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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus, 1758)

Istanbul Fish Market : 13600-262 (1 spc.) .

  • Nurettin Meriç, Lütfiye Eryilmaz, Müfit Özulug (2007): A catalogue of the fishes held in the Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Hydrobiology Museum. Zootaxa 1472, 29-54: 45-45, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:428F3980-C1B8-45FF-812E-0F4847AF6786
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Description

  Common names: pilotfish (English), pez piloto (Espanol)
 
Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus, 1758)


Pilotfish



Elongate,  fusiform body; mouth extends to under front edge of eye, upper jaw very narrow;  gill rakers (including rudiments) 6-7 + 15-20; dorsal fin with IV-V small, free spines + I, 25-29; anal rays II + I, 15-17, base much shorter than base of dorsal; no finlets after dorsal and anal fins; pectoral short (< head length); tail base with well developed keel and notches above & below; no scutes (hard spiny scales) on lateral line.

Silvery with 6-7 black bars; tail either black with white lobe tips or white, with a back stripe in center and another on center of each lobe.


Size: reaches 70 cm.

Habitat: pelagic oceanic; usually in company with sharks, rays, turtles, or large fishes; juveniles found in floating weed or with jellyfishes.

Depth: 0-150 m.

Circumtropical; throughout our region except the upper Gulf of California.
   
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Biology

Oceanic species with a semi-obligate commensal relationship with sharks, rays, other bony fishes and turtles (Ref. 5217). Young are usually associated with jellyfish and drifting seaweed (Ref. 2850, 9563). Feed on scraps of host's left over, parasites and excrement; also on small fishes and invertebrates (Ref. 5288). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233). Marketed fresh and salted or dried (Ref. 9283). Captured at the surface using hand nets (Ref. 26165).
  • Smith-Vaniz, W.F., J.-C. Quéro and M. Desoutter 1990 Carangidae. p. 729-755. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7097)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7097&speccode=71 External link.
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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circumtropical in tropical seas; Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada to Argentina
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, TEP non-endemic, Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans), "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific), All Pacific (West + Central + East), East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West), Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America), East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West)

Regional Endemism: All species, Eastern Pacific non-endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Circumtropical in tropical seas. Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada to Argentina (Ref. 7251). Eastern Atlantic: British Isles (rare vagrant) and Bay of Biscay to Angola, including the Mediterranean and Canary Islands. Eastern Pacific: Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) to the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 2850). Common throughout the Indian Ocean (Ref. 3197).
  • Smith-Vaniz, W.F., J.-C. Quéro and M. Desoutter 1990 Carangidae. p. 729-755. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7097)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7097&speccode=71 External link.
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Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas, including Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea, Mascarenes, Hawaiian Islands.
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A tropical fish in the open ocean, rarely as far north as outer Nova Scotia.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Cervigón, F., R. Cipriani, W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, M. Hendricks, A.J. Lemus, R. Márquez, J.M. Poutiers, G. Robaina and B. Rodriguez, 1992; Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983; May, J.L. and J.G.H. Maxwell, 1986; Edwards, A., 1990; Smith-Vaniz, W.F., J.C. Qu? and M. Desoutter, 1990; Whiteheat, P.J.P., M.-L Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen, and E. Tortonese, 1984.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (S) - 150 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 5 - 6; Dorsal soft rays (total): 25 - 29; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 15 - 17
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Size

Length max (cm): 70.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 700 mm TL
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Max. size

70.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5288))
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to 70.0 cm TL (male/unsexed).
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Cervigón, F., R. Cipriani, W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, M. Hendricks, A.J. Lemus, R. Márquez, J.M. Poutiers, G. Robaina and B. Rodriguez, 1992; Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983; May, J.L. and J.G.H. Maxwell, 1986; Edwards, A., 1990; Smith-Vaniz, W.F., J.C. Qu? and M. Desoutter, 1990; Whiteheat, P.J.P., M.-L Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen, and E. Tortonese, 1984.
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Accompanies large sharks during oceanic wanderings to feed on the left-overs, as well as on their parasites and excrement. Aside from sharks, this species has a semi-obligate commensal relationship with rays, other fishes and turtles. Feeds on scraps of host's food, small fishes and invertebrates (Ref. 5288). Young are found at or near the surface of oceanic waters (Ref. 9283). Young are usually associated with jellyfishes and drifting seaweeds (Refs. 2850; 9563). Marketed fresh and salted/dried (Ref. 9283).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Body elongate, slender, and not strongly compressed; posterior end of upper jaw located at anterior rim of eye; dorsal fin with 4 or 5 spines followed by another spine and 25 to 29 soft rays (IV-V+I 25-29); lateral line without scutes; caudal peduncle with well developed fleshy keels and with dorsal and ventral peduncular fossae (Ref. 55763). Body dark to pale bluish, with 6-7 broad, dark bars; white tips on caudal lobes and on second dorsal and anal lobes (Ref. 3197).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

