorus frog (Pseudacris regilla) is an anuran found within the Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests as one of its western North America ecoregions of occurrence. The only other amphibian in the ecoregion is the Western toad (Anaxyrus boreas).

General Ecology

    Fire Ecology
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: fire frequency, fire regime, frequency, fuel, seed, severity

    Parry pinyon has low resistance to fire. Like other pinyons, it has
    thin bark, low branches, and no resprouting capability [12]. Fuel loads
    in pinyon habitats are discontinuous and light, which lowers fire
    frequency and severity [19]. Seed dispersal by birds may enable pinyon
    pines to colonize burns even when parent trees are not nearby.

    FIRE REGIMES :
    Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
    species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under
    "Find FIRE REGIMES".
    Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    More info for the term: phanerophyte

    Phanerophyte
    Immediate Effect of Fire
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: stand-replacing fire, tree

    Fire eliminates younger age classes of pinyon pines, but large
    seed-source trees may survive [12,35]. Where pinyon trees have recently
    invaded sagebrush-grassland communities, young trees less than 4 feet
    (1.2 m) tall are easily killed by fire. As tree dominance increases,
    understory is gradually suppressed. Understory fuels also decrease, and
    the potential for severe, stand-replacing fire is reduced [35].
    Life Form
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: tree

    Tree
    Plant Response to Fire
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Literature concerning the response of Parry pinyon is lacking. See the
    FEIS species monograph on singleleaf pinyon and true pinyon (P. edulis)
    for description of general pinyon response to fire.
    Post-fire Regeneration
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: root crown, secondary colonizer

    Tree without adventitious-bud root crown
    Secondary colonizer - off-site seed
    Regeneration Processes
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: fresh, seed, stratification

    Minimum seed-bearing age for Parry pinyon is 10 to 20 years of age.
    Optimum seed production occurs after 50 years of age. Good seed crops
    are produced every 1 to 5 years [12,13]. Cones produce relatively few,
    large, wingless, edible seeds that are well-adapted to dispersal by
    birds, rodents and other mammals [17,20]. Birds can disperse pinyon
    seeds 12 miles (20 km) or more [12]. Birds and rodents cache pinyon
    seeds in the ground, often at depths favorable for germination [20].
    Fresh pinyon seeds have high viability and germinate readily with little
    or no stratification. They lose viability rapidly after 1 year. Seeds
    usually germinate in the spring if soil moisture is sufficient.
    Seedlings need some shade to survive [12,20].

    Although the pinyon pines are tolerant of temperature and moisture
    stress, water is the most limiting factor in seedling establishment and
    growth [12,20].

    Parry pinyon does not reproduce vegetatively [12].
    Successional Status
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    More info for the terms: climax, grassland, shrubs, tree

    Obligate Climax Species

    The pinyon pines are shade-intolerant as adults but require some shelter
    from shrubs or tree crowns to establish [20,35]. Pinyons can invade
    surrounding grassland communities [25,35].

Cyclicity

    Phenology
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info on this topic.

    More info for the term: seed

    Parry pinyon flowers in June. Cones ripen in September and seed
    dispersal begins in September and October [13].

Management

    Management considerations
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the terms: cone, cover

    When pinyon-juniper woodlands are harvested, reestablishment of conifers
    can be hastened by avoiding damage to the residual stand of small trees
    and seedlings and by providing a shading cover of slash over small
    seedlings exposed to full sunlight [20].

    Insect defoliators that attack Parry pinyon include the larvae of gall
    midges, caterpillars of pine cone moths, larvae of small weevils, and
    pinyon cone beetles. All of these insects attack cones or seeds
    [18]. The pinyon Ips (Ips confusus) is endemic throughout pinyon range.
    Adults and larvae of this bark beetle feed on the phloem of pines
    [18,20]. Removal or burning of all pinyon slash larger than 3 inches (8
    cm) in diameter after harvest will usually prevent pinyon Ips
    populations from reaching epidemic proportions [20].

    Pinyon dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium divaricatum) causes reduced vigor
    and occasional dieback in Parry pinyon. It rarely causes death [20].

Benefits

    Cover Value
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: cover

    Parry pinyon provides cover for many species of birds [1].
    Importance to Livestock and Wildlife
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Parry pinyon seeds are an important food source for many species of
    birds and small mammals [1,18]. Pinyon-juniper woodlands provide food
    and shelter for deer, pronghorn, wild horses, and other species of
    mammals and birds. These woodlands have been extensively grazed by
    livestock for more than 100 years [20].
    Nutritional Value
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    The nutritional composition of Parry pinyon seeds are as follows:
    protein, 11 percent; fat, 37 percent; carbohydrate, 44 percent [37].
    Other uses and values
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    More info for the term: seed

    Parry pinyon produces a large, edible seed that is a staple food for
    southwestern Native Americans [18,34].
    Wood Products Value
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Parry pinyon wood is close-grained, soft, and knotty [26]. It has
    little commercial value because of the tree's small size and poor growth
    form. It is used mainly for firewood and fenceposts [20,34].

Taxonomy

    Common Names
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    Parry pinyon
    four-needled pinyon
    nut pine
    Taxonomy
    provided by Fire Effects Information System Plants
    The currently accepted scientific name of Parry pinyon is Pinus
    quadrifolia Parl. [7,24,32]. It is a member of the subgenus Haploxylon,
    subsection Cembroides [2,26]. Lanner [15] reduced Parry pinyon to
    hybrid status, (P. x quadrifolia Parl.), based upon studies of needle
    number, resin canal number, twig hairiness, and stomate position. He
    concluded that Parry pinyon is the result of hybridization between
    singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and a heretofore unrecognized
    5-needle pinyon now named Sierra Juarez pinyon (Pinus juarezensis).
    There are divergent opinions among botanists and taxonomists regarding
    these conclusions. Perry [26] recognizes Parry pinyon as a separate
    species pending further studies. This paper will follow Perry's
    taxonomy. Parry pinyon hybridizes with P. monophylla and P.
    juarzensis. Lanner [15] also suggests that Parry pinyon crosses with P.
    edulis and P. cembroides. There are no recognized varieties,
    subspecies, or forms of Parry pinyon.