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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found on mud or rocky or cobble bottoms (Ref. 089707). The species appears to be one of the rarest groupers in the Indo-Pacific region, nothing has been published on its biology. Solitary (Ref 90102).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Distribution

Range Description

Epinephelus bontoides is a western Pacific species that occurs in Indonesia (from Java eastwards), Philippines, Taiwan, Solomon Islands and New Britain (Papua New Guinea).
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Western Pacific: Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines, Taiwan, Solomon Islands (Ref. 4787) and New Britain.
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Western Pacific.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16 - 17; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 8
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Size

Maximum size: 300 mm TL
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Max. size

30.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222))
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Diagnostic Description

Characterized by grey brown color with scattered reddish brown to black spots; narrow pale margins on dark grey fins; body scales ctenoid, except cycloid scales dorsally and ventrally; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.8-3.2 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins, 1.9-2.3 in head length (Ref 90102); head length 2.3-2.6 times in SL; interorbital area flat to slightly convex, almost straight dorsal head profile; rounded preopercle, finely serrate, ventral serrae slightly enlarged; straight upper edge of operculum; maxilla reaches past rear edge of eye; 2 or 3 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 089707).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Epinephelus bontoides is found on mud or rocky or cobble bottoms. The species appears to be one of the rarest groupers in the Indo-Pacific region, nothing has been published on its biology.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 9710)
  • Lieske, E. and R. Myers 1994 Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. (Ref. 9710)
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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2 - 3

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 2 - 3
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 30m.
Recorded at 30 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Epinephelus bontoides

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Myers, R. & Heemstra, P.C.

Reviewer/s
Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
There is very little information on population, utilization and threats to this poorly known species and it is, therefore, listed as Data Deficient. Its relatively limited distribution, its apparent rarity in catch and that it is unknown in fisheries suggests that it could be vulnerable and warrants further investigation and occasional re-assessment as data become available.
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Population

Population
There is very little information on Epinephelus bontoides population status and trends. It is common in suitable habitats in Bali (Rob Myers pers. comm.)

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
It is not known whether Epinephelus bontoides is found in fisheries.
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Data deficient (DD) , IUCN Grouper and Wrasse Specialist Group
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Epinephelus bontoides is unlikely to occur in any protected areas. More information is needed on threats to this species as well as population status and trends.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest
  • Coppola, S.R., W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, N. Scialabba and K.E. Carpenter 1994 SPECIESDAB: Global species database for fishery purposes. User's manual. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries). No. 9. Rome, FAO. 103 p. (Ref. 171)
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