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Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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oceanic species with a semi-obligate commensal relationship with sharks, rays, other bony fishes and turtles
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 5227)
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Depth range based on 27 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 9 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 2824
  Temperature range (°C): 2.548 - 26.261
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.229 - 39.739
  Salinity (PPS): 33.685 - 36.260
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.888 - 6.194
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.245 - 2.927
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.174 - 46.771

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 2824

Temperature range (°C): 2.548 - 26.261

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.229 - 39.739

Salinity (PPS): 33.685 - 36.260

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.888 - 6.194

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.245 - 2.927

Silicate (umol/l): 1.174 - 46.771
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 30m.
Recorded at 30 meters.

Habitat: pelagic. Pilotfish.   (Linnaeus, 1758)  Attains 70 cm. Common up to 38 cm. Pelagic in oceanic waters. Has a semi-obligate relationship with sharks, rays and other large fishes. Sometimes rides the bow wave of ships or large fishes and hence it's common name Pilotfish; Common throughout Indian Ocean; a circumtropical species.
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Pelagic; marine; depth range to 30 m. A semi-obligate commensal on sharks, rays, other bony fishes and turtles. Young found with jellyfish and drifting seaweed.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Cervigón, F., R. Cipriani, W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, M. Hendricks, A.J. Lemus, R. Márquez, J.M. Poutiers, G. Robaina and B. Rodriguez, 1992; Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983; May, J.L. and J.G.H. Maxwell, 1986; Edwards, A., 1990; Smith-Vaniz, W.F., J.C. Qu? and M. Desoutter, 1990; Whiteheat, P.J.P., M.-L Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen, and E. Tortonese, 1984.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Offshore Only, Offshore

Water Column Position: Near Surface, Mid Water, Water column only

Habitat: Water column, Large fishes (billfishes, rays, sharks, etc), turtles & whales

FishBase Habitat: Pelagic
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Occurs in inshore waters of the continental shelf (Ref. 75154). Planktivore (Ref. 46174).
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Scavenger on the scraps of host's prey, parasites and excrement; also on small fishes and invertebrates.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Cervigón, F., R. Cipriani, W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, M. Hendricks, A.J. Lemus, R. Márquez, J.M. Poutiers, G. Robaina and B. Rodriguez, 1992; Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983; May, J.L. and J.G.H. Maxwell, 1986; Edwards, A., 1990; Smith-Vaniz, W.F., J.C. Qu? and M. Desoutter, 1990; Whiteheat, P.J.P., M.-L Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen, and E. Tortonese, 1984.
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: Pelagic crustacea, ectoparasites, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feeds on scraps of host's left-overs, parasites and excrement; also on small fishes and invertebrates
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Reproduction

Pelagic eggs with spawning generally in summer.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder, 1953; Cervigón, F., R. Cipriani, W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, M. Hendricks, A.J. Lemus, R. Márquez, J.M. Poutiers, G. Robaina and B. Rodriguez, 1992; Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983; May, J.L. and J.G.H. Maxwell, 1986; Edwards, A., 1990; Smith-Vaniz, W.F., J.C. Qu? and M. Desoutter, 1990; Whiteheat, P.J.P., M.-L Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen, and E. Tortonese, 1984.
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Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Naucrates ductor

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Naucrates ductor

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
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Wikipedia

Pilot fish

The pilot fish (Naucrates ductor) is a carnivorous commensal fish in the family Carangidae.[1] It is widely distributed and lives in warm or tropical open seas.

Description[edit]

The pilot fish congregates around sharks, rays, and sea turtles, where it eats ectoparasites on, and leftovers around the host species;[2] younger pilot fish are usually associated with jellyfish and drifting seaweeds.[3] They are also known to follow ships, sometimes for long distances; one was found in County Cork, Ireland,[4] and many pilot fish have been sighted on the shores of England.[5][6] Their fondness for ships led the ancients to believe that they would navigate a ship to its desired course.[7]

The pilot fish's color is between dark blue and blackish-silver, with the belly being lighter in color.[8][9][10] The pilot fish is also known to have a temporary variation of color when excited; its dark-colored bars disappear, and its body turns silvery-white, with three broad blue patches on its back.[11] It can be recognized by its five to seven distinctive traverse bands,[12] which are of a much darker color than the rest of the body.[9] The pilot fish can grow up to 60–70 cm in length.[13]

