Cryptomycota ( босански )

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Cryptomycota ('skrivene gljive'), Rozellida ili Rozellomycota su kladus mikroorganizama koji su gljive i/ili sestrinska grupa gljiva. Razlikuju se od klasičnih gljiva po tome što im nedostaju hitinski ćelijski zidovi u bilo kojem trofičkom stadiju životnog ciklusa, o čemu su izvještavali Jones i kolege u 2011.[1][2] Uprkos njihovim neuobičajenom načinu ishrane, primijećen je hitin u unutrašnjem sloju spora u mirovanju, kod nekih vrsta roda Rozella, što je uočeno nakon bojenja u kalckfluor-bijelo (calcofluor-white stain), u nezrelim spavajućim sporama, kao i prisustvo specifičnog gljivnog gena za hitin-sintazu.[3]

Rozelide su prvo otkrivena po sekvenci DNK, koja je uzete iz laboratorija sa slatkom vodom. Filogenetička analiza ovih sekvenci formirala je jedinstven terminalni kladus tada nepoznate pripadnosti, privremeno nazvan nakon prethodnog klona u kladus: LKM11.[4]

Jedini formalno opisani rod u kladusu je Rozella, za koji se prethodno smataloda je pripadnik Chytrida. Postojanje srodnih organizama bilo je poznato preko sekvenci okolinske DNK.[5]

Dodatne članove grupe je, 2011. godine, izolirao tim koji je vodio Thomas Richards, iz „Natural History Museum, London“, a također i evolucijski genetičar na University of Exeter, Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo. Tim je koristio DNK tehnike da bi otkrio postojanje nepoznatog genetičkog materijala bačenog iz univerzitetskog ribnjaka. Nakon što su imali nekoliko nepoznatih sekvenci, oni su fluorescentno označili male DNK sekvence i ostavili ih da se vežu za odgovarajući DNK u čitavom uzorku (fluorescencentns in situ hibridizacija). Pod fluorescentnom mikroskopijom mogli su vidjeti da su im ćelije ovoidne forme, promjera 3–5 mikrometra. Zatim su utvrdili da su kriptomikote prisutne i u ostalim uzorcima uzetim iz daljnjeg slatkovodnog okruženja, tla i morskih sedimenata.[6][7]

Zajednička karakteristika članova kladusa je da im nedostaje hitinski ćelijski zid koji je prisutan u gotovo svim ranije otkrivenim gljivama (uključujući i Microsporidia) i koje su glavno obilježje carstva. Bez hitina mogu biti fagotrofni paraziti koji se hrane vezanjem na, a zaogrnuvši se ili živeći unutar drugih ćelija. Najpoznatije gljive se hrane kao osmotrof – hranjivim tvarima izvan ćelije.[6]

Taksonomija

Također pogledajte

Reference

  1. ^ Jones MD, Richards TA, Hawksworth DL, Bass D (2011). "Validation and justification of the phylum name Cryptomycota phyl. nov". IMA Fungus. 2 (2): 173–7. doi:10.5598/imafungus.2011.02.02.08. PMC 3359815. PMID 22679602. publikacija otvorenog pristupa - besplatna za čitanje
  2. ^ Jones MD, Forn I, Gadelha C, Egan MJ, Bass D, Massana R, Richards TA (2011). "Discovery of novel intermediate forms redefines the fungal tree of life". Nature. 474 (7350): 200–3. doi:10.1038/nature09984. PMID 21562490.
  3. ^ James TY, Berbee ML (2011). "No jacket required—New fungal lineage defies dress code" (PDF). BioEssays. 34: 94–102. doi:10.1002/bies.201100110. PMID 22131166.
  4. ^ van Hannen EJ, Mooij W, van Agterveld MP, Gons HJ, Laanbroek HJ (1999). "Detritus-dependent development of the microbial community in an experimental system: Qualitative analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 65 (6): 2478–84. PMC 91365. PMID 10347030.
  5. ^ Lara E, Moreira D, López-García P (2010). "The environmental clade LKM11 and Rozella form the deepest branching clade of fungi" (PDF). Protist. 161 (1): 116–21. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2009.06.005. PMID 19674933.
  6. ^ a b Turner M. (11. 5. 2011). "The evolutionary tree of fungi grows a new branch". Nature News. doi:10.1038/news.2011.285. Pristupljeno 31. 10. 2014.
  7. ^ Ghosh P. (11. 5. 2011). "'Missing link' fungi found in Devon pond". BBC News. Pristupljeno 31. 10. 2014.
  8. ^ Karpov; et al. (2014). "Morphology, phylogeny and ecology of the aphelids (Aphelidea, Opisthokonta) and proposal for the new superphylum Opisthosporidia". Frontiers in Microbiology. 5. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00112. PMC 3975115. PMID 24734027.

