Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Chinese (Simplified) (4) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

The humpback grouper is known to be territorial and somewhat aggressive, particularly towards smaller fish. This solitary predator hides in the rocks before ambushing its prey (6), which typically comprises fish and crustaceans (5). It is thought that the species' 'polka-dot' pattern of colouration may disrupt the contour of its body and thereby help camouflage it from prey and would-be predators (6). Females lay eggs that are then fertilised by the male externally, and neither the eggs nor hatched young are guarded or protected in any way by the parents. Only females hatch, with males being produced as necessary by the dominant females within a group changing sex from female to male. If a male dies, the next dominant female will undergo a sex change to replace him (6).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

This extraordinary-looking fish is often called the panther, or 'polka-dot' grouper for its striking colour pattern of bold black spots against a white to creamy-grey body (3). Juveniles display fewer, larger black spots, which become smaller and more plentiful as the fish matures (4). When disturbed, individuals may develop a 'fright colouration', in which large brown blotches colour the skin (3). This unusual fish is also unique amongst the groupers in having an elongate, slender head that rises sharply at the nape of the neck, giving the species the distinctive 'humpback' appearance for which it is named (5). The long dorsal fin begins at the top of this 'hump' and extends almost the entire length of the body (6).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Cromileptes altivales

Cromileptes altivelis is one of the fish family Serranidae. These fish include carnivorous or cannibal fish. These fish are always away from sunlight. Grouper larvae are known to generally avoid the vertical distribution of water surface in the day, whereas at night are more common at night. These fish are always solitary or alone while at the spawning clustered. This fish is found in subtropical and tropical regions around the world. Its habitat in the reef area. These fish is hemafrodit protogini mouse grouper when it reaches gonads and female pairs when the old will change. One indicator of the grouper is a reef. Some parameters optimum for this fish are temperature 24-31 0C, salinity 30-33 ppt, DO> 3.5 ppm, and pH 7.8 - 8.0.

  • Amiruddin, H. 2008. Manajemen Induk Ikan Kerapu Tikus (Cromileptes altivelis) Sebagai Upaya Optimalisasi Produksi Telur Berkualitas. Balai Budidaya Ambon
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Adriani sunuddin

Supplier: Lia Badriyah

Unreviewed

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 1.0 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Generally inhabits lagoon and seaward reefs and are typically found in dead or silty areas (Ref. 9710). Also found around coral reefs and in tide pools. Growth is very slow. Feed on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 37816). Artificial spawning was accomplished by Tang et al. 1979 (Ref. 6568) where eggs are buoyant, 0.80-0.83 mm in diameter with a single oil droplet; larvae died after 7 days. Juveniles are commonly caught for the aquarium trade while adults are utilized as a food fish (Ref. 9710). In Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5222&speccode=12 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

Cromileptes altivelis can be found in the western Pacific from southern Japan (Ogasawara) to Palau, Guam, New Caledonia, Fiji and southern Queensland (Australia). One report from western Indian Ocean (Kenya) has not been confirmed. Records from Hawaii are probably based on released aquarium fish (Heemstra and Randall 1993).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Indo-West Pacific.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Western Pacific: southern Japan to Palau, Guam, New Caledonia and southern Queensland, Australia. Eastern Indian Ocean: Nicobar Islands to Broome, Western Australia. Reports from western Indian Ocean (Heemstra and Randall 1984, 1986, Ref. 3153 and 4319 respectively) are unsubstantiated, except one from Kenya (Smith 1954, Ref. 6514) which seems valid. Records from Hawaii are probably based on released aquarium fishes (Ref. 4787).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5222&speccode=12 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Range

Found in the Western Pacific, from southern Japan to Palau, Guam, New Caledonia and southern Queensland, Australia; and the Eastern Indian Ocean, from the Nicobars to Broome, Western Australia (7). There is also a report from the Western Indian Ocean (Kenya) that has not been confirmed (1). Records from Hawaii are thought to be based on released aquarium fish (7).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17 - 19; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 9 - 10
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5222&speccode=12 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Max. size

