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Mucoromicotines ( каталонски; валенсиски )

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Mucoromycotina és una subdivisió de fongs d'afinitats incertes.[1][2] Conté 3 ordres, 61 gèneres i 325 espècies.[3]

Inclou els ordres Endogonales, Mucorales i Mortierellales.[4]


Mucoromycotina inclou molts del model Zygomycetes. Inclou moltes espècies de creixement ràpid. La majoria són sapròfits, fitopatògens i micoparàsits. Alguns indueixen micosis en humans.

Referències

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  1. Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF, et al. «A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi». Mycol. Res., vol. 111, Pt 5, May 2007, pàg. 509–47. DOI: 10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004. PMID: 17572334.
  2. «Mucoromycotina». [Consulta: 7 març 2009].
  3. Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA.. Dictionary of the Fungi.. 10th. Wallingford: CABI, 2008, p. 442. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8.
  4. «Zygomycota». [Consulta: 7 març 2009].


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Mucoromicotines: Brief Summary ( каталонски; валенсиски )

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Mucoromycotina és una subdivisió de fongs d'afinitats incertes. Conté 3 ordres, 61 gèneres i 325 espècies.

Inclou els ordres Endogonales, Mucorales i Mortierellales.


Mucoromycotina inclou molts del model Zygomycetes. Inclou moltes espècies de creixement ràpid. La majoria són sapròfits, fitopatògens i micoparàsits. Alguns indueixen micosis en humans.

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Mucoromycotina ( германски )

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Wissenschaftlicher Name Mucoromycotina Benny

Die Mucoromycotina sind eine erst 2007 erstbeschriebene Unterabteilung von Pilzen, die die Kerngruppen der früheren Jochpilze beinhaltet.

Merkmale

Es sind saprobiontisch lebende Pilze oder gallen-bildende, nicht-haustorienbildende Mykoparasiten oder Ektomykorrhiza bildende Arten. Das Myzel ist verzweigt, in jungem Zustand coenocytisch. Manchmal werden Wände (Septen) gebildet, die zur Reife Mikrosporen enthalten. Die ungeschlechtliche Vermehrung erfolgt über Sporangien, Sporangiolen oder Merosporangien, selten über Chlamydosporen, Arthrosporen oder Blastosporen. Die sexuelle Vermehrung erfolgt durch mehr oder weniger runde Zygosporen, die an Suspensoren gebildet werden.

Systematik

Die Mucoromycotina umfassen mit den Mucorales die Kerngruppe der früheren Jochpilze. Diese werden derzeit als nicht gültig publiziertes Taxon angesehen, zudem sind sie polyphyletisch. In der aktuellen Systematik der Pilze wurden daher die Jochpilze aufgelöst. Nach Spatafora und Mitarbeitern (2016) bilden die Arbuskulären Mykorrhizapilze eine Unterabteilung (Glomeromycotina) zusammen mit den 2 weiteren Unterabteilungen Mortierellomycotina und Mucoromycotina die Abteilung der Mucoromycota.[1] Diese Einteilung wurde aber noch nicht generell anerkannt.[2]

Literatur

  • D. S. Hibbett et al.: A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi. In: Mycological research, Mai 2007; 111(5): 509–547. Epub 2007 13. März 2007. PMID 17572334 (mit Erstbeschreibung)

Einzelnachweise

  1. Joseph W. Spatafora, Ying Chang, Gerald L. Benny, Katy Lazarus, Matthew E. Smith, Mary L. Berbee, Gregory Bonito, Nicolas Corradi, Igor Grigoriev, Andrii Gryganskyi, Timothy Y. James, Kerry O’Donnell, Robert W. Roberson, Thomas N. Taylor, Jessie Uehling, Rytas Vilgalys, Merlin M. White & Jason E. Stajich.: A phylum-level phylogenetic classification of zygomycete fungi based on genome-scale data. In: Mycologia. Band 108, Nr. 5, 2016, S. 1028–1046, doi:10.3852/16-042 (pdf).
  2. amf-phylogeny.com. Abgerufen am 3. Mai 2018.
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Mucoromycotina: Brief Summary ( германски )

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Die Mucoromycotina sind eine erst 2007 erstbeschriebene Unterabteilung von Pilzen, die die Kerngruppen der früheren Jochpilze beinhaltet.

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Mucoromycotina ( англиски )

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Mucoromycotina is a subphylum of uncertain placement in Fungi. It was considered part of the phylum Zygomycota, but recent phylogenetic studies have shown that it was polyphyletic and thus split into several groups, it is now thought to be a paraphyletic grouping. Mucoromycotina is currently composed of 3 orders, 61 genera, and 325 species. Some common characteristics seen throughout the species include: development of coenocytic mycelium, saprotrophic lifestyles, and filamentous.

History

Zygomycete fungi were originally only ascribed to the phylum Zygomycota. Such classifications were based on physiological characteristics with little genetic support. A genetic study of Zygomycete fungi performed in 2016 showed that further classification of the group was possible, thus splitting it into Zoopagomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Kickxellomycotina, and Mucoromycotina. The study put these groups as being sister to Dikarya, but without further research, their exact locations in Fungi remain unknown. Many of the questions regarding these groups stem from the difficulty of collecting and growing them in culture, so the current groupings are based on the few that have been successfully collected and which could undergo genomic testing with a certain level of accuracy.[1][2][3]

Taxonomy

The exact placement of Mucoromycotina is currently unknown. It currently resides in the subphyla incertae sedis, alongside Zoopagomycota, Entomophthoromycota, and Kickxellomycotina, whose’ placements are also currently unknown. These groups originally comprised Zygomycota alongside others that were assigned to Glomeromycota, which was elevated to phylum in 2001. These groups are sister to Dikarya, which contains Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.