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Cryptomycota: Brief Summary ( босански )

добавил wikipedia emerging languages

Cryptomycota ('skrivene gljive'), Rozellida ili Rozellomycota su kladus mikroorganizama koji su gljive i/ili sestrinska grupa gljiva. Razlikuju se od klasičnih gljiva po tome što im nedostaju hitinski ćelijski zidovi u bilo kojem trofičkom stadiju životnog ciklusa, o čemu su izvještavali Jones i kolege u 2011. Uprkos njihovim neuobičajenom načinu ishrane, primijećen je hitin u unutrašnjem sloju spora u mirovanju, kod nekih vrsta roda Rozella, što je uočeno nakon bojenja u kalckfluor-bijelo (calcofluor-white stain), u nezrelim spavajućim sporama, kao i prisustvo specifičnog gljivnog gena za hitin-sintazu.

Rozelide su prvo otkrivena po sekvenci DNK, koja je uzete iz laboratorija sa slatkom vodom. Filogenetička analiza ovih sekvenci formirala je jedinstven terminalni kladus tada nepoznate pripadnosti, privremeno nazvan nakon prethodnog klona u kladus: LKM11.

Jedini formalno opisani rod u kladusu je Rozella, za koji se prethodno smataloda je pripadnik Chytrida. Postojanje srodnih organizama bilo je poznato preko sekvenci okolinske DNK.

Dodatne članove grupe je, 2011. godine, izolirao tim koji je vodio Thomas Richards, iz „Natural History Museum, London“, a također i evolucijski genetičar na University of Exeter, Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo. Tim je koristio DNK tehnike da bi otkrio postojanje nepoznatog genetičkog materijala bačenog iz univerzitetskog ribnjaka. Nakon što su imali nekoliko nepoznatih sekvenci, oni su fluorescentno označili male DNK sekvence i ostavili ih da se vežu za odgovarajući DNK u čitavom uzorku (fluorescencentns in situ hibridizacija). Pod fluorescentnom mikroskopijom mogli su vidjeti da su im ćelije ovoidne forme, promjera 3–5 mikrometra. Zatim su utvrdili da su kriptomikote prisutne i u ostalim uzorcima uzetim iz daljnjeg slatkovodnog okruženja, tla i morskih sedimenata.

Zajednička karakteristika članova kladusa je da im nedostaje hitinski ćelijski zid koji je prisutan u gotovo svim ranije otkrivenim gljivama (uključujući i Microsporidia) i koje su glavno obilježje carstva. Bez hitina mogu biti fagotrofni paraziti koji se hrane vezanjem na, a zaogrnuvši se ili živeći unutar drugih ćelija. Najpoznatije gljive se hrane kao osmotrof – hranjivim tvarima izvan ćelije.

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Rozellida ( англиски )

добавил wikipedia EN

Cryptomycota ('hidden fungi'), Rozellida, or Rozellomycota are a clade of micro-organisms that are either fungi or a sister group to fungi. They differ from classical fungi in that they lack chitinous cell walls at any trophic stage in their lifecycle, as reported by Jones and colleagues in 2011.[1][2] Despite their unconventional feeding habits, chitin has been observed in the inner layer of resting spores, and in immature resting spores for some species of Rozella, as indicated with calcofluor-white stain as well as the presence of a fungal-specific chitin synthase gene.[3]

Rozellida were first detected as DNA sequences retrieved from a freshwater laboratory enclosure. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences formed a unique terminal clade of then unknown affiliation provisionally called after the first clone in the clade: LKM11.[4]

The only formally described genus in the clade is Rozella, which was previously considered a chytrid. The existence of related organisms was known from environmental DNA sequences.[5]

Additional members of the group were isolated in 2011 by a team led by Thomas Richards, from the Natural History Museum in London, and also an evolutionary geneticist at the University of Exeter, UK. The team used DNA techniques to disclose the existence of unknown genetic material dredged from the university pond. Once they had a few unknown sequences they fluorescently labeled small DNA sequences and let them bind to the matching DNA in the whole sample (fluorescence in situ hybridization). Under fluorescence microscopy, they could see that the possessor cells were ovoid in shape and 3–5 micrometres across. They then established that the cryptomycota were present in other samples taken from further freshwater environments, soils and marine sediments.[6][7]