70.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222))
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5222&speccode=12 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

This species is easily distinguished by its extreme smallness of size of the anterior part of the head as compared to the elevated postorbital part; absence of canine teeth, except for a very small pair at the front of the upper jaw; D X, 17-19; A III, 10 (rarely 9); a slit-like posterior nostril; color greenish white to light greenish brown with scattered round black spots on head, body, and fins, with body spots generally larger than those on head and fins; about 9 large roundish dusky blotches may be present on body, with some extending partly into base of dorsal and anal fins (Ref. 5222).
  • Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall 1993 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5222&speccode=12 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
General
The species is found in lagoons and seaward well developed coral reefs, typically in dead or silty areas. It also occurs in tide pools and can be caught at depths of 40 m (Heemstra and Randall 1993). Juveniles (<15 cm) are found inshore, in lagoons and in fringing reefs and seagrass. Recorded maximum size is 70 cm TL (Heemstra and Randall 1993). Preliminary data suggests a maximum age of at least 14 years (Davies et al. 1999). Feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (Myers 1999).

Reproduction
Cromileptes altivelis is a protogynous hermaphrodite (Gardner et al. 2005) and matures at 39 cm TL (Lau and Li 2000). Spawning aggregations are not known, although spawning activities were observed in captivity. Cromileptes altivelis can spawn many times within a reproductive season (Ou et al. 1999b). There has been one anecdotal report of a spawning aggregation formation from northern Papua New Guinea (Sadovy pers. comm.).

Natural (without hormonal treatment) spawning activities in floating cages among 15 males and 24 females (in 2 cages) were observed in Komodo, Indonesia over a period from October 2000 to July 2003. Cromileptes altivelis spawned in pairs between 2100h to midnight, and occurred from the 3rd quarter to the 1st quarter of the moon. Cage spawning was observed to last for at least 8 consecutive days (Sudaryanto et al. 2004).

Induced gonad development by hormone injection of a female (380 mm TL, 1.5kg) and a male (405 mm TL, 2kg) under experimental conditions spawned 390,000 eggs, in which 40,000 were fertilized. The majority of the hatched fry had abnormal morphology and died after 30 hours (Ou et al. 1999b)

Systems
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 2 - 40 m (Ref. 9710)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 8 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1.525 - 67
  Temperature range (°C): 26.503 - 28.954
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.099 - 0.385
  Salinity (PPS): 34.131 - 35.100
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.525 - 4.536
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.113 - 0.175
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.579 - 3.468

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1.525 - 67

Temperature range (°C): 26.503 - 28.954

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.099 - 0.385

Salinity (PPS): 34.131 - 35.100

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.525 - 4.536

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.113 - 0.175

Silicate (umol/l): 1.579 - 3.468
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

The humpback grouper generally inhabits lagoons and seaward reefs, where it is typically found in dead or silty areas, to depths of up to 40 meters (1) (7). It also occurs around coral reefs and in tide pools, while juveniles tend to confine themselves to shallow, protected reefs (1).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Inhabits coral reefs (Ref. 58534).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diseases and Parasites

