Overview

Comprehensive Description

General Description

Epidermophyton floccosum, microscopically, has septate, thin, hyaline hyphae with macroconidia. The macroconidia are widely clavate, which is distinguishable between the other dermatophyte species Microsporum and Trichophyton (3). The macroconidia besides being widely clavate also have smooth walls approximately 1-1.5 micrometers with fewer than 10 inner walls within the macroconidia (3). Another distinguishing feature of this species from the other dermatophytes is that microconidia are absent. Macroscopically, Epidermophyton floccosum grows rapidly on potato dextrose agar and matures in less than or up to ten days (1). The colonies appear to range from a dark yellow, to tan, to a greenish gray. On the underside of the plate the colonies range from a burnt orange appearance to sienna brown (1). Along with the color the colony appears to be very flat and grainy in the early stages of growth, but take on a velvety appearance as the colony matures (1).

 

 

 

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Distribution

Of the two species that fall within the Epidermophyton species, Epidermophyton floccosum is the only pathogenic species which is found world wide and its primary reservoir is humans (1). Epidermophyton floccosum has the ability to cause tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea corporis, and onychomycosis( ringworm of the nail)(1). Like all dermatophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum contains keratinase giving it the ability to breakdown keratin a protein commonly found within the skin, nails, and hair. Epidermophyton floccosum is spread by direct contact with the fungus where people aggregate and share inanimate objects such as towels in a gym setting (1). If a patient has a disease caused by this particular species the main drugs to fight the fungus are Terbinafine, ketoconazaole, and itraconazole (2,3). Correct doses of either of the three drugs should be sufficient to kill of the fungus.

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

The major distinguishing factor that differentiates Epidermophyton floccosum from the other dermatophytes, Microsporum and Trichophyton is the absence of microconidia, and the shorter, wide, smooth macroconidia. There is one other Epidermophyton species, Epidermophyton stockdaleae, that it also needs to be distinguished from. To distinguish between these two species a hair perforation test can be done to see if the hyphae infiltrate the hair shaft. In this case Epidermophyton floccosum will show a negative test while Epidermophyton stockdaleae will show a postive test(1). Epidermophyton stockdaleae will also grow in medium with NaCl, while Epidermophyton floccosum will not grow(1).

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Look Alikes

Other taxa that look similar to the genus Epidermophyton are the other two genera of dermatophytes, Microsporum and Trichophyton. The other two genera look similiar in respect to the presence of walled, spetated macroconidia (3). Although the macroconidia have their own distinguishing features. To easily tell Epidermophyton from Microsporum and Trichophyton microscopically look for the absence of microconidia.

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Ecology

Habitat

Epidermophyton floccosum is mainly found infecting humans worldwide, but can also survive for short periods of time, with moisture, on inanimate objects. This species is communicable and can be found in gyms, locker rooms, and showers (1). The other species, Epidermophyton stockdaleae is also found worldwide, but is nonpathogenic and geophilic meaning found almost always in soil habitats.

 

tinea pedis, athlete's foot

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Epidermophyton floccosum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

TATCTTATGTTTGCATTATTTTCAGGTTTAGTTGGTACAGCTTTCTCAGTTTTAATTAGATTGGAGTTATCTGCTCCAGGTGTACAATATATAGCTGATAA---TCAATTATATAATAGTATTATTACAGCTCATGCTATATTAATGATATTTTTTATG---GTTATGCCAGCTTTAATTGGTGGTTTTGGTAATTTTTTATTACCATTATTAGTAGGTGGTCCTGATATGGCATTCCCAAGATTAAATAATATAAGTTTTTGATTATTAATACCTAGTTTATTATTATTTGTATTTGCTTCTATTATAGAAAATGGTGCTGGTACAGGT------------TGAACATTATATCCTCCATTAGCAAGTATACAAAGTCATAGTGGTCCTAGTGTTGATTTAGCTATTTTTGGTTTACATTTAAGTGGTATAAGTTCACTTTTAGGTGCTATGAATTTTATTACAACTATAATTAATATGAGAAGTCCAGGTATTCGTCTACATAAATTAGCATTATTTGGTTGAGCCGTATTAATAACAGCTGTATTATTATTATTATCATTACCTGTATTAGCTGGTGCAATAACAATGTTATTAACAGATAGAAATTTTAATACATCTTTCTTTGAATTAGCTGGTGGTGGTGATCCTATTTTATACCAACACTTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Epidermophyton floccosum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Like other dermatophytes, there severe no real uses to people besides research and drug production.

