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Cystoviridae ( каталонски; валенсиски )

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Cystoviridae és una família de virus d'ARN bicatenari que infecten certs bacteris gramnegatius.

Tots els cystovirus tenen en total 14 kb de longitud i una capa externa de lípids i proteïnes. Molts cystovirus infecten espècies de Pseudomonas.[1] L’espècie tipus és Pseudomonas phage Φ6, però n’hi ha altres com Φ7, Φ8, Φ9, Φ10, Φ11, Φ12 i Φ13 identificats,[2] també s'han aïllat altres cystovirus.[1]

Referències

  1. 1,0 1,1 Silander OK, Weinreich DM, Wright KM, et al. «Widespread genetic exchange among terrestrial bacteriophages». Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 102, 52, December 2005, pàg. 19009–14. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0503074102. PMC: 1323146. PMID: 16365305.
  2. Mindich L, Qiao X, Qiao J, Onodera S, Romantschuk M, Hoogstraten D «Isolation of additional bacteriophages with genomes of segmented double-stranded RNA». J. Bacteriol., 181, 15, August 1999, pàg. 4505–8. PMC: 103579. PMID: 10419946.

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Cystoviridae: Brief Summary ( каталонски; валенсиски )

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Cystoviridae és una família de virus d'ARN bicatenari que infecten certs bacteris gramnegatius.

Tots els cystovirus tenen en total 14 kb de longitud i una capa externa de lípids i proteïnes. Molts cystovirus infecten espècies de Pseudomonas. L’espècie tipus és Pseudomonas phage Φ6, però n’hi ha altres com Φ7, Φ8, Φ9, Φ10, Φ11, Φ12 i Φ13 identificats, també s'han aïllat altres cystovirus.

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Cystoviridae ( германски )

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Cystovirus Systematik Klassifikation: Viren Ordnung: nicht klassifiziert Familie: Cystoviridae Gattung: Cystovirus Taxonomische Merkmale Genom: dsRNA Baltimore: Gruppe 3 Symmetrie: ikosaedrisch Hülle: vorhanden Links NCBI Taxonomy: 10877

Die Cystoviridae sind eine Virusfamilie behüllter RNA-Viren mit segmentiertem doppelsträngigem Genom. Die Familie umfasst bislang nur die Gattung Cystovirus. Als Bakteriophage nutzt es verschiedene Gram-negative Bakterien als Wirt.

Cystoviren sind die einzige Bakteriophagenfamilie mit einer vollständigen Virushülle und die einzige mit RNA-basiertem Genom. Die Familien der Tectiviridae und der Corticoviridae haben zwar Lipide in ihren Kapsiden eingeschlossen, aber keine äußere Virushülle.

Die Familie der Cystoviren scheint am nächsten mit den Reoviridae verwandt zu sein,[1] besitzen jedoch auch Homologien zu den Totiviridae. Dadurch sind Cystoviren die einzige Familie der Bakteriophagen, die näher mit Viren von Eukaryoten verwandt sind, als mit anderen Phagen.

Genom

Die Cystoviren besitzen drei Genomsegmente von 2,9 Kilobasen (S-Segment), 4 Kilobasen (M-Segment) und 6,4 Kilobasen (L-Segment). Das Genom codiert für 12 Proteine. Die meisten identifizierten Cystoviren infizieren Pseudomonas-Arten, wobei dies auch an der Untersuchungs- und Anreicherungsmethode liegen kann.[2] Die Pseudomonas-Phagen Phi6, Phi7, Phi8, Phi9, Phi10, Phi11, Phi12 und Phi13 wurden charakterisiert und benannt,[3] weitere wurden bisher nur isoliert.[2]

Während der Tropismus bei manchen Cystoviren wie Phi6 über die Bindung des multimeren Proteins P3 an Typ-IV-Pili als Rezeptor bestimmt wird, verwenden Phi8, Phi12 und Phi13 ein heterodimeres Protein, welches an Lipopolysaccharide bindet.

Das Protein P6 vermittelt die Fusion mit der Zellmembran der Wirtszelle und das anschließende Einschleusen des Nukleokapsids, ohne die RNA zu entpacken. P5 ist ein hydrolytisches Enzym zur Auflösung der bakteriellen Proteoglykan-Schicht. P2 sorgt als RNA-abhängige RNA-Polymerase für die Replikation des Genoms innerhalb des Nukleokapsids. P4 befördert die einzelsträngigen viralen RNA-Segmente positiver Polarität unter ATP-Verbrauch in die neu hergestellten Kapsidproteine, wo sie durch P2 zur doppelsträngigen RNA vervollständigt werden. Die Zelle wird anschließend durch Lyse verlassen.

