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Overview

Brief Summary

Hesperocyparis macnabiana occurs in California at 300 to 850 meters in elevation; preferred habitats are in chaparral and foothill woodland, often on serpentine. It forms the only known cypress hybrid with Sargent cypress.
This species has a generally shrubby growth form to 12 meters in height; the champion specimen in Amador County has achieved a height of 17 meters. The crowns are dense and broadly conical. Bark is rough, furrowed and fibrous. Branchlets are comblike. Leaves exhibit a conspicuous, pitlike, abaxial gland that produces a drop of resin. Pollen cones are two to three mm long by two mm wide. Seed cones are globose, generally 1.5 to 2.5 cm in size, brown or gray, and not glaucous. The light to medium brown seeds are two to five mm long, and occasionally appear slightly glaucous. Among North America's true Cypresses, the MacNab cypress alone manifests flattened branchlets lying all in one plane.
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

3 Southern Pacific Border
4 Sierra Mountains

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Occurrence in North America

CA

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MacNab cypress occurs only in California and has the widest distribution
of any of the California cypress [14,27]. Numerous scattered groves
occur in the inner North Coast Ranges, the Sierra Nevada foothills, and
the Cascade Range [14,24,27]. Over 30 groves occur in the following
counties: Sonoma, Napa, Yolo, Mendocino, Lake, Colusa, Tehama, Shasta,
Butte, Nevada, Yuba, and Amador [27].
  • 14. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1975. Rare and local conifers in the United States. Conservation Research Rep. No. 19. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 25 p. [15691]
  • 24. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]
  • 27. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]

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Calif.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the term: tree

MacNab cypress is a native, evergreen tree with a broad crown and
lacking a main trunk [10,24]. It grows from 9.9 to 33 feet (3-10 m)
tall [8]. It is unique among North American cypress because of the
flat, sprayed arrangement of its branches [2,24]. Mature leaves are
generally about 0.06 inch (1.5 mm) long, although they can be up to 0.4
inch (10 mm) on vigorous shoots [8,24]. Ovulate cones are solitary, up
to 1.0 inch (25 mm) long. Staminate cones are 0.08 to 0.12 inch (2-3
mm) long [8,24]. The bark is furrowed and fibrous, 2.54 to 5.1 inches
(1-2 cm) thick, and not exfoliating [24]. A well-defined taproot and
numerous laterals are formed the first year [10].
  • 8. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 2. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1966. Ecological and taxonomic relationships of Cupressus in southern California. Los Angles, CA: California State College. 129 p. Thesis. [21332]
  • 10. Johnson, LeRoy C. 1974. Cupressus L. cypress. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 363-369. [7599]
  • 24. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]

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Physical Description

Shrub, Evergreen, Monoecious, Habit erect, Trees without or rarely having knees, Primary plant stem smooth, Tree with bark smooth, Tree with bark rough or scaly, Tree with bark shaggy or peeling, Young shoots in flat sprays, Buds not resinous, Leaves scale-like, Leaves opposite, Non-needle-like leaf margins entire, Leaf apex acute, Leaf apex obtuse, Leaves < 5 cm long, Leaves < 10 cm long, Leaves not blue-green, Outer leaf surface covered with resin, Scale leaves with raised glands, Scale leaf glands ruptured, Scale leaves overlapping, Twigs glabrous, Twigs not viscid, Twigs without peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Berry-like cones orange, Woody seed cones < 5 cm long, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds brown, Seeds winged, Seeds equally winged, Seed wings narrower than body.
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Description

Shrubby trees to 12 m; crown broadly conical, dense. Bark rough, furrowed, fibrous. Branchlets comblike, 0.5--1 mm diam. Leaves with conspicuous, pitlike, abaxial gland that produces drop of resin, sometimes glaucous. Pollen cones 2--3 ´ 2 mm; pollen sacs 3--5. Seed cones globose, mostly 1.5--2.5 cm, brown or gray, not glaucous; scales 3--4 pairs, smooth except for erect conic umbos, 2--4 mm. Seeds 2--5 mm, light to medium brown, sometimes slightly glaucous.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Cupressus macnabiana occurs in the Upper Sonoran Life Zone in chaparral or woodland, associated with Pinus attenuata, P. sabiniana, less commonly P. ponderosa, Quercus spp., and Arctostaphylos sp., often forming groves on rocky slopes and in ravines in clay, loam or sand over serpentine. The altitudinal range is from 300 m to 1200 m a.s.l. The climate is of the Mediterranean type with dry, hot summers and winter rain.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Habitat characteristics