Vitamin B1 Deficiency. Nutritional deficiencies
  • Koesharyani, I., D. Roza, K. Mahardika, F. Johnny, [N.] Zafran and K. Yuasa 2001 Manual for fish disease diagnosis: Marine fish and crustacean diseases in Indonesia. Gondol Research Station for Coastal Fisheries, Central Research Institute for Fisheries, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development and Japan International Cooperation Agency, Indonesia. 57 p. (Ref. 48690)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=48690&speccode=80 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Viral Nervous Necrosis Disease. Viral diseases
  • Koesharyani, I., D. Roza, K. Mahardika, F. Johnny, [N.] Zafran and K. Yuasa 2001 Manual for fish disease diagnosis: Marine fish and crustacean diseases in Indonesia. Gondol Research Station for Coastal Fisheries, Central Research Institute for Fisheries, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development and Japan International Cooperation Agency, Indonesia. 57 p. (Ref. 48690)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=48690&speccode=80 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Pop-eye Disease 2. Others
  • Koesharyani, I., D. Roza, K. Mahardika, F. Johnny, [N.] Zafran and K. Yuasa 2001 Manual for fish disease diagnosis: Marine fish and crustacean diseases in Indonesia. Gondol Research Station for Coastal Fisheries, Central Research Institute for Fisheries, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development and Japan International Cooperation Agency, Indonesia. 57 p. (Ref. 48690)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=48690&speccode=80 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Operculum Deformity. Others
  • Koesharyani, I., D. Roza, K. Mahardika, F. Johnny, [N.] Zafran and K. Yuasa 2001 Manual for fish disease diagnosis: Marine fish and crustacean diseases in Indonesia. Gondol Research Station for Coastal Fisheries, Central Research Institute for Fisheries, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development and Japan International Cooperation Agency, Indonesia. 57 p. (Ref. 48690)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=48690&speccode=80 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Nutritional Myopathy. Nutritional deficiencies
  • Koesharyani, I., D. Roza, K. Mahardika, F. Johnny, [N.] Zafran and K. Yuasa 2001 Manual for fish disease diagnosis: Marine fish and crustacean diseases in Indonesia. Gondol Research Station for Coastal Fisheries, Central Research Institute for Fisheries, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development and Japan International Cooperation Agency, Indonesia. 57 p. (Ref. 48690)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=48690&speccode=80 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Flexibacter maritimus Infection. Bacterial diseases
  • Koesharyani, I., D. Roza, K. Mahardika, F. Johnny, [N.] Zafran and K. Yuasa 2001 Manual for fish disease diagnosis: Marine fish and crustacean diseases in Indonesia. Gondol Research Station for Coastal Fisheries, Central Research Institute for Fisheries, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development and Japan International Cooperation Agency, Indonesia. 57 p. (Ref. 48690)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=48690&speccode=80 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Fish Leech Infestation (Hirudinea sp.). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Koesharyani, I., D. Roza, K. Mahardika, F. Johnny, [N.] Zafran and K. Yuasa 2001 Manual for fish disease diagnosis: Marine fish and crustacean diseases in Indonesia. Gondol Research Station for Coastal Fisheries, Central Research Institute for Fisheries, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development and Japan International Cooperation Agency, Indonesia. 57 p. (Ref. 48690)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=48690&speccode=80 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Congenital Vertebral Deformity and Spinal cord Abnormality. Others
  • Koesharyani, I., D. Roza, K. Mahardika, F. Johnny, [N.] Zafran and K. Yuasa 2001 Manual for fish disease diagnosis: Marine fish and crustacean diseases in Indonesia. Gondol Research Station for Coastal Fisheries, Central Research Institute for Fisheries, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development and Japan International Cooperation Agency, Indonesia. 57 p. (Ref. 48690)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=48690&speccode=80 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Capsalid Monogenean Infection 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Koesharyani, I., D. Roza, K. Mahardika, F. Johnny, [N.] Zafran and K. Yuasa 2001 Manual for fish disease diagnosis: Marine fish and crustacean diseases in Indonesia. Gondol Research Station for Coastal Fisheries, Central Research Institute for Fisheries, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development and Japan International Cooperation Agency, Indonesia. 57 p. (Ref. 48690)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=48690&speccode=80 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Caligus Infestation 12. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Koesharyani, I., D. Roza, K. Mahardika, F. Johnny, [N.] Zafran and K. Yuasa 2001 Manual for fish disease diagnosis: Marine fish and crustacean diseases in Indonesia. Gondol Research Station for Coastal Fisheries, Central Research Institute for Fisheries, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development and Japan International Cooperation Agency, Indonesia. 57 p. (Ref. 48690)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=48690&speccode=80 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Bend of Spinal Cord. Others
  • Koesharyani, I., D. Roza, K. Mahardika, F. Johnny, [N.] Zafran and K. Yuasa 2001 Manual for fish disease diagnosis: Marine fish and crustacean diseases in Indonesia. Gondol Research Station for Coastal Fisheries, Central Research Institute for Fisheries, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development and Japan International Cooperation Agency, Indonesia. 57 p. (Ref. 48690)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=48690&speccode=80 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Balloon like Abdomen. Others
  • Koesharyani, I., D. Roza, K. Mahardika, F. Johnny, [N.] Zafran and K. Yuasa 2001 Manual for fish disease diagnosis: Marine fish and crustacean diseases in Indonesia. Gondol Research Station for Coastal Fisheries, Central Research Institute for Fisheries, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development and Japan International Cooperation Agency, Indonesia. 57 p. (Ref. 48690)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=48690&speccode=80 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chromileptes altivelis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 15
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Barcode data: Chromileptes altivelis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Epinephelus altivelis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A4cd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Sadovy, Y., Thierry, C., Choat, J.H. & Cabanban, A.S.