Literatur

  • H.-W. Ackermann, M.S. DuBow: Cystoviridae. In: Viruses of Prokaryotes, Vol II. (1987), CRC Press, Boca Raton Florida, pp 171-218.
  • D.H. Bamford, R.B. Wickner: Assembly of double-stranded RNA viruses: bacteriophage f6 and yeast virus L-A. “Sem. ViroI”. (1994), Bd. 5, S. 61–69.
  • S. Onodera, X. Qiao, J. Qiao, L. Mindich: Directed changes in the number of double-stranded RNA genomic segments in bacteriophage phi6. Proc. Acad. Nall. Sci. USA (1998), Bd. 95, S. 3920–3924.
  • Index of Viruses - Cystoviridae (2009). In: ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Büchen-Osmond, C. (Ed), Columbia University, New York, USA. [1]

Weblinks

Einzelnachweise

  1. Butcher SJ, Dokland T, Ojala PM, Bamford DH, Fuller SD: Intermediates in the assembly pathway of the double-stranded RNA virus phi6. In: EMBO J.. 16, Nr. 14, Juli 1997, S. 4477–87. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.14.4477. PMID 9250692. PMC 1170074 (freier Volltext).
  2. a b Silander OK, Weinreich DM, Wright KM, et al.: Widespread genetic exchange among terrestrial bacteriophages. In: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 102, Nr. 52, Dezember 2005, S. 19009–14. doi:10.1073/pnas.0503074102. PMID 16365305. PMC 1323146 (freier Volltext).
  3. Mindich L, Qiao X, Qiao J, Onodera S, Romantschuk M, Hoogstraten D: Isolation of additional bacteriophages with genomes of segmented double-stranded RNA. In: J. Bacteriol.. 181, Nr. 15, August 1999, S. 4505–8. PMID 10419946. PMC 103579 (freier Volltext).
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Cystoviridae: Brief Summary ( германски )

добавил wikipedia DE

Die Cystoviridae sind eine Virusfamilie behüllter RNA-Viren mit segmentiertem doppelsträngigem Genom. Die Familie umfasst bislang nur die Gattung Cystovirus. Als Bakteriophage nutzt es verschiedene Gram-negative Bakterien als Wirt.

Cystoviren sind die einzige Bakteriophagenfamilie mit einer vollständigen Virushülle und die einzige mit RNA-basiertem Genom. Die Familien der Tectiviridae und der Corticoviridae haben zwar Lipide in ihren Kapsiden eingeschlossen, aber keine äußere Virushülle.

Die Familie der Cystoviren scheint am nächsten mit den Reoviridae verwandt zu sein, besitzen jedoch auch Homologien zu den Totiviridae. Dadurch sind Cystoviren die einzige Familie der Bakteriophagen, die näher mit Viren von Eukaryoten verwandt sind, als mit anderen Phagen.

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Cystovirus ( англиски )

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Cystovirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses which infects Pseudomonas bacteria, but it can infect other bacteria. It is the only genus in the family Cystoviridae. The name of the group cysto derives from Greek kystis which means bladder or sack. There are seven species in this genus.[1][2][3]

Discovery

Pseudomonas virus phi6 was the first virus in this family to be discovered and was initially characterized in 1973 by Anne Vidaver at the University of Nebraska. She found that when she cultured the bacterial strain Pseudomonas phaseolicola HB1OY with halo blight infected bean straw, cytopathic effects were detected in cultured lawns, indicating that there was a lytic microbe or bacteriophage present.[4]

In 1999, phi7–14 were identified by the laboratory of Leonard Mindich at the Public Health Research Institute associated with New York University. They did this by culturing various leaves in Lysogeny Broth and then plating the broth on lawns of Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola. They were able to identify viral plaques from this and then subsequently sequence their genomes.[5]

Microbiology

Structure

 src=
Virion assembly and pre-genome packaging of family Cystoviridae

Cystovirus particles are enveloped, with icosahedral and spherical geometries, and T=13, T=2 symmetry. The virion diameter is around 85 nm. Cystoviruses are distinguished by their outer layer protein and lipid envelope. No other bacteriophage has any lipid in its outer coat, though the Tectiviridae and the Corticoviridae have lipids within their capsids.[1][2]