The pilot fish is harmless to human beings[14] and is said to taste good,[15][16] but it is rarely available due to its erratic behavior when caught.[17]

Pilot fish swimming with an oceanic whitetip shark

While pilot fish can be seen with all manner of sharks, they prefer accompanying the oceanic whitetip, Carcharhinus longimanus.[18] The pilot fish's relationship with sharks is a mutualist one; the pilot fish gains protection from predators, while the shark gains freedom from parasites.[19] It was often said by sailors that sharks and pilot fish share something like a "close companionship";[20] there were even tales of this fish following ships which had captured "their" shark for up to six weeks[21] and showing signs of distress in its absence.[22][23]

Whatever the veracity of such reports, it is extremely rare that a shark will feed on a pilot fish,[24] and smaller pilot fish are frequently observed swimming into sharks' mouths to clean away fragments of food from between their teeth. As Herman Melville put it,[25]

They have nothing of harm to dread,

But liquidly glide on his ghastly flank
Or before his Gorgonian head;
Or lurk in the port of serrated teeth
In white triple tiers of glittering gates,
And there find a haven when peril 's abroad,
An asylum in jaws of the Fates![26]

These observations have led to the pilot fish's distinctive markings being copied for decals supplied as shark protection for surfboards.[27]

Etymology and metaphors[edit]

There are a few possible, conflicting etymologies for the term "pilot fish". One is that seafaring people believed that pilot fish, which would appear around the bow of their ships when they were close to land, were leading (or piloting) them back to port.[28] An alternative etymology is that pilot fish were once, erroneously,[29] thought to be piloting sharks to food,[30][31] or even (as legends have it) piloting ships, whales and swimmers to safety.[32]

In Greek mythology a sailor called Pompilos helped the nymph Okyrhoe when she was fleeing away from the god Apollo. The sailor moved the nymph from Miletus to Samos and the god punished him by making him a pilot fish.[33]

The pilot fish is sometimes used as a metaphor or simile; "they are like the pilot fish to the shark, serving to lead him to his victim".[34] In a vaguely similar vein, Ernest Hemingway uses the term "pilot fish" in his memoirs (A Moveable Feast) to refer to the scouts that rich people send out to check on artists to see if they are the next big thing. Pilot fish are also used as a metaphor or simile for scavengers or looters which accompany a greater threat; in this sense, the term "pilot fish" was applied to a group of extraterrestrial robots that heralded the imminent appearance of a much greater threat (the "shark") in The Christmas Invasion, the 2005 Christmas Special of the BBC television show Doctor Who.

In the Discworld (world) novel Making Money, during a conspiracy to entrap Moist von Lipwig, Heretofore reflects on his current predicament and uncomfortable relationship with Cosmo Lavish and says "Does he think he's Vetinari? What do they call those fishes that swim alongside sharks, making themselves useful so they don't get eaten? That's me, that's what I'm doing, just hanging on, because it's much safer than letting go."

In popular culture[edit]

A pilot fish named Joe is the main antagonist of Help! I'm a Fish. After being granted speech and intelligence by the antidote for the movie's "Fish Potion," he sets about creating an entire army of intelligent sea creatures with the intent of conquering the seas. He is voiced in the English version of the film by Alan Rickman.[citation needed]

Ernest Hemingway bitterly immortalised John Dos Passos as a "pilot fish" for the wealthy in A Moveable Feast, after falling out with him over the Spanish Civil War.[citation needed]