Reviewer/s
Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
C. altivelis is listed as Vulnerable because of inferred population declines from: (1) its natural rarity; (2) the increasing rate of harvesting, which is driven by its high value in the live food fish trade; (3) the noted declines in imports into demand locations; (4) extensive habitat degradation in key areas of its range, particularly Southeast Asia; and (5) declining abundance from visual census in its natural habitat. Hatchery production is not intended for re-introduction, but instead for the aquarium trade and is, therefore, not resulting in an increase in the natural population or a decrease in demand in the fish food trade.

C. altivelis is thought to be at risk in many areas and this species can be hatchery-raised (Sadovy et al., 2003). However, slow growth rates mean that hatchery-produced fish are used for the aquarium trade and not the live reef food fish trade. Therefore, hatchery production is not thought to relieve fishing pressure on wild populations.

In Southeast Asia this species is heavily exploited due to its high market value and its habitat is being degraded; it is in Southeast Asia that the humpback grouper is largely distributed. This is one of the most highly valued species in the live reef fish trade and annually many tonnes enter the centre of this trade (Hong Kong), mainly from Indonesia, Philippines and Malaysia. Abundance or size estimates from the main capture areas are urgently needed since there is a very real concern for the future status of the species in the exporting countries. More complete age structure and reproduction data is also required. Such information gathering should be a priority in future action plans.

History
  • 2007
    Vulnerable
  • 2000
    Data Deficient
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Classified as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List 2007 (1).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
General
Cromileptes altivelis is naturally uncommon over most of its range. The species is a favored target species within the live reef fish trade and is, therefore, likely experiencing population declines in areas where the trade operates; it is reported to be increasingly harder to find for import into live reef food fish trade markets.

Individuals are recorded more commonly from sheltered versus exposed sites. Divers and spearfishers typically record greater abundances from inner shelf reefs. Individuals are often encountered in pairs although small aggregations of three to six individuals have been recorded at some sites. It is not known if these small groups are reproductive.

Abundance
Global and regional abundance of Cromileptes altivelis is virtually unknown from both fishery dependent and independent data. Several underwater visual censuses suggested that this species is rare in nature (CRC 2001, Halford and Russell 2001, Allen 2003, Halford 2003, Sabetian 2003).

Fishery-independent Data
Underwater visual census is the main tool for estimating its abundance in the wild. Currently, no coordinated or comprehensive stock assessment has been done on Cromileptes altivelis in the region. Existing data has been sporadically collected and assessments have not used standardized methodologies, making population trend analysis using fisheries-independent data problematic.

Additional Abundance Data: Pears (2005)
Due to the highly cryptic nature of this species standard UVC data for Cromileptes altivelis are suspect. Pears (2005) estimated abundance of this and other cryptic serranids using a special search protocol. The resultant estimates confirm the observations of survey divers that this species is rare and patchily distributed in reef habitats.