More info for the term: serpentine soils

In many areas MacNab cypress is restricted to serpentine soils, but in
other locations it occurs on clay loam (up to 5.0 feet [1.5 m] deep),
silty loam, alluvial, granitic, and volcanic soils [13,16,27]. It is
found on dry slopes, exposed hillsides, and ridgetops [8,16,20]. It
occurs at elevations from 1,000 to 2,800 feet (300-850 m) on north- to
northeast-facing slopes [8,20].
  • 8. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 20. Posey, Clayton E.; Goggans, James F. 1967. Observations on species of cypress indigenous to the United States. Circular 153. Auburn, AL: Auburn University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 19 p. [20384]
  • 16. McMillan, Calvin. 1956. The edaphic restriction of Cupressus and Pinus in the Coast Ranges of central California. Ecological Monographs. 26: 177-212. [11884]
  • 13. Lawrence, Lorraine; Bartschot, Rita; Zavarin, Eugene; Griffin, James R. 1975. Natural hybridization of Cupressus sargentii and C. macnabiana and the composition of the derived essential oils. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2(11): 113-119. [22055]
  • 27. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the terms: mesic, natural, tree

MacNab cypress is a component of the northern interior cypress forest.
This community is an open, fire-maintained, scrubby forest similar to
the knobcone pine (Pinus attenuata) forest. It is associated with
serpentine chaparral, and intergrades on less severe sites with upper
Sonoran mixed chaparral, montane chaparral, or knobcone pine forest
community types. On more mesic sites the northern interior cypress
forest intergrades with mixed evergreen forest or montane coniferous
forest [11]. MacNab cypress is associated with redwood (Sequoia
sempervirens)-Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forest and associated
North Coast forests in Mendocino County, California [6,26]. It is also
commonly associated with chaparral and pine-oak (Pinus-Quercus spp.)
woodland species [8,27]. The Magalia grove in Butte County is
surrounded by yellow pine forest (Pinus ponderosa and P. jeffreyi) [27].
MacNab cypress occurs sympatrically with Sargent cypress in Lake County,
California [16].

Publications naming MacNab cypress as a community dominant are listed below.

Terrestrial natural communities of California [9]
Terrestrial vegetation of California [27]

Species not previously mentioned but commonly associated with MacNab
cypress include gray pine (Pinus sabiniana), sugar pine (P.
lambertiana), incense-cedar (Libocedrus decurrens), California scrub oak
(Quercus dumosa), leather oak (Q. durata), interior live oak (Q.
wislizenii), valley oak (Q. lobata), Sierra coffeeberry (Rhamnus rubra),
California coffeeberry (R. californica), yerba santa (Eriodictyon
californicum
), chaparral pea (Pickeringia montana), golden-fleece
(Haplopappus arborescens), Garrya congdonii (interior silktassel),
California hop tree (Ptelea crenulata), chamise (Adenostoma
fasciculatum
), wedgeleaf ceanothus (Ceanothus cuneatus), musk brush (C.
jepsonii), whiteleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos viscida), creeping sage
(Salvia sonomensis), and styrax (Styrax officinalis var. californica)
[6,24,26,27].
  • 9. Holland, Robert F. 1986. Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial natural communities of California. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Fish and Game. 156 p. [12756]
  • 8. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 16. McMillan, Calvin. 1956. The edaphic restriction of Cupressus and Pinus in the Coast Ranges of central California. Ecological Monographs. 26: 177-212. [11884]
  • 6. Gardner, Robert A. 1958. Soil-vegetation associations in the redwood - Douglas-fir zone of California. In: Proceedings, 1st North American forest soils conference; [Date of conference unknown]
  • 11. Kruckeberg, Arthur R. 1984. California serpentines: flora, vegetation, geology, soils and management problems. Publications in Botany Volume 48. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 180 p. [12482]
  • 24. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]
  • 26. Zinke, Paul J. 1977. The redwood forest and associated north coast forests. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 679-698. [7212]
  • 27. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]

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Habitat: Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

229 Pacific Douglas-fir
232 Redwood
233 Oregon white oak
244 Pacific ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir
245 Pacific ponderosa pine
247 Jeffrey pine
248 Knobcone pine

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Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

K005 Mixed conifer forest
K006 Redwood forest
K029 California mixed evergreen forest
K030 California oakwoods
K033 Chaparral

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Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES20 Douglas-fir
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES27 Redwood
FRES28 Western hardwoods
FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub

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Chaparral and foothill woodland, often on serpentine; 300--850m.
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General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the term: fire suppression

Fires occurring too frequently in McNab cypress groves may destroy them,
as reproduction could be eliminated before it had a chance to produce
cones. Conversely, fire suppression could threaten the species.