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Wikipedia

Epidermophyton floccosum

Epidermophyton floccosum is an anthropophilic dermatophyte (preferring humans to other hosts) which can be found world-wide.[1]

Contents

Taxonomy

The fungus was originally described by Carl Otto Harz in 1870, who named it Acrothecium floccosum.[2] It was later renamed Blastotrichum floccosum, a name given to it in Rabenhort's Krytpogamen Flora, (1907), and finally as Epidermophyton floccosum by Ota and Langeron in 1923.[3]

Description

The fungus is a moderate grower that reaches maturity after 10 days. The colonies are usually grainy, have a suede-like texture, and may be olive, yellow, or yellow-brown in color. The central region is raised slightly. Fluffy white sterile mycelia cover the colonies after several weeks.[4] Epidermophyton floccosum contains an unusual lipid of unknown function, 1(3),2-diacylglyceryl-3(1)-O-4′-(N,N,N-trimethyl)homoserine. Two other dermatophytes Microsporum cookei and Trichophyton rubrum do not contain this lipid.[5] Microconidia are usually absent.[6]

Pathology

The fungus is the only pathogen of the two species comprising genus Epidermophyton. Hosts of the fungi are humans, wild animals, and domestic animals.[7] The fungi can cause tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea corporis, and onychomycosis. The infection spreads by contact, especially in gyms and showers.[8] The infection can be stopped by bathing with soap and water and applying an appropriate fungicide.[7] A study of 900 patients afflicted with E. floccosum infection investigating the contagious aspects of the fungus was conducted in Korea, from 1976 to 1997. The study found that fewer people were infected by E. floccosum than by other dermatophytes.[9] The fungus may be transmitted between humans and squirrels.[10] The fungi can usually only infect the nonliving cornified layers of epidermis.[6] An invasive infection has, however, been recorded in an immunocompromised patient with Behçet's syndrome.[8][11]

References

  1. ^ "Epidermophyton floccosum". Mycology Online. http://www.mycology.adelaide.edu.au/Fungal_Descriptions/Dermatophytes/Epidermophyton/. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
  2. ^ Harz OC. (1870). "Einige neue Hyphomyceten Berlin's and Wien's nebst Beiträgen zur Systematik derselben" (in German). Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 44: 87–147.
  3. ^ Ota M, Langeron M. (1923). "Nouvelle classification des Dermatophytes" (in French). Annals of Parasitology 1: 305–306.
  4. ^ "http://www.cmpt.ca/pdf_mycology_2008/mp_0801_2_epfl_nail.pdf". CMPT Mycology Plus. January 2008.
  5. ^ Tomiyasu Yamada and Yoshinori Nozawa, T (1979-09-28). "An unusual lipid in the human pathogenic fungus Epidermophyton floccosum". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Lipids and Lipid Metabolism 574 (3): 433–439. doi:10.1016/0005-2760(79)90239-X. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T1X-47G2PG4-60&_user=10&_coverDate=09%2F28%2F1979&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1344606088&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=81a59da924fe1788a4843a5058f71f71. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
  6. ^ a b "Epidermophyton". QurNail. http://qurnail.com/Epidermophyton.html. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
  7. ^ a b "Infectious Diseases: Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum spp., Trichophyton spp.". MSD Online. http://www.msdsonline.com/CustomerSupport/Disease-MSDS/MSDSEpidermophytonFloccosum.aspx. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
  8. ^ a b "Epidermophyton spp.". Doctor Fungus. http://www.doctorfungus.org/Thefungi/epidermophyton.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-22.[dead link]
  9. ^ "The Epidemiologic Study on Epidermophyton floccosum (1976–1997)". Korean Journal of Medical Mycology 1 (21–26). 1999-06-04. http://www.koreamed.org/SearchBasic.php?RID=656436&DT=1&QY=%22Korean+J+Med+Mycol%22+%5BJTI%5D++AND+1999+%5BDPY%5D+AND+Jun+%5BDPM%5Dd.org/SearchBasic.php?RID=656436&DT=1&QY=%22Korean+J+Med+Mycol%22+%5BJTI%5D++AND+1999+%5BDPY%5D+AND+Jun+%5BDPM%5D. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
  10. ^ Hosseininejad, M.; Ebrahimi, A.; Hosseini, F. (2009). "Isolation of Epidermophyton floccosum from a Persian squirrel (Sciurus anomalus)". Comparative Clinical Pathology 19 (2): 215–216. doi:10.1007/s00580-009-0829-4. http://www.springerlink.com/content/8552251320242u22/. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
  11. ^ Seddon, ME; Thomas, MG (1997). "Invasive disease due to Epidermophyton floccosum in an immunocompromised patient with Behçet's syndrome.". Clinical Infectious Diseases 25 (1): 153–4. doi:10.1086/516887. PMID 9243051.
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