Studies have currently divided Mucoromycotina into 3 orders: Endognales, Mucorales, and Mortierellales. All three orders contain species that are saprotrophic, with others forming relationships with other organisms. There are still many questions regarding Mucoromycotina and the organisms that compose it, owing to limited collected samples.

Orders

Endogonales

This order currently contains 1 family, 4 genera, and 27 species. Not much is known about this order, other than readily noticeable characteristics. They produce subterranean sporocarps, which are ingested by small mammals attracted by the fetid odor they produce. Cultured specimens have shown that they produce coenocytic mycelium, and can be saprotrophic or mycorrhizal. This order was first described in 1930 by Fitzpatrick, after being monographed in 1922 by Thaxter.[4] Further study is required for better understanding of this order.

Mucorales

Often referred to as pin molds, members of this order produce sporangia held up on hyphae, called sporangiophores. There are currently 13 families in this order, divided into 56 genera, and approximately 300 species. They can be parasitic or saprotrophic in nature and reproduce asexually. Much is known about this order since some of the species cause damage to stored food, with several others causing mycosis in immune compromised individuals. The order was proposed in 1878 by van Tieghem, as the examined samples did not fit in with what was Entomophthorales at the time.

Mortierellales

Previously considered a family of Mucorales, it was suggested as its own order in 1998. At the time it only contained 2 genera, one of which remains. What is known is that species in this order can be parasitic or saprotrophic in nature. Cultured specimens show that they produce a fine mycelium, with branched sporangia, and produce a garlic-like odor. They are widespread, showing up in soil samples from many different locations. The most studied genera in this order is Mortierella, which contains species that cause crown rot in strawberries. There are currently 6 families and 13 described genera, with more than 100 species.

Mortierella polycephala was the first species described in 1863 by Coemans, and named after M. Du Mortier, the president of Société de Botanique de Belgique. Dissophora decumbens, the second, wasn't described until 1914, and the most recent was Lobosporangium transversal described in 2004.

Ecology

The species described in this subphylum have evolved 3 main lifestyles: saprotrophic, mycorrhizal, or parasitic. Saprotrophic species are involved in decomposition of organic matter, mycorrhizal species form symbiotic relationships with plants, and parasitic species form harmful symbiotic relationships with other organisms.

Saprotrophs

Saprotrophs breakdown decomposing matter into different components: proteins into amino acids, lipids into fatty acids and glycerol, and starches into disaccharides. The species responsible usually require excess water, oxygen, pH less than 7, and low temperatures. It is the most extreme of environments, where few other organisms live as well, that they are found.

Parasitism

Parasitic species seen in Mucorales and Mortierellales cause infections in crops and immune compromised animals.

A common infection of plants by some species in Mucorales is referred to as crown rot or stem rot, common symptoms are: rotting near the soil line, rotting on one side or on lateral branches. Treatment is difficult if not caught in its early stages, and usually results in the death of the plant. Crown rot is seen in cereal plants (wheat, barley), with experiments from 2015 showing crop losses at 0.01 t/ha per unit increase in crown rot index or more. In addition to cereal plants, crown rot is seen in strawberries and other such low growing plants.

Mycorrhizal

Mycorrhizal, literally “fungus-root”, interactions are symbioses between fungi and plants. Such interactions are based on nutrient acquisition and sharing, the fungi increases the range over which nutrients are gathered and the plant provides materials that the fungi cannot produce. There are two main types of interactions: arbuscular endomycorrhizal, and ectomycorrhizal. Arbuscular endomycorrhizal interactions are when the fungi is allowed to enter the plant, and inhabit special cells. The fungi produce structures that look like trees, called “arbuscules,” inside these cells. Ectomycorrhizal interactions are similar symbioses, however the fungi are not allowed into any plant cells, though they may grow between them.

Plant-microbe interactions

Endogonales

A new genus proposed in 2017, Jimgerdemannia, contains species with an ectomycorrhizal trophic mode. Further research is needed to understand these species. Several studies have observed fossils of some potential members forming mycorrhizal interactions with ancient plants.

The genus Endogone is important in nutrient-deficient soils, such as sand dunes. The presence of species in this genus stabilizes the soil and provides some assistance to dune plants.[5]

Mucorales

Some species in the genus Mucor are well known for causing crown rot in cereal plants and damage to stored foods.

Mortierellales

The majority of the species in this group are saprotrophic, and thus form no known relationships with plants. They do however play a role in nutrient transfer through the breakdown of decaying organic matter. The few that are parasitic are only so for animals and not plants.

Evolution

A genome study of Rhizophagus irregularis performed in 2013 supported the hypothesis that Glomeromycota was responsible for early plant-fungi symbiotic relationships.[6] A paper released in 2015 suggests that a Mucoromycotina species formed a symbiotic relationships with liverworts during the Paleozoic era, which may have been the first plant-fungi symbiotic relationship.[5]

Phylogenetic studies have been unable to place Mucoromycotina in any definitive location within fungi, however some research has suggested that the lineage is fairly old. Due to recent advancements allowing for better phylogenetic studies, species assigned to closely related groups are being reassigned to Mucoromycotina, one such species being Rhizophagus irregularis.

