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Brief Summary

    Manfreda virginica: Brief Summary
    provided by wikipedia

    Manfreda virginica, commonly known as the false aloe, rattlesnake master, and Virginia agave, is a species of flowering plant related to agaves. It is native to an area stretching from North Carolina west to Texas in the United States and south to Nuevo León and Tamaulipas in Mexico.

Comprehensive Description

    Manfreda virginica
    provided by wikipedia

    Manfreda virginica, commonly known as the false aloe, rattlesnake master, and Virginia agave,[1] is a species of flowering plant related to agaves. It is native to an area stretching from North Carolina west to Texas in the United States and south to Nuevo León and Tamaulipas in Mexico.[1]

    Description

    False aloe is acaulescent, meaning the stem is extremely short. Leaves and flowering stems are from a bulbous herbaceous caudex. The fleshy green leaves are usually spotted or speckled with maroon. Sufficient precipitation yields an inflorescence up to 68 cm (27 in) tall in the period from early summer to late summer, rarely in the spring.

    The inflorescences bears 10–61 closely spaced flowers. Flowers are sessile or pedicellate, nearly erect, slender, with a fragrant sweet fruity odor. Seed capsules are globose and 1–1.7 cm diameter.

    Leaf shape and size in Manfreda virginica vary with soil type, amount of shade, length of cold period, and position of leaf in the rosette. Speckles and spots occur frequently on some leaves in most populations, and some authors have used the informal designation “forma tigrina” for such variants.[3]

    Ecology

    Manfreda virginica is adapted primarily to nocturnal pollination by medium-sized moths and larger sphinx moths. Diurnal pollination by large bees results in significantly less seed set than nocturnal and open pollination. Hummingbirds are also attracted to the blooms.[4]

    References

     src= Wikimedia Commons has media related to Manfreda virginica.  src= Wikispecies has information related to Manfreda virginica
    1. ^ a b c "Manfreda virginica". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 21 January 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"""""'"'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    2. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 1 October 2015.
    3. ^ "Manfreda virginica (Linnaeus) Salisbury ex Rose, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 8: 19. 1903". Flora of North America. eFloras.org. Retrieved 2011-10-22.
    4. ^ Groman, Joshua D.; Olle Pellmyr (1999). "The pollination biology of Manfreda virginica (Agavaceae); relative contributions of nocturnal and diurnal visitors". OIKOS. 87: 373–381. doi:10.2307/3546753.

Distribution

    Distribution
    provided by eFloras
    Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Ky., La., Miss., Mo., N.C., Ohio, Okla., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va.; Mexico (Nuevo León, Tamaulipas).

Morphology

    Comments
    provided by eFloras
    Leaf shape and size in Manfreda virginica vary with soil type, amount of shade, length of cold period, and position of leaf in the rosette. Speckles and spots occur frequently on some leaves in most populations, and some authors have used the informal designation “forma tigrina” for such variants. Pollination is primarily by sphinx moths (S. E. Verhoek 1978).
    Description
    provided by eFloras
    Rhizomes cylindrical. Leaves spreading, semisucculent, 8–40(–47) × 0.5–6.5(–9.3) cm; blade usually spotted or speckled with maroon, shallowly channeled, oblanceolate to linear-lanceolate, margins entire or with cartilaginous prickles. Scape 4.5 ´ 13.8 dm. Inflorescences 14–68 cm, bearing 10–61 closely spaced flowers. Flowers sessile or pedicellate, nearly erect, slender, with sweet, fruity odor; tepals green; perianth tube 0.9–2.3 × 0.3–0.6 cm; limb lobes erect, 0.4–0.8 cm; filaments inserted near base of tube, bent in bud, exceeding tube by 1.2–3.1 cm; ovary 4–10 mm; style shorter than stamens, exceeding tube by 0.6–2.3 cm; stigma white, 3-lobed, lobes reflexed. Capsules globose, 1–1.7 cm diam. 2n = 60.

Diagnostic Description

    Synonym
    provided by eFloras
    Agave virginica Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 323. 1753; A. lata Shinners; A. tigrina (Engelmann) Cory; A. virginica var. tigrina Engelmann; Manfreda tigrina (Engelmann) Small; M. virginica subsp. lata (Shinners) O’Kennon, Diggs & Lipscomb; M. virginica var. tigrina (Engelmann) Rose; Polianthes lata (Shinners) Shinners; P. virginica (Linnaeus) Shinners

Habitat

    Habitat
    provided by eFloras
    Glades and open woods, on rocky and sandy soils, often on slopes; 0--600m.

Cyclicity

    Flowering/Fruiting
    provided by eFloras
    Flowering summer--late summer, rarely in spring; fruiting late summer--early fall.