The common characteristic of the clade members is that they lack the chitinous cell walls present in almost all previously discovered fungi (including microsporidia) and which are a major feature of the kingdom. Without the chitin the cryptomycota can be phagotrophic parasites that feed by attaching to, engulfing, or living inside other cells. Most known fungi feed by osmotrophy—taking in nutrients from outside the cell.[6]

Taxonomy

Phylogeny of Rozellomycota[8] Fungi    

Aphelidiomycota

   

Eumycota

    Rozellomyceta Rozellomycota

Rozella

Microsporidiomycota    

Mitosporidium

   

Morellospora

       

Paramicrosporidium

     

Nucleophaga

   

Microsporidia

           

References

  1. ^ Jones MD, Richards TA, Hawksworth DL, Bass D (2011). "Validation and justification of the phylum name Cryptomycota phyl. nov". IMA Fungus. 2 (2): 173–7. doi:10.5598/imafungus.2011.02.02.08. PMC 3359815. PMID 22679602.
  2. ^ Jones MD, Forn I, Gadelha C, Egan MJ, Bass D, Massana R, Richards TA (2011). "Discovery of novel intermediate forms redefines the fungal tree of life". Nature. 474 (7350): 200–3. doi:10.1038/nature09984. PMID 21562490. S2CID 4412818.
  3. ^ James TY, Berbee ML (2011). "No jacket required—New fungal lineage defies dress code". BioEssays. 34 (2): 94–102. doi:10.1002/bies.201100110. PMID 22131166. S2CID 12406213.
  4. ^ van Hannen EJ, Mooij W, van Agterveld MP, Gons HJ, Laanbroek HJ (1999). "Detritus-dependent development of the microbial community in an experimental system: Qualitative analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 65 (6): 2478–84. doi:10.1128/AEM.65.6.2478-2484.1999. PMC 91365. PMID 10347030.
  5. ^ Lara E, Moreira D, López-García P (2010). "The environmental clade LKM11 and Rozella form the deepest branching clade of fungi". Protist. 161 (1): 116–21. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2009.06.005. PMID 19674933.
  6. ^ a b Turner M. (11 May 2011). "The evolutionary tree of fungi grows a new branch". Nature News. doi:10.1038/news.2011.285.
  7. ^ Ghosh P. (11 May 2011). "'Missing link' fungi found in Devon pond". BBC News. Retrieved 2014-10-31.
  8. ^ Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Al-Ani LK, Tedersoo L, Haelewaters D, Rajeshkumar KC, et al. (2020). "Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa" (PDF). Mycosphere. 11 (1): 1060–1456. doi:10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/8. ISSN 2077-7019.
  9. ^ Karpov; et al. (2014). "Morphology, phylogeny and ecology of the aphelids (Aphelidea, Opisthokonta) and proposal for the new superphylum Opisthosporidia". Frontiers in Microbiology. 5: 112. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00112. PMC 3975115. PMID 24734027.
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Rozellida: Brief Summary ( англиски )

добавил wikipedia EN

Cryptomycota ('hidden fungi'), Rozellida, or Rozellomycota are a clade of micro-organisms that are either fungi or a sister group to fungi. They differ from classical fungi in that they lack chitinous cell walls at any trophic stage in their lifecycle, as reported by Jones and colleagues in 2011. Despite their unconventional feeding habits, chitin has been observed in the inner layer of resting spores, and in immature resting spores for some species of Rozella, as indicated with calcofluor-white stain as well as the presence of a fungal-specific chitin synthase gene.

Rozellida were first detected as DNA sequences retrieved from a freshwater laboratory enclosure. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences formed a unique terminal clade of then unknown affiliation provisionally called after the first clone in the clade: LKM11.

The only formally described genus in the clade is Rozella, which was previously considered a chytrid. The existence of related organisms was known from environmental DNA sequences.

Additional members of the group were isolated in 2011 by a team led by Thomas Richards, from the Natural History Museum in London, and also an evolutionary geneticist at the University of Exeter, UK. The team used DNA techniques to disclose the existence of unknown genetic material dredged from the university pond. Once they had a few unknown sequences they fluorescently labeled small DNA sequences and let them bind to the matching DNA in the whole sample (fluorescence in situ hybridization). Under fluorescence microscopy, they could see that the possessor cells were ovoid in shape and 3–5 micrometres across. They then established that the cryptomycota were present in other samples taken from further freshwater environments, soils and marine sediments.