Broader implications

Phylogeny

With the improvement of phylogenetic studies, the placement of several established groups in fungi have been called into question. There is some debate regarding the relationship between Mucoromycotina and Glomeromycota, with some species currently in Glomeromycota being moved to Mucoromycotina.

Environment

The genus Endogone in Endogonales, contains species that grow in sand dunes, aiding the plants that grow in the nutrient-poor soils. The mycelium that is formed also plays a role in soil stabilization, preventing erosion. Other species produce fruiting bodies that are included in the diets of various small rodent species.

Species found in Mortierella of Mortierellales have roles in decomposition of organic matter. Some species are among the first to colonize new roots, and others have shared a relationship with spruce trees, though the exact nature in unknown.

Disease

Crown rot

Crown rot is a plant disease caused by species in Mucorales.[7] The disease is characterized by rotting tissue at or near where the stem meets the soil. Treatment is difficult if not caught in its early stages, and usually results in the death of the plant. Crown rot is seen in cereal plants (wheat, barley), with experiments from 2015 showing crop losses at 0.01 t/ha per unit increase in crown rot index or more. In addition to cereal plants, crown rot is seen in strawberries and other such low growing plants.

Zygomycosis

Fungal infection seen in animals with compromised immune systems, meaning the host is already sick before the fungus invades and inhabits the body. Also referred to as Mucoromycosis, depending on the species.

Uses

A study was conducted examining insecticidal properties of several fungi species, Mortierella was included.[8] The study focused on species isolated from Antarctica, with the intention of identifying potentially useful adaptations. They found that the Mortierella species examined was shown to have some insecticidal properties against waxmoth and housefly larvae. Further research is needed to determine the process by which this is possible, and potential usefulness.

Problems

A recurring problem with study of this phylum, is the difficulty in culturing specimens. Many of the species identified and used in phylogenetic studies, or others, have been collected in the field with few of them being cultured in labs.[9] Such an issue impacts the ability to produce extensive phylogenetic trees, resulting in the currently unknown location of the phylum in fungi.

References

  1. ^ Voigt, Kerstin; Wöstemeyer, Johannes (2001-05-30). "Phylogeny and origin of 82 zygomycetes from all 54 genera of the Mucorales and Mortierellales based on combined analysis of actin and translation elongation factor EF-1α genes". Gene. 270 (1–2): 113–120. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00464-4. ISSN 0378-1119. PMID 11404008.
  2. ^ Wagner, L.; Stielow, B.; Hoffmann, K.; Petkovits, T.; Papp, T.; Vágvölgyi, C.; de Hoog, G. S.; Verkley, G.; Voigt, K. (2013). "A comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the Mortierellales (Mortierellomycotina) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA". Persoonia. 30: 77–93. doi:10.3767/003158513X666268. PMC 3734968. PMID 24027348.
  3. ^ Spatafora, J. W.; Chang, Y.; Benny, G. L.; Lazarus, K.; Smith, M. E.; Berbee, M. L.; Bonito, G.; Corradi, N.; Grigoriev, I.; Gryganskyi, A.; James, T. Y.; O'Donnell, K.; Roberson, R. W.; Taylor, T. N.; Uehling, J.; Vilgalys, R.; White, M. M.; Stajich, J. E. (2016). "A phylum-level phylogenetic classification of zygomycete fungi based on genome-scale data". Mycologia. 108 (5): 1028–1046. doi:10.3852/16-042. PMC 6078412. PMID 27738200.
  4. ^ Académie Royale De Belgique (1974-06-01). "Bulletin de la classe des sciences". Vacuum. 24 (6): 263. doi:10.1016/0042-207X(74)93129-7. ISSN 0042-207X.
  5. ^ a b Desirò, Alessandro; Rimington, William R.; Jacob, Alison; Pol, Natalie Vande; Smith, Matthew E.; Trappe, James M.; Bidartondo, Martin I.; Bonito, Gregory (2017). "Multigene phylogeny of Endogonales, an early diverging lineage of fungi associated with plants". IMA Fungus. 8 (2): 245–257. doi:10.5598/imafungus.2017.08.02.03. PMC 5729711. PMID 29242774.
  6. ^ Field, Katie J.; Rimington, William R.; Bidartondo, Martin I.; Allinson, Kate E.; Beerling, David J.; Cameron, Duncan D.; Duckett, Jeffrey G.; Leake, Jonathan R.; Pressel, Silvia (2015). "First evidence of mutualism between ancient plant lineages (Haplomitriopsida liverworts) and Mucoromycotina fungi and its response to simulated Palaeozoic changes in atmospheric CO2". New Phytologist. 205 (2): 743–756. doi:10.1111/nph.13024. ISSN 1469-8137. PMC 4303992. PMID 25230098.
  7. ^ Forknall, Clayton; Simpfendorfer, Steve; Kelly, Alison. "Crown rot yield loss response curves". Grains Research and Development Corporation. Retrieved 2018-12-12.
  8. ^ Edgington, Steven; Thompson, Emma; Moore, Dave; Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul (2014-06-09). "Investigating the insecticidal potential of Geomyces (Myxotrichaceae: Helotiales) and Mortierella (Mortierellacea: Mortierellales) isolated from Antarctica". SpringerPlus. 3 (1): 289. doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-289. ISSN 2193-1801. PMC 4071458. PMID 25013747.
  9. ^ Yang, Mina; Lee, Jang Ho; Kim, Young-Kwon; Ki, Chang-Seok; Huh, Hee Jae; Lee, Nam Yong (2016). "Identification of Mucorales From Clinical Specimens: A 4-Year Experience in a Single Institution". Annals of Laboratory Medicine. 36 (1): 60–3. doi:10.3343/alm.2016.36.1.60. ISSN 2234-3806. PMC 4697345. PMID 26522761.
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Mucoromycotina: Brief Summary ( англиски )