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Plant Response to Fire

MacNab cypress release large quantities of seed after fire [24]. In
Lake County, it occurs on recently burned areas with Sargent cypress
[16].

In Aukum, California, many decadent MacNab cypress were reported in
1948. The prevalence of "overmature and decadent" Macnab cypress trees
was attributed to the absence of fire, which was veiwed as unusual for
this species. A few miles south, in Hooker Canyon, Sonoma County, a
chaparral atand of chamise and California scrub oak contained a few old
MacNab cypress, numerous burned MacNab cypress stumps, and many young
MacNab cypress trees [24].

Seedling regeneration is not as extensive for MacNab cypress as for
other cypress species, possible due to low germination rates [24].
  • 16. McMillan, Calvin. 1956. The edaphic restriction of Cupressus and Pinus in the Coast Ranges of central California. Ecological Monographs. 26: 177-212. [11884]
  • 24. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

Most fires probably kill MacNab cypress. Cypress thickets are conducive
to crown fires, which usually kill almost all trees in the stand [27].
At the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden in southern California on October
8, 1943, a severe fire killed all but three MacNab cypress trees [24].

Cones of the California cypress open as the resin melts and boils.
Rapid charring of the thick cone scales extinguishes the flames, leaving
seeds unburned [2].
  • 2. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1966. Ecological and taxonomic relationships of Cupressus in southern California. Los Angles, CA: California State College. 129 p. Thesis. [21332]
  • 24. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]
  • 27. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: crown residual colonizer, root crown

Tree without adventitious-bud root crown
Crown residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)

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Fire Ecology

More info for the term: serotinous

MacNab cypress is a fire-adapted, fire-dependent species. Successful
cypress (Hesperocyparis spp.) reproduction is generally restricted to burned
sites [27]. The serotinous cones persist on the trees for years [25].
Cone opening is erratic, slow, and almost negligible except when cones
are exposed to extreme heat; then it is rapid and uniform [25]. When
opened by the heat of a fire, the seeds fall on exposed mineral soil
[14,24]. Most seed falls in the first few months following fire [25].
Fires that occur in late summer and fall and are followed by winter
rains ensure seed dissemination on bare mineral substrates [27]. No
information was available on fire-free intervals for communities
dominated by MacNab cypress. However, Tecate cypress (Hesperocyparis
forbesii), a cypress found in southern California,
has an average interval between fires of 25 years, ranging from 15 to 63
years [2]. Cypress trees of southern California generally reach
cone-bearing age before another fire occurs [27].
  • 2. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1966. Ecological and taxonomic relationships of Cupressus in southern California. Los Angles, CA: California State College. 129 p. Thesis. [21332]
  • 14. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1975. Rare and local conifers in the United States. Conservation Research Rep. No. 19. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 25 p. [15691]
  • 24. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]
  • 25. Zedler, Paul H. 1986. Closed-cone conifers of the chaparral. Fremontia. 14(3): 14-17. [18648]
  • 27. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

Site requirements for cypress seedlings are typical of those for pioneer
conifers. Seedlings are shade intolerant and survive best in full
sunlight on bare mineral soil [27]. Perhaps due to its shorter, bushier
habit, MacNab cypress is found on more exposed sites than Sargent
cypress where the two species occur together [16].
  • 16. McMillan, Calvin. 1956. The edaphic restriction of Cupressus and Pinus in the Coast Ranges of central California. Ecological Monographs. 26: 177-212. [11884]
  • 27. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the term: litter

MacNab cypress reproduces exclusively from seed. Cone production is
abundant. Staminate cones are produced on trees that are 6 to 7 years
old [24]. Ovulate cones are produced on trees that are 14 years of age
or older. The cones require 2 years to mature [2]. They contain from
75 to 105 seeds each [10,24]. The cones are closed; they persist on the
tree until opened by the heat of a fire or from desiccation due to age
[10,27]. Seeds are shed gradually over several months after the cones
are opened [27]. Detached cones will open, but they rarely result in
seedling establishment, usually due to the lack of a suitable seedbed
[2]. Seed dispersal is primarily by wind and rain [27].