Genome

Cystoviruses have a tripartite double-stranded RNA genome which is approximately 14 kbp in total length. The genome is linear and segmented, and labeled as large (L) 6.4 kbp, medium (M) 4 kbp, and small (S) 2.9 kb in length. The genome codes for twelve proteins.[1][2]

Life cycle

 src=
Life cycle of cystoviruses

Cytoviruses enter the bacteria by adsorption on its pilus and then membrane fusion. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. The progeny viruses are released from the cell by lysis.[1][2]

Most identified cystoviruses infect Pseudomonas species, but this is likely biased due to the method of screening and enrichment.[6] There are many proposed members of this family. Pseudomonas viruses φ7, φ8, φ9, φ10, φ11, φ12, and φ13 have been identified and named,[5] but other cystovirus-like viruses have also been isolated.[6] These seven putative relatives are classified as either close (φ7, φ9, φ10, φ11) or distant (φ8, φ12, φ13) relatives to φ6,[5] with the distant relatives thought to infect via the LPS rather than the pili.[7]

Other hosts

Cystovirus can infect other bacteria such as Streptomyces according to a transcriptomic study[8] and Lactococcus and Pectobacterium according to the NCBI which includes two unassigned RNA phages in the family.[9] This suggests that the host range of cystoviruses can extend to gram-positive bacteria.[8]

Taxonomy

 src=
Phylogenetic tree of Cystovirus

Members of the Cystoviridae appear to be most closely related to the Reoviridae,[10] but also share homology with the Totiviridae. In particular, the structural genes of cystoviruses are highly-similar to those used by a number of dsRNA viruses that infect eukaryotes.[11] The genus Cystovirus has seven species:[1]

Other unassigned phages:

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "ICTV Report Cystoviridae".
  2. ^ a b c d "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  3. ^ "NCBI Taxonomy Browser: Cystoviridae". NCBI. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
  4. ^ Vidaver AK, Koski RK, Van Etten JL (May 1973). "Bacteriophage Φ6 a Lipid-Containing Virus of Pseudomonas phaseolicola". Journal of Virology. 11 (15): 799–805.
  5. ^ a b c Mindich L, Qiao X, Qiao J, Onodera S, Romantschuk M, Hoogstraten D (August 1999). "Isolation of additional bacteriophages with genomes of segmented double-stranded RNA". J. Bacteriol. 181 (15): 4505–8. PMC 103579. PMID 10419946.
  6. ^ a b Silander OK, Weinreich DM, Wright KM, et al. (December 2005). "Widespread genetic exchange among terrestrial bacteriophages". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (52): 19009–14. Bibcode:2005PNAS..10219009S. doi:10.1073/pnas.0503074102. PMC 1323146. PMID 16365305.
  7. ^ Gottlieb P, Potgieter C, Wei H, and Toporovsky I (2002). "Characterization of φ12, a Bacteriophage Related to φ6: Nucleotide Sequence of the Large Double-Stranded RNA". Virology. 295 (2): 266–271. doi:10.1006/viro.2002.1436. PMID 12033785.
  8. ^ a b c Siddharth R. Krishnamurthy, Andrew B. Janowski,Guoyan Zhao, Dan Barouch, David Wang (2016). Hyperexpansion of RNA Bacteriophage Diversity. PlosOne.
  9. ^ a b c Cystoviridae. NCBI Taxonomy.
  10. ^ Butcher SJ, Dokland T, Ojala PM, Bamford DH, Fuller SD (July 1997). "Intermediates in the assembly pathway of the double-stranded RNA virus phi6". EMBO J. 16 (14): 4477–87. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.14.4477. PMC 1170074. PMID 9250692.
  11. ^ Koonin, Eugene V.; Dolja, Valerian V.; Krupovic, Mart (2015). "Origins and evolution of viruses of eukaryotes: The ultimate modularity". Virology. 479–480: 2–25. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2015.02.039. PMC 5898234. PMID 25771806.

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Cystovirus: Brief Summary ( англиски )

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Cystovirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses which infects Pseudomonas bacteria, but it can infect other bacteria. It is the only genus in the family Cystoviridae. The name of the group cysto derives from Greek kystis which means bladder or sack. There are seven species in this genus.

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Cystoviridae ( шпански; кастиљски )

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Cystoviridae es una familia de virus infectivos para bacterias Gram negativas (bacteriófagos). Presentan un genoma ARN bicatenario por lo que se incluyen en el Grupo III de la Clasificación de Baltimore. La cápside está estructuralmente definida por una simetría compleja y poseen una envoltura viral.[1]​ El único género de la familia es Cystovirus.