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Mucoromycotina is a subphylum of uncertain placement in Fungi. It was considered part of the phylum Zygomycota, but recent phylogenetic studies have shown that it was polyphyletic and thus split into several groups, it is now thought to be a paraphyletic grouping. Mucoromycotina is currently composed of 3 orders, 61 genera, and 325 species. Some common characteristics seen throughout the species include: development of coenocytic mycelium, saprotrophic lifestyles, and filamentous.

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Mukoromikotenoj ( есперанто )

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Mukoromikotenoj (latine Mucoromycotina)[1] estas grupo de fungoj. Mucoromycotina estis en zigomikotoj, sed zigomikotoj estas ne natura klado. Ili havas multanukleaj kaj senseptaj hifojn nomataj sifonoj.

Sistematiko

Mukoromikotenoj

Mukoraloj



Endogonales



Mortierellales



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Mukoromikotenoj: Brief Summary ( есперанто )

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Mukoromikotenoj (latine Mucoromycotina) estas grupo de fungoj. Mucoromycotina estis en zigomikotoj, sed zigomikotoj estas ne natura klado. Ili havas multanukleaj kaj senseptaj hifojn nomataj sifonoj.

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Mucoromycota ( шпански; кастиљски )

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Mucoromycota es una división de hongos[1][2]​ que anteriormente se clasificaba como una subdivisión dentro la división parafilética Zygomycota (Mucoromycotina).[3][4]​ Contiene 4 órdenes , 61 géneros y 325 especies.[5]

Incluye los órdenes Endogonales, Mucorales, Mortierellales y Umbelopsidales[6]​ que se pueden clasificar en dos subdivisiones Mortierellomycotina y Mucoromycotina.[7]​ Los mismos autores también incluyen a la división Glomeromycota como una subdivisión más, sin embargo otros lo consideran una división aparte.[1]

Mucoromycota incluía muchos de los zigomicetos modelos. Se incluyen muchas especies de rápido crecimiento. La mayoría son saprobios, fitopatógenos y micoparásitos. Algunos inducen a la micosis humana.

La filogenia sería la siguiente:[1]

Amastigomycota Zoopagomycota

Entomophthoromycotina




Kickxellomycotina



Zoopagomycotina





Mucoromycota s.l

Glomeromycota


Mucoromycota s.s

Mortierellales




Umbelopsidales




Mucorales



Endogonales






Dikarya

Entorrhizomycota




Ascomycota



Basidiomycota






Referencias

  1. a b c Spatafora, Joseph W.; Chang, Ying; Benny, Gerald L.; Lazarus, Katy; Smith, Matthew E.; Berbee, Mary L.; Bonito, Gregory; Corradi, Nicolas; Grigoriev, Igor; Gryganskyi, Andrii; James, Timothy Y.; O’Donnell, Kerry; Roberson, Robert W.; Taylor, Thomas N.; Uehling, Jessie; Vilgalys, Rytas; White, Merlin M.; Stajich, Jason E. (2016). «A phylum-level phylogenetic classification of zygomycete fungi based on genome-scale data». Mycologia 108 (5): 1028-1046. ISSN 0027-5514. PMC 6078412. PMID 27738200. doi:10.3852/16-042.
  2. Tedersoo, L., Sánchez-Ramírez, S., Kõljalg, U. et al. 2018, High-level classification of the Fungi and a tool for evolutionary ecological analyses Fungal Diversity 90: 135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-018-0401-0
  3. Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF, et al. (mayo de 2007). «A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi». Mycol. Res. 111 (Pt 5): 509-47. PMID 17572334. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004.
  4. «Mucoromycotina». Consultado el 7 de marzo de 2009.
  5. Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA. (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi. (10th edición). Wallingford: CABI. p. 442. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8.
  6. «Zygomycota». Consultado el 7 de marzo de 2009.
  7. Miguel A. Naranjo‐Ortiz et Toni Gabaldón. Fungal evolution: diversity, taxonomy and phylogeny of the Fungi Wiley Online Library.

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Mucoromycota ( француски )

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Les Mucoromycota sont une division de champignons, dont les membres étaient classiquement rattachés aux Zygomycota. Ils ne contiennent qu'une seule sous-division, les Mucoromycotina.

Le genre Mucor est très proche du genre Rhizopus mais, contrairement à ce dernier, le port des espèces du genre Mucor est plus dressé, elles ne produisent ni stolons, ni rhizoïdes et les cultures sont moins envahissantes (leur vitesse de croissance est plus faible).