MacNab cypress germination rates are extremely low, less than 5 percent
[16]. Seeds require bare mineral soil for germination and
establishment. Seedling mortality is greater on shaded sites with
abundant litter because of damping-off fungi [2,27]. Seedlings are
sensitive to excessive moisture [24].
  • 16. McMillan, Calvin. 1956. The edaphic restriction of Cupressus and Pinus in the Coast Ranges of central California. Ecological Monographs. 26: 177-212. [11884]
  • 2. Armstrong, Wayne P. 1966. Ecological and taxonomic relationships of Cupressus in southern California. Los Angles, CA: California State College. 129 p. Thesis. [21332]
  • 10. Johnson, LeRoy C. 1974. Cupressus L. cypress. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 363-369. [7599]
  • 24. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]
  • 27. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phanerophyte

Phanerophyte

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Life Form

More info for the term: tree

Tree

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

MacNab cypress starts shedding its pollen around October 28 [24]. Seeds
mature 15 to 18 months after pollination. Ovulate cones remain closed
until opened by heat or age [10,24].
  • 10. Johnson, LeRoy C. 1974. Cupressus L. cypress. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 363-369. [7599]
  • 24. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Hesperocyparis macnabiana

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hesperocyparis macnabiana

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P.

Contributor/s

Justification
This most common and abundant of the California cypresses has an area of occupancy no more than 200 km² due to the fact that it consists of around 30 “groves” of a few km² at the largest. Many are smaller. However, overall there seems to be no current decline in the population, so it is assessed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
There are at least 30 “groves” of McNab Cypress; these can be considered subpopulations if sufficiently isolated. Some are extensive (>3 km across) and must contain thousands of mature trees.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
MacNab Cypress is a widely distributed and common species, with some populations covering large areas and forming the dominant trees. While a significant proportion of the species occurs on public lands with some protection of its natural vegetation guaranteed by legislation, a considerable proportion is on private land where they have. to some extent, been impacted by a range of human activities (Griffin and Critchfield 1972, Mallek 2009).Wildfires are a potential hazard only if their frequency or intensity would exceed levels of sustainability: the species is dependent on fire for successful regeneration and establishment. Fire suppression policies may pose a greater threat (Mallek 2009).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Several populations occur within protected areas. Monitoring the situation with wildfire frequency and successful regeneration in major subpopulations is recommended to establish long term predictions on the survival of this species, possibly in conjunction with predictions on climate change.
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Management considerations

More info for the terms: fuel, serpentine soils

Grazing and trampling by livestock are detrimental to cypress seedlings [1].

MacNab cypress is unsuitable for use in windbreaks or hedges near the
coast or in areas that are waterlogged, because waterlogged soils may
result in dwarfed trees [24,27].

Seedlings are susceptible to damping-off fungi [27]. MacNab cypress is
moderately susceptible to coryneum canker (Coryneum cardinale), which
can kill trees [24]. It succumbs to various diseases when transplanted
from warm, dry interior locations to the cool, moist atmosphere of the
coast [24].

MacNab cypress is restricted to serpentine soils in many locations.
Using cypress wood to fuel the furnaces used to extract mercury from
sepentine soils has reduced California's cypress forests [1].
  • 1. Airola, Daniell A.; Messick, Timothy C. 1987. Sliding toward extinction: the state of California's natural heritage, 1987. Report prepared at the request of the California Senate Committee on Natural Resources and Wildlife. [Location of publisher unknown]
  • 24. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]
  • 27. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

Rodents and deer consume cypress seedlings. Cypress are considered
undesirable forage for livestock, although young plants are browsed
[24].
  • 24. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]

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Wood Products Value

More info for the terms: density, fuel

MacNab cypress has soft, close-grained wood [24]. Cypress (Hesperocyparis
spp.) wood is generally durable and stable. It is suitable for a wide
range of exterior uses including joinery, shingles, and boats. Possible
interior uses include moulding and panelling [17]. Cypress shelterbelts
provide good fuel. Most cypress species develop a large proportion of
heartwood, which splits well, dries quickly, and is clean-burning.
Cypress wood is moderately fast burning because of its medium density.
As cypress woods are prone to sparking, they are recommended only for
enclosed fires [17].
  • 24. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]
  • 17. Miller, J. T.; Knowles, F. B. 1990. Introduced forest trees in New Zealand: recognition, role and seed source. 9. The cypresses: Cupressus spp. and Chamaecyparis spp. FRI Bulletin 124/9. Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand Forest Service. 33 p. [21880]