Individuals (+/- SD) per 1,000 m² on mid shelf reefs at four regions on the GBR in a north/south gradient:

Lizard I. 0.2 (0.04)
Townsville 0.1 (0.02)
McKay 0.3 (0.09)
Pompey 0 (0)

Partitioning of reefs into exposed and sheltered sites at these four localities:

Sheltered sites
Lizard I. 0.08 (0.01)
Townsville 0.2 (0.08)
McKay 0.5 (0.05)
Pompey 0 (0)

Exposed sites
Lizard I. 0.2 (0.08)
Townsville 0 (0)
McKay 0.3 (0.09)
Pompey 0 (0)

Abundance estimates of Cromileptes altivelis from New Caledonia were 0.063 individuals/1000 sq. m and is consistent with other localities in terms of the extreme rarity of this species (IRD database).

Fishery-independent data by country
Great Barrier Reef, Australia
According to underwater visual census and video-recordings in early 2001, counts of Cromileptes altivelis indicated that they were relatively rare on mid- and outer-shelf reefs (CRC 2001).

Bali, Indonesia
From 28th April to 5th May 2001, no Cromileptes altivelis was observed during a 80-hour underwater visual survey in 60 sites using SCUBA (depth up to 45 m) in Sangihe-Talud (Halford and Russell 2001).

Papua, Indonesia
From 30th October to 22nd November 2002, only five Cromileptes altivelis were observed in 57 sites in 70 hours of underwater visual survey using SCUBA (depth up to 52 m) in the Raja Ampat Islands, Indonesia (Allen 2003).

Wakatobi National Park, Indonesia
In May 2003, no C. altivelis were observed during a 14-day 50-hour underwater visual survey in 33 sites (depth up to 40 to 45 m) in the Wakatobi islands group (Halford 2003).

Kolombangara Island, Solomon Islands
Underwater visual census (2x100 m transect at depths 10 and 20 m) estimated the density of Cromileptes altivelis at < 0.5 fish/m² (Sabetian 2003).

In New Caledonia, the population of Cromileptes altivelis appears to be decreasing (Kulbicki pers. comm.).

Fishery-dependent Data
The landing and export volumes of Cromileptes altivelis in the region are lacking or incomplete. For example, official figures from Indonesia only cover all groupers as a whole, without differentiating the statistics into different species. However, import figures from the Census and Statistics Department of the Hong Kong SAR Government since 1997 provides useful information on the harvesting of Cromileptes altivelis.

Fishery-dependent data by country
Papua New Guinea (PNG)
From February to April 1998, only three Cromileptes altivelis (6 kg) were exported from PNG, comprising 0.02% of all live reef fish exported (0.05% by weight) (Lokani and Kibikibi 1999).

Demography and population dynamics
Davies et al. (2006) aged 199 of a sample of 228 individuals from the GBR. Samples ranged in size from 350 to 710 mm FL and between 1 and 19 years of age. The median age distribution was 6 to 7 years and strongly skewed to younger individuals.

Growth parameters
Tmax was 19 years with L max 610 mm FL, Linf 738 mm FL, K 0.08 , Z 0.28.
Linear growth was relatively rapid with FL of ~ 410 mm being achieved in five years. Demographic analysis was compromised by the absence of small individuals in the samples.

Reproduction
Davies et al. (2006) identify Cromileptes altivelis as a protogynous hermaphrodite, although in the absence of histological data and analysis of gonads of small individuals; thus, protogyny cannot be confirmed. Males were present in the population as young as four years of age with the proportion of males showing a gradual increase with 50% male representation occurring at 8.2 years of age. However a number of sexually transitional individuals between six and ten years of age were recorded. Sexual maturity was estimated to occur at two years of age and 330 mm FL. A more comprehensive analysis of the pattern of sexual ontogeny must await increased sampling of smaller individuals.

Trade
Live Reef Food Fish Trade (LRFFT)
Cromileptes altivelis is considered to be a high-valued principal LRFFT species (Sadovy et al. 2003).