Todos los cystovirus se caracterizan por sus tres cadenas (análogas a cromosomas) de ARN bicatenario, totalizando aproximadamente 14 kb, sus proteínas y una capa exterior lipídica. No se conocen otros bacteriófagos que tengan lípidos en su cubierta exterior, aunque Tectiviridae y Corticoviridae tienen lípidos dentro de su cápside.

La mayoría de los cystovirus identificados infectan a las especies de Pseudomonas, pero esto puede ser un sesgo del método de selección y enriquecimiento.[2]​ La especie tipo es Fago Φ6 de Pseudomonas, pero se conocen muchos más miembros de esta familia, de los cuales tienen nombre Φ7, Φ8, Φ9, Φ10, Φ11, Φ12 y Φ13,[3]​ y muchos otros han sido aislados.[2]

Cystoviridae parece estar íntimamente relacionado con Reoviridae,[4]​ pero también comparte homologías con Totiviridae. Los cystovirus son los únicos bacteriófagos que parecen estar más relacionados con los virus de los eucariontes que con los otros fagos.

Referencias

  1. Prescott, L.M. (199). Microbiología. McGraw-Hill Interamericana de España, S.A.U. ISBN 84-486-0261-7.
  2. a b Silander, O. K., D. M. Weinreich, K. M. Wright, K. J. O'Keefe, C. U. Rang, P. E. Turner, and L. C. 2005. Widespread genetic exchange among terrestrial bacteriophages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:19009-19014. full text
  3. Mindich, L., X. Qiao, J. Qiao, S. Onodera, M. Romantschuk, and D. Hoogstraten. 1999. Isolation of additional bacteriophages with genomes of segmented double-stranded RNA. J. Bacteriol. 181:4505-4508. full text
  4. Butcher, S. J., T. Dokland, P. M. Ojala, D. H. Bamford, and S. D. Fuller. 1997. Intermediates in the assembly pathway of the double-stranded RNA virus phi6. EMBO J. 16:4477-4487. full text
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Cystoviridae: Brief Summary ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил wikipedia ES

Cystoviridae es una familia de virus infectivos para bacterias Gram negativas (bacteriófagos). Presentan un genoma ARN bicatenario por lo que se incluyen en el Grupo III de la Clasificación de Baltimore. La cápside está estructuralmente definida por una simetría compleja y poseen una envoltura viral.​ El único género de la familia es Cystovirus.

Todos los cystovirus se caracterizan por sus tres cadenas (análogas a cromosomas) de ARN bicatenario, totalizando aproximadamente 14 kb, sus proteínas y una capa exterior lipídica. No se conocen otros bacteriófagos que tengan lípidos en su cubierta exterior, aunque Tectiviridae y Corticoviridae tienen lípidos dentro de su cápside.

La mayoría de los cystovirus identificados infectan a las especies de Pseudomonas, pero esto puede ser un sesgo del método de selección y enriquecimiento.​ La especie tipo es Fago Φ6 de Pseudomonas, pero se conocen muchos más miembros de esta familia, de los cuales tienen nombre Φ7, Φ8, Φ9, Φ10, Φ11, Φ12 y Φ13,​ y muchos otros han sido aislados.​

Cystoviridae parece estar íntimamente relacionado con Reoviridae,​ pero también comparte homologías con Totiviridae. Los cystovirus son los únicos bacteriófagos que parecen estar más relacionados con los virus de los eucariontes que con los otros fagos.

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Cystoviridae ( италијански )

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La famiglia delle Cystoviridae comprende virus a particelle icosaedriche di 26 nm di diametro prive di involucro con una molecola di ssRNA lineare a polarità positiva costituita da 3400-4300 nucleotidi. Include fagi R17, MS2 e Qβ di enterobatteri.

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囊狀噬菌體科 ( кинески )

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囊狀噬菌體科 病毒分类 族: Group III (dsRNA) 分類
  • 囊狀噬菌體屬(Cystovirus) - 代表種:假单胞菌噬菌體Φ6(Pseudomonas phage Φ6)
Marburg virus.jpg 這是與病毒相關的小作品。你可以通过编辑或修订扩充其内容。
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囊狀噬菌體科: Brief Summary ( кинески )

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囊狀噬菌體科Cystoviridae

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