Écologie

Ce sont souvent des saprophytes, ils constituent une partie non négligeable des moisissures communes. Ils sont incapables de dégrader la cellulose mais ils assimilent bien les sucres, aussi, on les retrouve comme agent d'altération des aliments. Certaines espèces sont parasites de végétaux ou de champignons. Des espèces d'endogonales forment des ectomycorhizes. Les mucoromycotina peuvent également être des agents de mucormycoses. Sur les semences (toutes les espèces sont concernées), Mucor se localise sous formes de spores ou de mycélium à la surface des téguments.

Systématique

Selon une vaste étude phylogénétique réalisée en 2007, réalisée par plus d'une soixantaine de chercheurs[1], adopté par The Tree of Life Web Project et Myconet[2] constituent un important sous-embranchement de champignons qui ne peuvent actuellement être rattachés à aucun embranchement mais dont on peut penser qu'à l'avenir, ils puissent être inclus dans un embranchement des zygomycètes redéfini.

Selon l'étude de 2007[1], ce sous-embranchement est constitué des classes suivantes :

Maladie et dégâts

Les espèces du genre Mucor ne sont pas parasites de plantes au stade plantule. Elles se développent sur des semences mal conservées, âgées ou stockées en atmosphère confinée. Par conséquent, les Mucors sont rarement présents sur les semences de bonne qualité, excepté sur les semences de plantes de la famille des Cucurbitacées.

Liste des ordres et sous-ordres

Selon NCBI (1 juillet 2013)[3] :

Notes et références

  1. a et b (en) David S. Hibbett, Manfred Binder, Joseph F. Bischoff, Meredith Blackwell, Paul F. Cannon, Ove E. Erikson, Sabine Huhndorf, Timothy James, Paul M. Kirk, Robert Lücking, H. Thorsten Lumbsch, François Lutzoni, P. Brandon Matheny, David J. Mc Laughlin, Marta Powell, Scott Redhead, Conrad L. Schoch, Josep W. Spataphora, Joost A. Stalpers, Rytas Vilgalys, Catherine Aime, André Aptroot, Robert Bauer, Dominik Begerow, Gerald L. Benny, Lisa A. Castelbury, Pedro W. Crous, Yu-Cheng Dai, Walter Gams, David M. Geiser, Gareth W. Griffith, Cecile Gueidan, David L. Hawksworth, Geir Hestmark, Kentaro Hosaka, Richard A. Humber, Kevin D. Hyde, Joseph E. ironsise, Urmas Köljalg, Cletus P. Kurtzman, Karl-Henrik Larsson, Robert Lichtwardt, Joyce Longcore, Jolanta Miadlikowsk, Andrew Miller, Jean-Marc Moncalvo, Sharon Mozley Standridge, Franz Oberwinkler, Erast parmasto, Valérie Reeb, Jack D. Rogers, Claude Roux, Leif Ryvarden, José Paulo Sampaio, Arthur Schüßler, Junta Sujiyama, R. Greg THorn, Leif Tibell, Wendy A. Untereiner, Christopher Walker, Zheng Wang, Alex Weir,, Michael Weiss, Merlin M. White, Katarina Winka, Yi-Jian Yao et Ning Zhang, « A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi », Mycological Research, Elsevier, David L. Hawkworth, vol. 111, no 5,‎ 2 mars 2007, p. 509-547 (PMID , lire en ligne)
  2. (en) Lumbsch, H.T. & Huhndorf, S.M., 2007. Outline of Ascomycota – 2007. Myconet, 13, 1-58. Lire en ligne
  3. NCBI, consulté le 1 juillet 2013

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Mucoromycota: Brief Summary ( француски )

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Les Mucoromycota sont une division de champignons, dont les membres étaient classiquement rattachés aux Zygomycota. Ils ne contiennent qu'une seule sous-division, les Mucoromycotina.

Le genre Mucor est très proche du genre Rhizopus mais, contrairement à ce dernier, le port des espèces du genre Mucor est plus dressé, elles ne produisent ni stolons, ni rhizoïdes et les cultures sont moins envahissantes (leur vitesse de croissance est plus faible).

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Mucoromycotina ( полски )

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Mucoromycotina Benny – podtyp (podgromada) grzybów wyróżniany w niektórych współczesnych systemach taksonomicznych. Formalnie opisany w systemie Hibbetta i in. przez Geralda Benny'ego[1]. Typem nomenklatorycznym jest rodzaj pleśniak (Mucor Fresen.)

Charakterystyka

Najczęściej saprotroficzne, czasem fakultatywnie pasożytujące na innych grzybach (nie wytwarzając ssawek), rzadko wchodzące w ektomikoryzę. Rozgałęziona grzybnia. Młode strzępki wielojądrzaste, czasem dojrzewając tworzą porowate przegrody. Rozmnażanie bezpłciowe przez zarodniki zebrane w zarodniach różnego typu (sporangiolach, merosporangiach) lub rzadko przez chlamydospory, artrospory lub blastospory. Rozmnażanie płciowe z wytwarzaniem zygospor[1].

Systematyka

Podtyp Mucoromycotina zawiera na następujące rzędy[1]:

Grzyby z tej grupy tradycyjnie włączane były do sprzężniaków (Zygomycota). W systemie Hibbetta i in. takson Zygomycota nie jest wyróżniany, gdyż pewne cechy sugerują jego monofiletyzm, podczas gdy pozostałe mu przeczą, a pokrewieństwo jego przedstawicieli jest niedostatecznie poznane. Mucoromycotina w tym systemie mają status podtypu (subphyllum) incertae sedis, przy czym rozważane jest ponowne uznanie typu Zygomycota[1].