In Hong Kong, the wholesale price of Cromileptes altivelis in 1999 was about US$64 per kg (Chan 2000). In July 2003, the wholesale and retail prices averaged US$ 62 and $110 per kg (unpublished data from the International Marinelife Alliance Hong Kong 2003).

According to Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department declaration forms, the volume (kg) of Cromileptes altivelis imported into Hong Kong decreased from 14.4 metric tonnes (mt) (valued at > US$ 460,000) to 4.4 mt (>US$ 131,000) in 2000. The second peak occurred in 2002 (11.9 mt, US$ 402,000) and then declined again to 1.5 mt (Cromileptes altivelis into Hong Kong.

Combining the figures of the imports of C. altivelis from the Census and Statistics Department and the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department (which collects data from fish traders on a voluntary basis), more than 133 mt (valued at US$ 9.95 million) of C. altivelis were imported into Hong Kong. The lowest quantity of <8.8 mt (< US$ 0.4 million) was observed in 2003, probably due to the poor sale performance of the catering industry during/after the outbreak of the SARS.

Follow the link below for Tables 1 and 2, showing the volume (kg) and value (US$) of Cromileptes altivelis imported into Hong Kong from 1997 to September 2005 (Source: Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong SAR Government).
$>
$>

Population Trend
Decreasing
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
General
In Southeast Asia, C. altivelis is heavily exploited and its habitat is being degraded.

Fisheries-dependent
Live reef fish trade
Juveniles are taken for the aquarium trade, sometimes using cyanide (Min pers. comm.), while adults are highly prized in the live reef fish trade centered in Southeast Asia. Individuals are taken in quite high numbers according to general observations and anecdotal information (Lee and Sadovy 1998) at about 40-70 cm (Lau and Parry-Jones 1999). The live fish fishery for this species operated in Queensland from 1995 (Elmer 1998) to 2003, but is now closed. The grouper's geographic distribution lies almost exclusively within an area of considerable exploitation for this species and where its habitat is likely to be subject to damage (Cesar et al. 1997). Humpback groupers are among the more important (by volume) species imported into the major live food fish centre (Hong Kong) and come principally from Indonesia, China and the Philippines.

Continued high prices in Hong Kong will inevitably lead to localised depletions. Further pressures are likely to be placed on this species in other parts of its range (e.g. Australia or other Southeast Asian countries), once Indonesian populations are reduced. The live reef fish trade is a potential threat to the survival of the species, particularly in Southeast Asia where it is heavily targeted.

There is an illegal trade of the species (and other live reef food fish) from the Philippines through Malaysia (Cabanban pers. comm.).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Vulnerable (VU) (A4cd), IUCN Grouper and Wrasse Specialist Group
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

The humpback grouper is threatened in Southeast Asia, where it is heavily exploited and its habitat is being degraded. This species is one of the most highly valued species in the live food fish trade centre in Hong Kong, where many tonnes are sold, coming principally from Indonesia, the Philippines and the Chinese Islands (1). Large adults are most likely to be harvested for the food fish trade, while smaller individuals that are used in the aquarium trade tend to come from hatchery produced mariculture (8).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Measures by Country
Indonesia
In Indonesia, about 1 million and more than 3 million juveniles (4-5 cm TL) were produced by hatcheries in 2000 and 2001, respectively. In 2003, 2 government, 7 commercial and more than 100 farmer backyard hatcheries were actively producing juveniles (Sugama et al. 2003). Hatchery-produced fish are used exclusively for the grow-out industry and aquarium trade.

Australia
C. altivelis is listed as a protected species under the Great Barrier Reef Marine Regulations 1983 – Reg 29 (accessed on 18th Jan 2006).

