Regularity: Regularly occurring
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Global Range: Global distribution "Common both in Finland, Norway and Sweden. Less common in Denmark [...] has a very wide distribution in cool temperate to temerate areas of the Northern Hemisphere (Eurasia, North America)." (Tibell 1999). Within North America, widespread in temperate and boreal regions.
Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300
Comments: Number of known occurences worldwide is probably > 500 (including many historic); Number of known occurrences in North America is probably > 300; Number of known occurrences in California = 1+ (see Hale & Cole 1988); Number of known occurrences in Oregon = 25+; Number of known occurrences in Washington = 3+; Number of known occurrences in British Columbia = ca. 47. Rikkinen (2003?) reports on 43 locations from the region. Although the number of extant occurrences worldwide is unknown, the North American occurrences (collections) are recent and are mostly extant. (Jouko has 43 locations across all states)
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure
Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This lichen grows in shaded forests, usually on trees and stumps, and less often on rocks. It is located throughout North America in disparate areas: southern California Coast, from Arizona to Colorado, in southern Alaska, from British Columbia to Montana, across southern Yukon and Mackenzie, from the Great Lakes region east to Nova Scotia, and in central Georgia. It is also found widely in Eurasia. Although the distribution and population sizes of this species are large enough to qualify for G5, the significant decline of the species since pre-industrial times may justify slightly reducing the rank to G4G5.
Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.
Global Short Term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Comments: With advances in conservation, the removal of old-growth forests throughout the species range is slowing, but has not stopped.
Global Long Term Trend: Decline of 50-70%
Comments: Most calicioid lichens and fungi inhabit aged bark or wood in sheltered locations protected from direct rain interception. This species is rather unusual in that it inhabits soils influenced by conifierous bark (generally sheltered coves under the bole of an old-growth tree, but occasionally within other overhangs with exposed roots) (Peterson & McCune 2000). In the Pacific Northwest of North America, most known occurrences are in conifer forests > 200 years old. Removal of old forests in North America and through the rest of the species' distribution has undoubtedly had severe impacts on the number of populations, population sizes, and average dispersal distance necessary to colonize new substrates.
Degree of Threat: High
Comments: Worldwide, the species has gone through drastic declines since pre-industrial times. The Pacific Northwest, due to logging, has been no exception. However, the rate of loss in the Pacific Northwest has slowed. Although little is known about the reproductive and dispersal biology of this species, it is thought that the species can overcome some habitat fragmentation and, at this point, is fairly secure from extirpation or extinction. However, given the general old-growth association of this species, it should not be ignored in conservation actions.
Chaenotheca furfuracea is a species of lichen from Coniocybaceae family that can be found in European countries like Belgium, Luxembourg, and Switzerland. The species are growing mostly on beeches and oaks, and on tree roots of spruces. They also grow on detritus or sand, and in rare cases on fissures of siliceous rocks. It likes the climate that have high humidity and low luminosity.
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