Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Chinese (Simplified) (4) (learn more)

Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabit inshore on coastal muddy or sandy habitats in still bays, and commonly found in harbours and estuaries. Small juveniles on protected shallow mudflats (Ref. 48637). Found in weedy areas near rocks or reefs. Juveniles often near river mouths and in brackish water. Adults are solitary, juveniles often form small groups (Ref. 1602). Large adults are shy (Ref. 48637). Feed on benthic invertebrates by blowing away the sand (Ref. 1602). Readily dried and used to make ornaments (Ref. 12484).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea (Ref. 12541) and East Africa (Ref. 12484) to the Marquesan and Tuamoto islands, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island (Ref. 9710).
  • Matsuura, K. 2001 Ostraciidae. Boxfishes. p. 3948-3951. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9806)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9806&speccode=6399 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Marquesas Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to South Korea, central Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to New Caledonia and Lord Howe Island.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 8 - 9; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 8 - 9
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Maximum size: 460 mm TL
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Max. size

46.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 3141))
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Description

Inhabits weedy areas near rocks or reefs. Juveniles often near river mouths and in brackish water. Adults are solitary and juveniles often form small groups. Feeds on benthic invertebrates by blowing away the sand (Ref. 1602).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Cryptic coloring ranges from green and olive to orange with blue spots (Ref. 3141). Caudal fin rays 9-10 (Ref. 1602).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; brackish; marine; depth range 18 - 100 m (Ref. 9661)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 258 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 122 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1.5 - 124
  Temperature range (°C): 23.351 - 27.331
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.164 - 5.415
  Salinity (PPS): 34.486 - 35.221
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.677 - 4.701
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.120 - 0.544
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.019 - 10.649

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1.5 - 124

Temperature range (°C): 23.351 - 27.331

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.164 - 5.415

Salinity (PPS): 34.486 - 35.221

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.677 - 4.701

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.120 - 0.544

Silicate (umol/l): 1.019 - 10.649
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth: 18 - 100m.
From 18 to 100 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Inhabit weedy areas near rocks or reefs. Juveniles often near river mouths and in brackish water. Adults are solitary, juveniles often form small groups (Ref. 1602). Present in seagrass beds at all life stages (Ref. 41878). Feed on benthic invertebrates by blowing away the sand (Ref. 1602).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lactoria cornuta

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 19
Specimens with Barcodes: 31
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Barcode data: Lactoria cornuta

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 17 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTCTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCTTGAGCTGGAATGGTAGGAACGGCCCTA---AGCCTGCTCATCCGAGCAGAATTGAGCCAGCCCGGCGCTCTCCTGGGAGAC---GACCAAATTTACAATGTAATTGTTACAGCACATGCGTTTGTAATAATCTTCTTTATAGTGATACCAATTCTAATCGGAGGCTTTGGAAACTGGCTGGTCCCATTAATG---ATTGGCGCCCCTGACATGGCATTCCCCCGTATGAATAATATGAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCACCCTCCTTCCTTCTCCTACTCGCCTCGTCAGGGGTTGAGGCCGGAGCAGGAACCGGTTGAACAGTGTACCCTCCATTAGCTGGCAATTTAGCACACGCAGGAGCTTCTGTTGACCTC---ACAATTTTCTCACTCCACCTAGCTGGTGTTTCCTCAATCCTAGGGGCCATCAACTTTATTACAACAATCATTAATATGAAACCTCCTGCCATTTCACAGTATCAAACTCCTCTCTTCGTCTGATCGGTGCTAGTAACTGCTGTCCTTCTACTCCTCTCCCTCCCAGTCCTGGCTGCT---GGAATTACAATACTCCTCACAGACCGAAACCTCAACACTACCTTCTTTGACCCAGCAGGAGGAGGGGACCCAATCCTCTACCAACACCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Longhorn cowfish

The longhorn cowfish, Lactoria cornuta, is a variety of boxfish from the family Ostraciidae, recognizable by its long horns that protrude from the front of its head, rather like those of a cow or bull. They are a resident of the Indo-Pacific region and can grow up to 20 inches long. While badly suited to the home aquarium, the cowfish is becoming increasingly popular as a pet.

Adults are reef fish, often solitary and territorial, live around sand or rubble bottom up to a depth of 50 m. They are omnivorous, feeding upon benthic algae, various microorganisms, and foraminiferans that it strains from sediments, sponges, polychaete worms from sand flats, mollusks, small crustaceans, and small fishes, able to feed on benthic invertebrates by blowing jets of water into the sandy substrate.

Habitat[edit]

Its primary habitat is coral reefs in lagoons, on reef flats, and on protected seaward reefs. Juveniles associate with Acropora corals. Depth range is 3.3–148 ft (1–45 m, perhaps up to 100 m).

Range[edit]

Red Sea and East Africa eastward through Indonesia to Marquesas, northward to southern Japan. Including Tuamotus, southern Korea, north to the Ryukyu Islands of southern Japan, south to Australia and Lord Howe Island, and off southern Africa in the Atlantic. Tropical and subtropical waters.

Physiology[edit]

AppendageNumber (total)
Dorsal spines1
Dorsal soft rays8 - 9
Anal spines0
Anal soft rays8 – 9
Caudal fin rays9 - 10

There is no known sexual dimorphism, so both male and female display a yellow to olive base color, which is decorated with white or bluish spots. Paired courtship just before or after sunset. Eggs and larvae are pelagic.

One distinction from other fish is the lack of a gill cover, which is replaced by a small slit or hole. The hexagonal plate-like scales of these fish are fused together into a solid, triangular, box-like carapace, from which the fins and tail protrude. Their unique method of swimming, called ostraciform swimming, causes them to look as if they are hovering. They have no pelvic skeleton, so they lack pelvic fins. They are such slow swimmers cowfish are easily caught by hand, making a grunting noise when captured. This is the most well-known cowfish species in the aquarium trade.

Defense[edit]

If severely stressed, this species may be able to exude deadly toxin, ostracitoxin, an ichthyotoxic, hemolytic, heat-stable, non-dialyzable, non-protein poison in the mucous secretions of their skin. It is apparently unique among known fish poisons; it is toxic to boxfish and resembles red tide and sea cucumber toxins in general properties.

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!