C. altivelis is also listed as Lower Risk (conservation dependent) in Australia (see Conservation Status of Australian Fishes - 2001; accessed on 18th Jan 2006). According to Division 3, Part 2 of Fisheries (Coral Reef Fin Fish) Management Plan 2003 (Reprint No. 2), taking or possessing of C. altivelis in Queensland is prohibited by both state (Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Queensland) and federal (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority) agencies (Queensland Fisheries Act 1994: Fisheries (Coral Reef Fin Fish) Management Plan 2003; accessed on 18th Jan 2006). However, it is permissible to take small numbers under permit for aquaculture (broodstock) purposes under the approvals from both the state and federal governments (Mike Rimmer, Northern Fisheries Centre of Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, PO Box 5396, Cairns, Queensland 4870, Australia. pers. comm. on 25th Jan 06).

Papua New Guinea
The minimum size limit for exporting C. altivelis is 40 cm TL (Live Reef Fish Food Trade (LRFFT) in Papua New Guinea; accessed on 19th Jan 2006).

Vanuatu
Listed as an Endangered Species in Vanuatu (Endangered Species in Vanuatu; accessed on 19 Jan 2006).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

The humpback grouper is reportedly farmed commercially in Bali, Indonesia, although the annual production is not known. Furthermore, cultured animals are presently sold in the aquarium market rather than for food, for which individuals must be harvested from the wild. There is a minimum capture size of 40 centimetres for this species in Queensland and recreational fishers are restricted to one fish each (1).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: commercial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Humpback grouper

The humpback grouper, panther grouper, or also in Australia Barramundi cod, Cromileptes altivelis, is a demersal marine fish which belongs to the family Serranidae, the groupers.[1]

Description[edit]

The humpback grouper is a medium-sized fish which grows up to 70 cm.[2] Its particular body shape makes this grouper quite impossible to mix up with other fishes. Its body is compressed laterally and is relatively high. This stocky and strange visual effect is accented by its concave profile and its elongated snout which gives it a humpbacked appearance.

The young have a white background with round black spots and are continuously swimming head down. The adults have a body colouration with variances of grey and beige with darker blotches variable in size on the body. Small black spots cover the whole body.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

It is widely distributed throughout the tropical waters of the central Indo-West Pacific region.[3] The humpback grouper lives in clear waters from lagoons and seaward reefs with a preference for dead or silty areas. They are found in a range of depth from 2 to 40 m.[4]

Feeding and behaviour[edit]

The diet of this grouper is based on small fishes and crustaceans.[5] Like the members of its family, the humpback grouper is demersal, solitary (except during mating periods), defends a territory, and is an ambush predator. Its feeding activity is maximal at sunrise and/or at sunset.[6] This species is a protogynous hermaphrodite, which means it is able to change from the sex it was born as to the opposite sex.

Protection[edit]

Since 2007, C. altivelis is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, because the species is naturally rare, so is sensitive to overharvesting due to its high value in the live food fish trade and to habitat degradation. Hatchery production is not intended for reintroduction, but instead for the aquarium trade, so does not result in an increase in the natural population or a decrease in demand as food.[7]


Humpback grouper, labelled as a spotted barramundi specimen, Reef HQ, Townsville, Queensland

In the aquarium[edit]

The panther grouper is commonly kept in marine aquariums.[8] Great care must be taken when purchasing this fish, as it can reach 50 cm (20 in), and is fast-growing. Its large adult size and fast growth rate means it should only be kept in large aquaria. If kept in the proper conditions, this is a very hardy and long-lived fish.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Samoilys, M. & Pollard, D. 2000. Chromileptes altivelis. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 4 August 2007.
  2. ^ http://eol.org/pages/994958/details#size
  3. ^ http://eol.org/pages/994958/details#distribution
  4. ^ http://www.fishbase.org/summary/6457
  5. ^ http://www.fishbase.org/summary/6457
  6. ^ Brulé & Déniel, ‘’ Expose synoptique des données biologiques sur le mérou rouge Epinephelus morio (valenciennes, 1828) du Golfe du Mexique’’, F.A.O., 1994,ISBN 9252034633
  7. ^ Sadovy, Y., Thierry, C., Choat, J.H. & Cabanban, A.S. 2008. Cromileptes altivelis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 June 2013.
  8. ^ liveaquaria.com Page on panther grouper
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!