Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found on various types of substrates, from mud to sand and rocks, in lower, middle and upper river valleys. Oviparous (Ref. 205).
  • Conkel, D. 1993 Cichlids of North and Central America. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., USA. (Ref. 7335)
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Distribution

Pacific Slope of Guatemala and Mexico.
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Central America: Pacific slope of Guatemala.
  • Kullander, S.O. 2003 Cichlidae (Cichlids). p. 605-654. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36377)
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Physical Description

Size

Max. size

30.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 36377))
  • Kullander, S.O. 2003 Cichlidae (Cichlids). p. 605-654. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36377)
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

benthopelagic; freshwater; pH range: 7.0; dH range: 10 - 20
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous (Ref. 205). Subtrate guarding of eggs as a form of parental care is done by both male and female (Ref. 50828).
  • Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. (Ref. 205)
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquaculture: experimental; aquarium: commercial
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Disclaimer

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