Przypisy

  1. a b c d e David S. Hibbett i in. A higher level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi. „Mycological Research”, s. 509–47, 2007.

Bibliografia

  1. David S. Hibbett i in. A higher level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi. „Mycological Research”, s. 509–47, 2007. DOI: 10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004.
  2. Tree of Life
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Mucoromycotina: Brief Summary ( полски )

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Mucoromycotina Benny – podtyp (podgromada) grzybów wyróżniany w niektórych współczesnych systemach taksonomicznych. Formalnie opisany w systemie Hibbetta i in. przez Geralda Benny'ego. Typem nomenklatorycznym jest rodzaj pleśniak (Mucor Fresen.)

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Mucoromycotina ( португалски )

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Ordens

Mucoromycotina é um subfilo de fungos com afinidades incertas.[1][2] Pertencia ao grupo Zygomycota, mas esse agrupamento foi considerado polifilético baseado em análises filogenéticas.[3]

Inclui as ordens Endogonales, Mucorales, e Mortierellales.[4]

Referências

  1. Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF; et al. (2007). «A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi». Mycol. Res. 111 (Pt 5): 509–47. PMID 17572334. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004 !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et al. (link) !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos: lista de autores (link)
  2. «Mucoromycotina». Consultado em 7 de março de 2009
  3. James, T.Y.; et al. (2006). «Reconstructing the early evolution of the fungi using a six gene phylogeny». Nature. 443: 818–822 !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et al. (link)
  4. «Zygomycota». Consultado em 7 de março de 2009
Classificação do reino Fungi Dikarya Ascomycota Saccharomyceta Pezizomycotina Leotiomyceta Outros Saccharomycotina Saccharomycetes Taphrinomycotina Basidiomycota Agaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina incertae sedis Glomeromycota Glomeromycetes Zygomycota* Mucoromycotina Entomophthoromycotina Entomophthorales Kickxellomycotina Zoopagomycotina Zoopagales Mortierellomycotina Mortierellales Outros


Ícone de esboço Este artigo sobre fungos é um esboço. Você pode ajudar a Wikipédia expandindo-o.
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Mucoromycotina: Brief Summary ( португалски )

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Mucoromycotina é um subfilo de fungos com afinidades incertas. Pertencia ao grupo Zygomycota, mas esse agrupamento foi considerado polifilético baseado em análises filogenéticas.

Inclui as ordens Endogonales, Mucorales, e Mortierellales.

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Mucoromycotina ( виетнамски )

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Mucoromycotina là một phân ngành nấm thuộc giới Nấm nhưng chưa được xác định vị trí rõ ràng.[1][2] Phân ngành này hiện bao gồm ba bộ, 61 chi và tương ứng với 325 loài.[3]

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Chú thích

  1. ^ Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF và đồng nghiệp (tháng 5 năm 2007). “A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi”. Mycol. Res. 111 (Pt 5). tr. 509–47. PMID 17572334. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004.
  2. ^ “Mucoromycotina”. Truy cập ngày 7 tháng 3 năm 2009.
  3. ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi. (ấn bản 10). Wallingford: CABI. tr. 442. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8.
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Mucoromycotina: Brief Summary ( виетнамски )

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Mucoromycotina là một phân ngành nấm thuộc giới Nấm nhưng chưa được xác định vị trí rõ ràng. Phân ngành này hiện bao gồm ba bộ, 61 chi và tương ứng với 325 loài.

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毛黴亞門 ( кинески )

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毛黴亞門(Mucoromycotina),又稱毛黴菌亞門,在真菌分類上仍有許多不清楚的地方,曾經被認為是接合菌門中的成員,但近期的系統分類研究結果顯示,他們是多系群,因此現今被分做好幾個不同類群。

毛黴菌亞門目前包含3個目,61屬及325種。這個類群常見的特徵包含:多核菌絲體的產生(coenocytic mycelium)、腐體營養(saprotrophic lifestyles)及絲狀菌絲(filamentous)。

歷史

接合菌綱真菌最開始被分在接合菌門底下,分類方式是依據其形態特徵和少量的分子證據。2016年遺傳學研究顯示接合菌綱的分類是可行的,因此捕蟲黴亞門(Zoopagomycota)、 蟲黴亞門(Entomophthoromycota) 、 梳黴亞門(Kickxellomycotina)以及毛黴亞門(Mucoromycotina)。研究也將這些類群劃為雙核亞界( Dikarya)的姊妹群,但也沒有做更進一步的研究,因此他們確切的分類地位仍然是未知。由於這些真菌難以收集和培養,因此現階段的分類只能依據少數成功被收集和作分子研究的物種做有限的研究[1][2]

分類

毛黴菌確切的分類地位仍然未知,他目前被歸在尚未被歸類的亞門,和一樣屬於未知的 捕蟲黴亞門(Zoopagomycota)、 蟲黴亞門(Entomophthoromycota) 、 梳黴亞門(Kickxellomycotina)並列。

