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Zoopagomycotina ( англиски )

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The Zoopagomycotina are a subdivision (incertae sedis) of the fungal division Zygomycota sensu lato.[1] It contains 5 families and 20 genera.[2] Relationships among and within subphyla of Zygomycota are poorly understood, and their monophyly remains in question, so they are sometimes referred to by the informal name zygomycetes.

Zoopagomycotina are microscopic and are typically obligate parasites of other zygomycete fungi and of microscopic soil animals such as nematodes, rotifers and amoebae.[3] Some species are endoparasites that live mostly within the bodies of their hosts and only exit the host when they are producing spores. Other species are ectoparasites (e.g. Syncephalis, Piptocephalis)[2] that live outside of the host body but produce specialized organs called haustoria that penetrate inside of the host body to capture host nutrients. Similar haustoria are found in biotrophic plant, animal and fungal pathogens in several other major fungal lineages.

Like most other zygomycete fungi, the Zoopagomycotina have cell walls containing chitin and have coenocytic (nonseptate) hyphae. Their vegetative body consists of a simple, branched or unbranched thallus. Asexual reproduction is by arthrospores (in Helicocephalum), chlamydospores, uni- or multi-spored sporganiola; sporangiospores of multi-spored formed in simple or branched chains (merosporangia), usually from a vesicle or stalk. Many produce haustoria. Where observed, the sexual spores (zygospores) are globose and unornamented. The hyphae used during sexual outcrossing is similar to vegetative hyphae or in some cases may be slightly enlarged.[1]

Etymology

The word Zoopagomycotina comes from the Greek roots zoo meaning "animal" and pag meaning "rock" or "ice/frost".[4]

Evolutionary relationships

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Currently accepted phyla and subphyla in kingdom Fungi
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Phylogeny of Zygomycota

Although great strides have been made in resolving the evolutionary relationships among many lineages of fungi,[5] it has been challenging to resolve relationships within and among zygomycetes. For example, the uncertain grouping of Zoophagus insidians with the Kickxellomycotina.[1]

Resolving a well-supported monophyly of the Zoopagomycotina has been particularly challenging for several main reasons:

  • most species of Zoopagomycotina are microscopic and challenging to observe
  • most species of Zoopagomycotina cannot be grown separately from their host organisms in axenic culture, so obtaining pure DNA for molecular studies is challenging
  • based on ribosomal DNA sequences, species of Zoopagomycotina may have undergone accelerated evolution, so grouping may be skewed by long-branch attraction (LBA) and a high frequency of parallel evolutionary changes[6]

Families and their respective genera

References

  1. ^ a b c Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF, et al. (May 2007). "A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi". Mycol. Res. 111 (Pt 5): 509–47. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.626.9582. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004. PMID 17572334.
  2. ^ a b c url=http://zygomycetes.org/index.php?id=8
  3. ^ url=http://www.tolweb.org/Zygomycota
  4. ^ url=http://www.oed.com
  5. ^ James TY, Kauff F, Schoch CL, Matheny PB, Hofstetter V, Cox CJ, et al. (2006). "Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny". Nature. 443 (Pt 7113): 818–822. Bibcode:2006Natur.443..818J. doi:10.1038/nature05110. PMID 17051209. S2CID 4302864.
  6. ^ White MM, et al. (2006). "Phylogeny of the Zygomycota based on nuclear ribosomal sequence data". Mycologia. 98 (Pt 6): 872–884. doi:10.3852/mycologia.98.6.872. PMID 17486964.

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Zoopagomycotina: Brief Summary ( англиски )

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The Zoopagomycotina are a subdivision (incertae sedis) of the fungal division Zygomycota sensu lato. It contains 5 families and 20 genera. Relationships among and within subphyla of Zygomycota are poorly understood, and their monophyly remains in question, so they are sometimes referred to by the informal name zygomycetes.

Zoopagomycotina are microscopic and are typically obligate parasites of other zygomycete fungi and of microscopic soil animals such as nematodes, rotifers and amoebae. Some species are endoparasites that live mostly within the bodies of their hosts and only exit the host when they are producing spores. Other species are ectoparasites (e.g. Syncephalis, Piptocephalis) that live outside of the host body but produce specialized organs called haustoria that penetrate inside of the host body to capture host nutrients. Similar haustoria are found in biotrophic plant, animal and fungal pathogens in several other major fungal lineages.