The common characteristic of the clade members is that they lack the chitinous cell walls present in almost all previously discovered fungi (including microsporidia) and which are a major feature of the kingdom. Without the chitin the cryptomycota can be phagotrophic parasites that feed by attaching to, engulfing, or living inside other cells. Most known fungi feed by osmotrophy—taking in nutrients from outside the cell.

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Rozellidea ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил wikipedia ES

Rozellidea o Cryptomycota es un pequeño grupo de hongos[1][2][3]​ que son endoparásitos o epibiontes de protistas, algas y otros hongos. Se presentan como zoosporas uniflageladas, esporas aflageladas o quistes sin pared celular de celulosa o quitina. Sin embargo, se ha observado quitina en la capa interna de esporas en reposo y en esporas inmaduras en algunas especies de Rozella, así como la presencia de un gen de la quitina sintasa específica de los hongos.[4]​Anteriormente estaban clasificados como protistas pero recientemente han sido reconocidos como un linaje de hongos basales y primitivos.[5]

Se conocen únicamente tres géneros: Rozella, Paramicrosporidium y Nucleophaga.[6][7]

Estudios filogenéticos recientes proponen clasificar a Rozellidea junto con Microsporidia en una división Rozellomycota, ya que según los estudios Rozellidea sería un grupo parafilético de los microsporidios. Varios análisis moleculares confirman que Microsporidia y Rozellidea comprenden grupos hermanos, mientras que el otro grupo Aphelidea se había colocado con ellos en el taxón Opisthosporidia, pero estudios recientes han encontrado que esta más emparentados con Eumycota.[8][9]

Filogenia

Una posible filogenia incluido otros grupos de hongos y opistocontos es la siguiente:[9][10][11]

Opisthokonta Holomycota

Cristidiscoidea


Fungi
Rozellomycota

Rozellidea (P?)



Microsporidia






Aphelidiomycota


Eumycota Chytridiomycota s.l

Chytridiomycota



Neocallimastigomycota




Blastocladiomycota


Amastigomycota

Zoopagomycota



Mucoromycota s.l

Mucoromycota



Glomeromycota



Dikarya

Entorrhizomycota




Ascomycota



Basidiomycota












Holozoa (Animalia y formas emparentadas)



Véase también

Referencias

  1. CAVALIER-SMITH, Thomas (2013). «Early evolution of eukaryote feeding modes, cell structural diversity, and classification of the protozoan phyla Loukozoa, Sulcozoa, and Choanozoa». European Journal of Protistology [online] 49 (2): 115-178. ISSN 0932-4739. PMID 23085100. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2012.06.001.
  2. Silar, Philippe (2016), «Protistes Eucaryotes: Origine, Evolution et Biologie des Microbes Eucaryotes», HAL Archives-ouvertes: 1-462
  3. Tedersoo, L., Sánchez-Ramírez, S., Kõljalg, U. et al. 2018, High-level classification of the Fungi and a tool for evolutionary ecological analyses Fungal Diversity 90: 135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-018-0401-0
  4. James TY & Berbee ML 2012, No jacket required--new fungal lineage defies dress code: recently described zoosporic fungi lack a cell wall during trophic phase. Bioessays. 2012 Feb;34(2):94-102. doi: 10.1002/bies.201100110. Epub 2011 Dec 1.
  5. Fungorum
  6. Corsaro, D., Walochnik, J., Venditti, D., Steinmann, J., Müller, K. D., & Michel, R. (2014). Microsporidia-like parasites of amoebae belong to the early fungal lineage Rozellomycota. Parasitology research, 113(5), 1909-1918.
  7. Corsaro, D., Walochnik, J., Venditti, D., Müller, K. D., Hauröder, B., & Michel, R. (2014). Rediscovery of Nucleophaga amoebae, a novel member of the Rozellomycota. Parasitology research, 113(12), 4491-4498.
  8. Wijayawardene etal (September 2018). «Notes for genera: basal clades of Fungi (including Aphelidiomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Caulochytriomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Glomeromycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Olpidiomycota, Rozellomycota and Zoopagomycota)». Fungal Diversity 92 (1): 43-129. doi:10.1007/s13225-018-0409-5.
  9. a b Tedersoo, L., Sánchez-Ramírez, S., Kõljalg, U. et al. 2018, High-level classification of the Fungi and a tool for evolutionary ecological analyses Fungal Diversity 90: 135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-018-0401-0
  10. Guifré Torruella et al. 2015, Phylogenomics Reveals Convergent Evolution of Lifestyles in Close Relatives of Animals and Fungi. Current Biology Volume 25, Issue 18, p2404–2410, 21 September 2015
  11. Spatafora, Joseph W.; Chang, Ying; Benny, Gerald L.; Lazarus, Katy; Smith, Matthew E.; Berbee, Mary L.; Bonito, Gregory; Corradi, Nicolas; Grigoriev, Igor; Gryganskyi, Andrii; James, Timothy Y.; O’Donnell, Kerry; Roberson, Robert W.; Taylor, Thomas N.; Uehling, Jessie; Vilgalys, Rytas; White, Merlin M.; Stajich, Jason E. (2016). «A phylum-level phylogenetic classification of zygomycete fungi based on genome-scale data». Mycologia 108 (5): 1028-1046. ISSN 0027-5514. PMC 6078412. PMID 27738200. doi:10.3852/16-042.
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Rozellidea: Brief Summary ( шпански; кастиљски )