這些類群一開始包含在接合菌內,與球囊菌在同一個分類位階。球囊菌門則在2001年躍升至“球囊菌門”,也因此和雙核亞界變成姊妹群,其中雙核亞界包含子囊菌門(Ascomycota)以及擔子菌門(Basidiomycota)研究目前將毛黴菌底下分為3個目:內囊黴目(Endognales)、 毛黴目 (Mucorales)和被孢黴目(Mortierellales)。這3個目底下的物種都是腐生營養,也和其他物種形成交互關係。因為有限的樣本數,毛黴菌依然有相當多的問題待解決和研究。

內囊黴目(Endogonales)

內囊黴目屬分類目前包含1科,4屬27種。比起其他已經清楚辨別的特徵,我們對這個目了解並不多。內黴菌目會產生地下型的子實體,透過散發惡臭的氣味吸引一些小型哺乳動物前來取食。培養的結果也發現這些真菌會產生多核菌絲體及透過腐體營養或菌根取得養分。內黴菌目最早在1922年 Thaxter.的專題著作被提及,而後Fitzpatrick在1930年才對此菌做首次描述。對於此菌的認識,在日後仍需要做進一步的研究。

毛黴目(Mucorales)

常被稱為Pin Molds(針狀黴菌),毛黴菌目真菌的孢子囊(sporangia)著生於菌絲頂端,又稱作孢子囊柄(sporangiophores)。這個目底下分類上目前有13科56屬,近300種的物種。毛黴菌可以以寄生或腐體營養的方式存在於自然中,進行無性繁殖。由於毛黴菌目的一些物種會破壞倉儲食物,或是對其他物種產生免疫系統上的危害,為重要的病源,因此被研究的比較多。這個目最早在1878年由van Tieghem所提出,當時所檢視的樣本並沒有符合其所被認為的蟲黴目(Entomophthorales),而較可能是毛黴目。

被孢黴目(Mortierellales)

一開始被孢黴目被認為是Mucorales底下的一個科,一直到1988年才被分成獨立的“目”,當時被孢黴目僅有兩屬,各一個種,也只知道他們在自然界中可以寄生或行腐體營養。培養出的物種則顯示他們可以產生很細的菌絲體(fine mycelium)、分支的孢子囊以及類似蒜頭氣味。它們分布範圍極廣,在許多地區的土壤中都可以發現。被孢黴目中被研究最多的為被孢黴屬(Mortierella),部分物種會造成草莓軸腐病(crown rot in strawberries)。目前有6科13屬100種以上的物種曾被描述。 Mortierella polycephala是第一個被描述的被孢黴目物種,1863年由Coemans率先描述,沿襲Société de Botanique de Belgique 主席M. Du Mortier命名。 第二個物種Dissophora decumbens則是一直到1914年被描述。而後又經過好幾年,直到2004才有第三個物種Lobosporangium transversal 被描述。

生態

毛黴菌亞門演化出3種生活型態:腐體營養(saprotrophic)、菌根(mycorrhizal)及寄生(parasitic)。腐體營養會著生在死亡而腐爛分解的有機質上,菌根則是和植物的根形成共生關係,而寄生則是會對寄主造成損害,形成片利共生的關係。

腐體營養

腐生營養(Saprotrophs)會將物質分解為不同的組成:像是將蛋白質轉換為氨基酸、脂質轉換成脂肪酸和甘糖、澱粉轉換為雙醣。管換過程通常還需要代謝水、氧氣、酸性環境(PH<7)及低溫等條件,若是在只有少數物種能適應的極端環境中很難被發現。

寄生

寄生常見於毛黴目及被孢黴目兩個類群下的物種,會造成作物的感染或動物的免疫系統受損。

毛黴目常見的感染病徵是軸腐(crown rot)或是莖腐病(stem rot),常見的症狀有:地表附近組織腐爛、植株一邊潰爛或是側枝潰爛。若不是在感染初期處理,後續的防治很難成功,通常會造成宿主死亡。軸腐病常發生在穀類植物(小麥)。2015年研究顯示,受到軸腐病影響的作物量每年約成長0.01 t/ha (噸/公頃)以上。除了穀類植物,草莓或其他矮生作物也會受到軸腐病危害。

菌根

菌根,字面上的意思為『真菌-根』是植物與真菌間在養分交換和需求的共生關係。真菌幫助植物增加吸收養分的面積,而植物則提供真菌其無法自行製造的養分。這樣的交互作用可分為兩種:『叢枝菌根』(arbuscular endomycorrhizal)和『外生真菌』(ectomycorrhizal)。叢枝菌根能進到植物的細胞中,生長在特殊的細胞內。因為這類真菌的外型像灌叢,因此稱作『叢枝』(arbuscules)。外生菌根的交互關係類似共生,不會侵入植物細胞而只會長在植物的細胞之間。

