Overview

Brief Summary

Description

 Thallus: superficial, leprose (farinaceous), soft and ecorticate, usually well developed, thin, bright yellow-green, occasionally almost immersed; in young parts: composed of +discrete patches of loosely arranged photobiont chains and fungal hyphae, that usually fuse and form a thin, +continuous cover, and from this basal crust fungal hyphae densely beset with crystals project, giving the thallus surface a soft texture; prothallus: sometimes evident, composed of loosely organized, white hyphae; photobiont: Stichococcus, the cells elongate or rectangular, in short chains, transversely septate, the cells < 13 mm wide; Apothecia: often absent, but abundant when present, scattered to grouped, 1.6-2.7 mm tall, slender; head and stalk: covered by a yellowish green pruina, black beneath; stalk: 0.06-0.10 mm in diam.; upper part: with often branched, laterally projecting hyphae 5-20 µm long, densely covered by yellow crystals; lower part: sometimes epruinose and black; capitulum: spherical, 0.1-0.2 mm in diam.; mazaedium: sulfur yellow or straw yellow, sometimes pale brown; exciple: absent or poorly developed; hypothecium: pale brown, strongly convex, knob-like, consisting of intricately interwoven hyphae, that are slightly sclerotized towards the surface of the hypothecium; asci: formed in chains, often irregular, 12-15 x 2-3 µm, with uniseriate to irregularly arranged spores; ascospores: hyaline or pale yellowish, spherical, 2.5-3 µm in diam., with a very minute ornamentation of tiny warts very difficult to discern in the light microsocpe; Anamorph: hyphomycetous; conidia: one-celled, 2-3 x 1 µm; Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P-; Secondary metabolites: thallus and pruina with vulpinic acid, pulvinic acid and pulvinic acid dilactone.; Substrate and ecology: on soil or on roots protected from precipitation, in shaded humid crevices, on sheltered soil banks, or on upturned bases of large old coniferous trees in moist forests, also on decorticated stumps, mosses and rocks; World distribution: circumboreal to temperate in Euroasia and North America; Sonoran distribution: Arizona.; Notes: Chaenotheca furfuracea is characterized by having a green, farinaceous thallus, the yellow pruina of the ascomata, its long and slender ascomata, its spherical capitula and small spores. When poorly developed it is very similar to C. brachypoda, but differs in having a lighter mazaedium and a different ornamentation of the spores. Some authors other than Tibell continue to treat C. furfuracea under Coniocybe. When sterile, it may resemble Chrysothrix chlorina (that also contains vulpinic acid, but has a chlorococcoid photobiont), but is green rather than golden yellow or Psilolecia lucida (that contains rhizocarpic acid as the only major substance), but usually has yellow, unstalked apothecia.. 
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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Global distribution "Common both in Finland, Norway and Sweden. Less common in Denmark [...] has a very wide distribution in cool temperate to temerate areas of the Northern Hemisphere (Eurasia, North America)." (Tibell 1999). Within North America, widespread in temperate and boreal regions.

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Ecology

Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300

Comments: Number of known occurences worldwide is probably > 500 (including many historic); Number of known occurrences in North America is probably > 300; Number of known occurrences in California = 1+ (see Hale & Cole 1988); Number of known occurrences in Oregon = 25+; Number of known occurrences in Washington = 3+; Number of known occurrences in British Columbia = ca. 47. Rikkinen (2003?) reports on 43 locations from the region. Although the number of extant occurrences worldwide is unknown, the North American occurrences (collections) are recent and are mostly extant. (Jouko has 43 locations across all states)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: This lichen grows in shaded forests, usually on trees and stumps, and less often on rocks. It is located throughout North America in disparate areas: southern California Coast, from Arizona to Colorado, in southern Alaska, from British Columbia to Montana, across southern Yukon and Mackenzie, from the Great Lakes region east to Nova Scotia, and in central Georgia. It is also found widely in Eurasia. Although the distribution and population sizes of this species are large enough to qualify for G5, the significant decline of the species since pre-industrial times may justify slightly reducing the rank to G4G5.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.

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Global Short Term Trend: Decline of 10-30%

Comments: With advances in conservation, the removal of old-growth forests throughout the species range is slowing, but has not stopped.

Global Long Term Trend: Decline of 50-70%

Comments: Most calicioid lichens and fungi inhabit aged bark or wood in sheltered locations protected from direct rain interception. This species is rather unusual in that it inhabits soils influenced by conifierous bark (generally sheltered coves under the bole of an old-growth tree, but occasionally within other overhangs with exposed roots) (Peterson & McCune 2000). In the Pacific Northwest of North America, most known occurrences are in conifer forests > 200 years old. Removal of old forests in North America and through the rest of the species' distribution has undoubtedly had severe impacts on the number of populations, population sizes, and average dispersal distance necessary to colonize new substrates.

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Threats

Degree of Threat: High

Comments: Worldwide, the species has gone through drastic declines since pre-industrial times. The Pacific Northwest, due to logging, has been no exception. However, the rate of loss in the Pacific Northwest has slowed. Although little is known about the reproductive and dispersal biology of this species, it is thought that the species can overcome some habitat fragmentation and, at this point, is fairly secure from extirpation or extinction. However, given the general old-growth association of this species, it should not be ignored in conservation actions.

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Wikipedia

Chaenotheca furfuracea

Chaenotheca furfuracea is a species of lichen from Coniocybaceae family that can be found in European countries like Belgium, Luxembourg, and Switzerland. The species are growing mostly on beeches and oaks, and on tree roots of spruces. They also grow on detritus or sand, and in rare cases on fissures of siliceous rocks. It likes the climate that have high humidity and low luminosity.[1]

References[edit]

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