Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Endemic to China: Yunnan (Qiaojia Xian); known from a single locality only 4 km2 in extent.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees; bark gray-green, aging dark brown, flaking, smooth when young, inner bark pale; branchlets red-brown, densely yellow- or gray-brown pubescent or glabrous; winter buds red-brown, ovoid, resinous, scales triangular-lanceolate. Needles 4 or 5 per bundle, 9-17 cm × ca. 0.8 mm, stomatal lines present on all surfaces, vascular bundle 1, resin canals 3-5, marginal, base with sheath shed, margin serrulate. Seed cones pedunculate (peduncle 1.5-2 cm), conical-ovoid, ca. 9 × 6 cm, dehiscent at maturity. Seed scales oblong-elliptic, ca. 2.7 × 1.8 cm; apophyses swollen, obviously transversely ridged; umbo dorsal, sunken, not spiny. Seeds black, longitudinally striate, oblong or obovate; wing ca. 1.6 cm, black striate, articulate. Pollination Apr-May, seed maturity Sep-Oct of 2nd year.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This extremely rare pine grows at approximately 2,200 m altitude on a mountain slope with open (disturbed) woodland and grassland with shrubs. It is associated with Pinus yunnanensis and various broad-leaved shrubs and trees

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Habitat & Distribution

* NE Yunnan (Qiaojia Xian)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pinus squamata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus squamata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
CR
Critically Endangered

Red List Criteria
D

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Yang, Y. & Christian, T.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P.

Contributor/s

Justification

This species has an extremely restricted range, known from only a very small area which is essentially one location. It seems to be a naturally very rare taxon and there is no indication for there having been any past reduction and likewise no evidence for any continuing decline. Hence the species is listed as Critically Endangered under criterion D on the basis of the very small population – around 18-20 mature individuals.


History
  • 1998
    Critically Endangered
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Population

Population

There are about 36 trees, 20 of which are mature. (Wu and Raven 1999). A more recent count gave 29 mature and juvenile trees in total (State Forest Bureau 2009). There is limited natural regeneration. The latest reports indicate that there are 18 coning trees. Seedling survival was reported to be low.


Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats

This tiny population occurs on a partly deforested mountain on a NW-facing slope, surrounded by fire-prone grass and scrubland. State Forest Bureau report (2009) expresses concern that genetic pollution with Pinus yunnanensis may be a threat. In the severe winter of 2008 three individuals died because of the heavy snow fall.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The area is now a nature reserve (Qiaojia Xian), and the trees are now strictly protected. With help from the local foresters, a farmer in the vicinity has successfully propagated young trees to be eventually planted in habitat.
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Wikipedia

Qiaojia pine

Pinus squamata, Qiaojia pine, zh: 巧家五针松) southern lacebark pine,[1] is a critically endangered[2] pine native to a single locality consisting of about 20 trees in northeast Yunnan, China, at about 2200 m elevation.

Qiaojia pine was discovered in April 1991 by Pangzhao J.Q. It was studied later that year and described the following year by Li Xiang-Wang. It shows similarities to Rzedowski's Pinyon and some other pinyon pines.

Description[edit]

Its mature height is unknown because none of the living trees are yet mature, but they could possibly grow to 30 m or greater. Its habitat is open secondary woodland, scrub, and grassland mixed with Yunnan pine.

Qiaojia pine, Pinus squamata, has a conic crown with flaky pale gray-green bark becoming dark brown with age, similar to the closely related Lacebark pine. The shoots are reddish to greenish brown and may be pubescent or glabrous. The leaves are drooping in fascicles of 4 or 5, 9-17 cm long by 0.8 mm wide, glossy green above with white stomatal bands on the underside.

The cones are conic to ovoid, reddish brown, and 9 cm long by 6 cm broad when open. They open at maturity in September to October of the second year to release the oblong black seeds, 4-5 mm long with a 16 mm wing.[3]

Conservation[edit]

Pinus squamata is the rarest of world pine species, with the endangered Torrey pine, Pinus torreyana, being the next most rare pine species.[4] It is a Critically endangered species.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Eckenwalder, J.E. (2009). Conifers of the World: The Complete Reference. Timber Press. ISBN 978-0881929744. 
  2. ^ IUCN, 2006
  3. ^ Gymnosperm, 2008
  4. ^ C.M.Hogan, 2008

References[edit]

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Notes

Comments

A highly endangered species known only from a population of little more than 20 trees.
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