добавил wikipedia ES

Rozellidea o Cryptomycota es un pequeño grupo de hongos​​​ que son endoparásitos o epibiontes de protistas, algas y otros hongos. Se presentan como zoosporas uniflageladas, esporas aflageladas o quistes sin pared celular de celulosa o quitina. Sin embargo, se ha observado quitina en la capa interna de esporas en reposo y en esporas inmaduras en algunas especies de Rozella, así como la presencia de un gen de la quitina sintasa específica de los hongos.​Anteriormente estaban clasificados como protistas pero recientemente han sido reconocidos como un linaje de hongos basales y primitivos.​

Se conocen únicamente tres géneros: Rozella, Paramicrosporidium y Nucleophaga.​ ​

Estudios filogenéticos recientes proponen clasificar a Rozellidea junto con Microsporidia en una división Rozellomycota, ya que según los estudios Rozellidea sería un grupo parafilético de los microsporidios. Varios análisis moleculares confirman que Microsporidia y Rozellidea comprenden grupos hermanos, mientras que el otro grupo Aphelidea se había colocado con ellos en el taxón Opisthosporidia, pero estudios recientes han encontrado que esta más emparentados con Eumycota.​​

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Cryptomycota ( италијански )

добавил wikipedia IT

Cryptomycota o anche Rozellomycota è una divisione di funghi unicellulari proposta nel 2011 che è stata recentemente accettata.[1] I funghi di questa divisione mantengono caratteristiche primitive come l'alimentazione fagofitica e la presenza di flagello nelle cellule proprio come i chytridi.

Tutti sono parassiti di alghe, animali e altri funghi. Sono divisi in tre gruppi: Rozellidea, Microsporidia e Aphelidea, tuttavia a volte questi ultimi due sono considerati divisioni separate.[2] Dal punto di vista filogenetico costituiscono il primo gruppo di separazione del regno dei funghi. Il tipo di genere è Rozella.[3][4]

Note

  1. ^ Validation and justification of the phylum name Cryptomycota phyl. nov. Meredith D.M. Jones et al, 2011
  2. ^ Corsaro, D., Walochnik, J., Venditti, D., Steinmann, J., Müller, K. D., & Michel, R. (2014). Microsporidia-like parasites of amoebae belong to the early fungal lineage Rozellomycota. Parasitology research, 113(5), 1909-1918.
  3. ^ Tedersoo, L., Sánchez-Ramírez, S., Kõljalg, U. et al. 2018, High-level classification of the Fungi and a tool for evolutionary ecological analyses Fungal Diversity 90: 135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-018-0401-0
  4. ^ Guifré Torruella et al. 2015, Phylogenomics Reveals Convergent Evolution of Lifestyles in Close Relatives of Animals and Fungi. Current Biology ISSN 0960-9822 Volume 25, Issue 18, p2404–2410, 21 September 2015

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Cryptomycota: Brief Summary ( италијански )

добавил wikipedia IT

Cryptomycota o anche Rozellomycota è una divisione di funghi unicellulari proposta nel 2011 che è stata recentemente accettata. I funghi di questa divisione mantengono caratteristiche primitive come l'alimentazione fagofitica e la presenza di flagello nelle cellule proprio come i chytridi.

Tutti sono parassiti di alghe, animali e altri funghi. Sono divisi in tre gruppi: Rozellidea, Microsporidia e Aphelidea, tuttavia a volte questi ultimi due sono considerati divisioni separate. Dal punto di vista filogenetico costituiscono il primo gruppo di separazione del regno dei funghi. Il tipo di genere è Rozella.

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