參考文獻

  1. ^ Phylogeny and origin of 82 zygomycetes from all 54 genera of the Mucorales and Mortierellales based on combined analysis of actin and translation elongation factor EF-1α genes. Gene. 2001-05-30, 270 (1-2): 113–120. ISSN 0378-1119. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00464-4 (英语).
  2. ^ Wagner, L.; Stielow, B.; Hoffmann, K.; Petkovits, T.; Papp, T.; Vágvölgyi, C.; de Hoog, G. S.; Verkley, G.; Voigt, K. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the Mortierellales (Mortierellomycotina) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA. www.ingentaconnect.com. 2013 [2018-12-12] (英语).
双鞭毛生物多貌生物AH原始色素体生物(A),或广义植物 定鞭/隐藻生物(H)(有争议) SAR不等鞭毛/囊泡生物不等鞭毛类(S) 囊泡虫类(A) 有孔虫界(R) 古虫界 无根虫门英语Apusozoa 单鞭毛生物变形虫界 后鞭毛生物动物总界Mesomycetozoea英语Mesomycetozoea 蜷丝生物英语Filozoa蜷丝球虫纲英语Filasterea
领鞭毛虫纲 动物界或
“后生动物”
菌物总界真菌界 核形虫类 雙核亞界
酵母菌类
其他
球囊菌門 接合菌門
蟲霉目擔子霉科英语Basidiobolaceae新月霉科英语Ancylistaceae
捕蟲霉目英语Zoopagales
其他 物種識別信息
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毛黴亞門: Brief Summary ( кинески )

добавил wikipedia 中文维基百科

毛黴亞門(Mucoromycotina),又稱毛黴菌亞門,在真菌分類上仍有許多不清楚的地方,曾經被認為是接合菌門中的成員,但近期的系統分類研究結果顯示,他們是多系群,因此現今被分做好幾個不同類群。

毛黴菌亞門目前包含3個目,61屬及325種。這個類群常見的特徵包含:多核菌絲體的產生(coenocytic mycelium)、腐體營養(saprotrophic lifestyles)及絲狀菌絲(filamentous)。

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ケカビ亜門 ( јапонски )

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ケカビ亜門 Mature sporangium of a Mucor sp. fungus.jpg
ユミケカビの一種の胞子嚢
分類 : 菌界 Fungi 亜界 : incertae sedis(所属不明) 亜門 : ケカビ亜門 Mucoromycotina
(Benny) : ケカビ綱 Mucoromycetes 下位分類

ケカビ亜門(mucoromycotina)は、系統関係の不明な菌類亜門である[1][2]。361325からなる[3]

所属する3ケカビ目アツギケカビ目クサレケカビ目である[4]

特徴[編集]

共通する特徴としては、以下のようなものが挙げられる。糸状菌であり、若い間は隔壁を形成しない多核体であり、成熟時には小孔を持つ隔壁を形成することもある。無性生殖は胞子嚢、あるいは小胞子嚢によるが、分節胞子や出芽胞子を形成するもの、厚膜胞子を形成するものもある。有性生殖は接合胞子を形成することによる。接合胞子嚢はほぼ球形。腐生菌が多いが、菌寄生菌もある。その場合、接触部にゴールを形成するものはあるが、吸器は形成しない。また、純粋培養可能な条件的寄生菌である。菌根を形成して陸上植物と共生するものもある。

経緯[編集]

上述の3目は、元来は接合菌門接合菌綱ケカビ目に含まれていたものであった。他にトリモチカビ目キックセラ目ハエカビ目なども接合菌綱に含めてあった。 それらはいずれも配偶子嚢接合による接合胞子形成を有性生殖として持っているためにまとめられたものだった。しかしながら分岐分類学や分子系統の解析でこれらの単系統性が認められなくなり、接合菌門も接合菌綱も解体された。現時点ではこれらは門を定めないままに亜門以下を決める形を取っている。

ただしこの亜門ではクサレケカビ目を亜門として独立させる説も提唱されている。

出典[編集]

  1. ^ Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF, et al. (May 2007). “A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi”. Mycol. Res. 111 (Pt 5): 509–47. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004. PMID 17572334. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0953-7562(07)00061-5.
  2. ^ Mucoromycotina”. ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA. (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi. (10th ed.). Wallingford: CABI. p. 442. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8.
  3. ^ Zygomycota”.
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ケカビ亜門: Brief Summary ( јапонски )

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ケカビ亜門(mucoromycotina)は、系統関係の不明な菌類亜門である。361325からなる。

所属する3ケカビ目アツギケカビ目クサレケカビ目である。

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털곰팡이아문 ( корејски )

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털곰팡이아문(Mucoromycotina)은 균류 아문의 하나이다.[1][2] 3목 61속 325종을 포함하고 있다.[3]

엔도고네목 (Endogonales)과 털곰팡이목 (Mucorales), 모르티에렐라목 ( Mortierellales)을 포함하고 있다.[4]

각주

  1. Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF; 외. (2007년 5월). “A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi”. 《Mycol. Res.》 111 (Pt 5): 509–47. PMID 17572334. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004. 더 이상 지원되지 않는 변수를 사용함 (도움말) CS1 관리 - et al.의 직접적인 사용 (링크) CS1 관리 - 여러 이름 (링크)
  2. “Mucoromycotina”. 2009년 3월 7일에 확인함.
  3. Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA. (2008). 《Dictionary of the Fungi.》 10판. Wallingford: CABI. 442쪽. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8. CS1 관리 - 여러 이름 (링크)
  4. “Zygomycota”. 2009년 3월 7일에 확인함.
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털곰팡이아문: Brief Summary ( корејски )

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털곰팡이아문(Mucoromycotina)은 균류 아문의 하나이다. 3목 61속 325종을 포함하고 있다.

엔도고네목 (Endogonales)과 털곰팡이목 (Mucorales), 모르티에렐라목 ( Mortierellales)을 포함하고 있다.

лиценца
cc-by-sa-3.0
авторски права
Wikipedia 작가 및 편집자
изворно
посети извор
соработничко мреж. место
wikipedia 한국어 위키백과