Like most other zygomycete fungi, the Zoopagomycotina have cell walls containing chitin and have coenocytic (nonseptate) hyphae. Their vegetative body consists of a simple, branched or unbranched thallus. Asexual reproduction is by arthrospores (in Helicocephalum), chlamydospores, uni- or multi-spored sporganiola; sporangiospores of multi-spored formed in simple or branched chains (merosporangia), usually from a vesicle or stalk. Many produce haustoria. Where observed, the sexual spores (zygospores) are globose and unornamented. The hyphae used during sexual outcrossing is similar to vegetative hyphae or in some cases may be slightly enlarged.

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Zoopagomycetes ( француски )

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Les Zoopagomycetes sont une classe de champignons, uniques représentants de la division des Zoopagomycota. Ce sont principalement des parasites de rotifères, de nématodes, d'insectes et d'autres champignons.

Description

Taxinomie

Liste des taxons subordonnés

D'après la 10e édition de Dictionary of the Fungi[1], cette sous-division et cet ordre sont constitués en 2008 des taxons suivants :

Selon Catalogue of Life (1 juillet 2013)[2] :

Selon NCBI (1 juillet 2013)[3] :

Notes et références

  1. (en) P.M. Kirk, P.F. Cannon, D.W. Minter et J.A. Stalpers, Dictionary of the Fungi, Wallingford CABI, 2008, 760 p. (ISBN 9780851998268, lire en ligne), p. 346
  2. Catalogue of Life , consulté le 1 juillet 2013
  3. NCBI, consulté le 1 juillet 2013

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Zoopagomycetes: Brief Summary ( француски )

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Les Zoopagomycetes sont une classe de champignons, uniques représentants de la division des Zoopagomycota. Ce sont principalement des parasites de rotifères, de nématodes, d'insectes et d'autres champignons.

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Zoopagomycotina ( португалски )

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Ordens Zoopagales Bessey ex R.K. Benj. (1979)

Zoopagomycotina é um subfilo de fungos que inclui uma única ordem, a Zoopagales.[1] Pertencia ao grupo Zygomycota, mas esse agrupamento foi considerado polifilético baseado em análises filogenéticas.[2]

Referências

  1. Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF; et al. (2007). «A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi». Mycol. Res. 111 (Pt 5): 509–47. PMID 17572334. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004 !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et al. (link) !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos: lista de autores (link)
  2. James, T.Y.; et al. (2006). «Reconstructing the early evolution of the fungi using a six gene phylogeny». Nature. 443: 818–822 !CS1 manut: Uso explícito de et al. (link)

Ligações externas

Classificação do reino Fungi Dikarya Ascomycota Saccharomyceta Pezizomycotina Leotiomyceta Outros Saccharomycotina Saccharomycetes Taphrinomycotina Basidiomycota Agaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina incertae sedis Glomeromycota Glomeromycetes Zygomycota* Mucoromycotina Entomophthoromycotina Entomophthorales Kickxellomycotina Zoopagomycotina Zoopagales Mortierellomycotina Mortierellales Outros


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Zoopagomycotina: Brief Summary ( португалски )

добавил wikipedia PT

Zoopagomycotina é um subfilo de fungos que inclui uma única ordem, a Zoopagales. Pertencia ao grupo Zygomycota, mas esse agrupamento foi considerado polifilético baseado em análises filogenéticas.

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Zoopagomycotina ( виетнамски )

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Zoopagomycotina là phân ngành nấm (incertae sedis) trong ngành Zygomycota.[1] Phân ngành này có 5 họ, tương ứng với 20 chi.[2]

Tham khảo

  1. ^ Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF và đồng nghiệp (tháng 5 năm 2007). “A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi”. Mycol. Res. 111 (Pt 5): 509–47. PMID 17572334. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004.
  2. ^ url=http://zygomycetes.org/index.php?id=8

Liên kết ngoài

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Zoopagomycotina: Brief Summary ( виетнамски )

добавил wikipedia VI

Zoopagomycotina là phân ngành nấm (incertae sedis) trong ngành Zygomycota. Phân ngành này có 5 họ, tương ứng với 20 chi.

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포충균아문 ( корејски )

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포충균아문(Zoopagomycotina)은 포충균목을 포함하고 있는 균류 아문의 하나이다.[1]

각주

  1. Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF; 외. (2007년 5월). “A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi”. 《Mycol. Res.》 111 (Pt 5): 509–47. PMID 17572334. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004. 더 이상 지원되지 않는 변수를 사용함 (도움말) CS1 관리 - et al.의 직접적인 사용 (링크) CS1 관리 - 여러 이름 (링크)
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포충균아문: Brief Summary ( корејски )

добавил wikipedia 한국어 위키백과

포충균아문(Zoopagomycotina)은 포충균목을 포함하고 있는 균류 아문의 하나이다.

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