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Wikipedia

Cupressus macnabiana

Cupressus macnabiana (MacNab Cypress or Shasta Cypress) is a species of cypress in western North America.(A. Farjon. 2005)

Distribution[edit]

It is endemic to northern California. Cupressus macnabiana is one of the most widely distributed of all the native California cypresses, found growing in chaparral, oak woodlands, and coniferous woodlands habitats along the inner northern California Coast Ranges and the foothills of the northern Sierra Nevada. MacNab cypress is often associated with ultramafic soils.(C. Michael Hogan. 2010)

note prominent "horns" (umbos) on top two cone bracts

Description[edit]

Cupressus macnabiana is an evergreen shrub or small tree, 3–12 metres (9.8–39.4 ft) (rarely to 17 metres (56 ft)) tall, with a spreading crown that is often broader than it is tall. The foliage is produced in dense, short flat sprays (unlike most other California cypresses, which do not have flattened sprays), bright glaucous gray-green in color, with a strong spicy-resinous scent. The leaves are scale-like, 1-2 mm long with an acute apex, and a conspicuous white resin gland on the center of the leaf. Young seedlings produce needle-like leaves up to 10 mm long in their first year.

The seed cones are oblong-ovoid to cuboid, 15-25 mm long and 13-20 mm broad, with six (rarely four or eight) scales, each scale bearing a prominent umbo; they are strongly serotinous, not opening to release the seeds until the parent tree is killed by wildfire. This enables heavy seed release to colonize the bare, fire-cleared ground. The pollen cones are 3-4 mm long, and release their pollen in the fall.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

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Notes

Comments

In the inner north Coast Ranges Cupressus macnabiana and C . sargentii produce the only known natural hybrids in Cupressus (L. Lawrence et al. 1975).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Common Names

MacNab cypress

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Synonyms

Callitropsis macnabiana (A. Murray bis) D.P. Little [31]
Cupressus macnabiana Murr. [14,18,24,28]
Neocupressus macnabiana (A. Murray bis) de Laub. [29]
  • 14. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1975. Rare and local conifers in the United States. Conservation Research Rep. No. 19. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 25 p. [15691]
  • 24. Wolf, Carl B.; Wagener, Willis W. 1948. The New World cypresses. El Aliso Series: Vol. 1. Anaheim, CA: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. 444 p. [20740]
  • 18. Mitchell, Alan F. 1972. Conifers in the British Isles: A descriptive handbook. Forestry Commission Booklet No. 33. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 322 p. [20571]
  • 28. Baldwin, Bruce G.; Goldman, Douglas H.; Keil, David J.; Patterson, Robert; Rosatti, Thomas J.; Wilken, Dieter H., eds. 2012. The Jepson manual. Vascular plants of California, second edition. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1568 p. [86254]
  • 29. de Laubenfels, D. J. 2009. Nomenclatural actions for the New World cypresses (Cupressaceae). Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature. 19(3): 300-306. [87295]
  • 31. Little, Damon P. 2006. Evolution and circumscription of the true cypresses (Cupressaceae: Cupressus). Systematic Botany. 31(3): 461-480. [87294]

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The currently accepted scientific name of MacNab cypress is Hesperocyparis
macnabiana (A. Murray bis) Bartel [23,28]. There are no recognized infrataxa.
Natural hybridization between MacNab cypress and Sargent cypress
(H. sargentii) has been hypothesized, but evidence for it is
inconclusive [13,17,27].
  • 13. Lawrence, Lorraine; Bartschot, Rita; Zavarin, Eugene; Griffin, James R. 1975. Natural hybridization of Cupressus sargentii and C. macnabiana and the composition of the derived essential oils. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2(11): 113-119. [22055]
  • 27. Vogl, Richard J.; Armstrong, Wayne P.; White, Keith L.; Cole, Kenneth L. 1977. The closed-cone pines and cypress. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 295-358. [7219]
  • 17. Miller, J. T.; Knowles, F. B. 1990. Introduced forest trees in New Zealand: recognition, role and seed source. 9. The cypresses: Cupressus spp. and Chamaecyparis spp. FRI Bulletin 124/9. Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand Forest Service. 33 p. [21880]
  • 23. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2013. PLANTS Database, [Online]
  • 28. Baldwin, Bruce G.; Goldman, Douglas H.; Keil, David J.; Patterson, Robert; Rosatti, Thomas J.; Wilken, Dieter H., eds. 2012. The Jepson manual. Vascular plants of California, second edition. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1568 p. [86254]

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