In the Doctor Who universe, Roboforms are described by The Doctor as metaphorical pilot fish, indicating the presence of a more dangerous pending alien threat.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Greenberg, Idaz (1986). Guide to Corals & Fishes of Florida, the Bahamas and the Caribbean. Seahawk Press. pp. 2–3. ISBN 0-913008-08-7. 
  2. ^ McEachran, John D.; Fechhelm, Janice D. (1998). Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico: Myxiniformes to Gasterosteiformes. University of Texas Press. p. 287. ISBN 0-292-70634-0. 
  3. ^ Eschmeyer, William N.; Herald, Earl Stannard (1999). A Field Guide to Pacific Coast Fishes. Houghton Mifflin Books. p. 208. ISBN 0-395-26873-7. 
  4. ^ Thompson, William (1856). The Natural History of Ireland. Reeve, Benham and Reeve. p. 95. ISBN 0-900761-45-8. 
  5. ^ Couch, Jonathan (1863). A History of the Fishes of the British Islands. Groombridge & Sons. p. 109. 
  6. ^ Yarrell, William (1841). A History of British Fishes (2nd. ed.). John van Voorst. p. 170. "The pilot-fish has been so often seen, and occasionally taken on our southern coast, as to be entitled to a place among British Fishes[.]" 
  7. ^ Patterson, Robert (1849). First Steps to Zoology. Simms and McIntyre. p. 149. "[The pilot fish is] supposed by the ancients to have pointed out to navigators their desired course, and borne them company during their voyage." 
  8. ^ Goldsmith, Oliver (1810). A History of the Earth and Animated Nature. p. 159. 
  9. ^ a b Eschmeyer & Herald 1999, p. 208.
  10. ^ Randall, John; Allen, Gerald; Steen, Roger (1997). Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press. p. 164. ISBN 0-8248-1895-4. 
  11. ^ Eschmeyer & Herald, p. 208.
  12. ^ Goldsmith 1810, p. 159.
  13. ^ Various sources give different figures:
    • Eschmayer & Herald 1999, p. 208, claims a maximum of 61 cm, averaging less than 30cm in the studied area (the Pacific).
    • Randall, Allen & Steen 1997, p. 164, gives a maximum figure of 70 cm, as does FishBase.
    • An average size of 60cm is given by Jennings, Gerald (1997). The Sea and Freshwater Fishes of Australia and New Guinea. Calypso Publications. p. 163. ISBN 0-906301-62-9. 
    • An older source gives a figure of "about a foot". See the third volume of Orr, William Somerville (1865). Orr's Circle of the Sciences. Houlston & Stoneman. p. 50. ISBN 1-142-00237-3. .
  14. ^ "Naucrates ductor". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved June 24, 2005. 
  15. ^ Orr 1865, p. 50. "Its flesh is said to be very good."
  16. ^ Yarrell 1841, p. 172. "After this the two [pilot] fish separated; but they were both taken the same evening, and, when dressed the next day, were found to be excellent eating."
  17. ^ "The Sargasso Sea". The Geographical Journal 66 (5): 440. November 1925. doi:10.2307/1782665. "They take the hook readily, but go quite insane when hooked, and are difficult to land in spite of their size, 6 to 16 inches." 
  18. ^ Stafford-Deitsch, Jeremy (2000). Sharks of Florida, the Bahamas, the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. Trident Press. p. 32. ISBN 1-900724-45-6. 
  19. ^ Webster, Stephen (2003). Thinking about Biology. Cambridge University Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-521-59059-0. 
  20. ^ Couch 1863, p. 110–111.
  21. ^ Murray, Hugh; Wilson, James; Greville, R. K.; Jameson, Robert; Ainslie, Whitelaw; Rhind, William; Wallace, Prof.; Dalrymble, Clarence (1832). Historical and Descriptive Account of British India, from the Most Remote Period to the Present Time. J. & J. Harper. p. 337. 
  22. ^ Schomburgk, Robert Hermann (1848). History of Barbados: Comprising a Geographical and Statistical Description of the Island. p. 669. ISBN 0-7146-1948-5. 
  23. ^ Gudger, E. W. (March 1929). "Some Instances of Supposed Sympathy Among Fishes". The Scientific Monthly 28 (3): 267. 
  24. ^ "The Deep-Sea Fishes Collected by the Talisman". Science 23 (68): 623–8. May 23, 1884. doi:10.1126/science.ns-3.68.623. PMID 17844329. "It seems that Naucrates acts as a guide for the sharks, and that the latter, in recognition of its services, never pursue it." 
  25. ^ Turco, Lewis (1986). Visions and Revisions of American Poetry. University of Arkansas Press. p. 65. ISBN 0-938626-50-7. "'The Maldive Shark' is as close to perfection as Melville ever came in his verse poetry." 
  26. ^ The Maldive Shark, in Melville, Herman (1888). John Marr and Other Sailors. The De Vinne Press. p. 90. ISBN 0-8414-6029-9. 
  27. ^ Hurley, Timothy (2003-11-06). "Company sold out of anti-shark device". The Honolulu Advertiser. Retrieved 2007-07-26. "Sharkcamo sells rash guards and decals for surfboards and bodyboards that have zebralike stripes that mimic the pattern of certain fish—poisonous fish, cleaner fish, pilot fish and remoras—that sharks do not choose as prey."  See also the Shark Camo website.
  28. ^ "Pilot Fish". The London Encyclopædia, or, Universal Dictionary of Science, Art, Literature, and Practical Mechanics XVII. 1839. p. 396. "Seafaring people observe that this fish frequently accompanies their vessels; and, as they see it generally towards the fore part of the ship, they imagined that it was guiding and tracing out the course of the vessel, and hence it received the name of pilot-fish." 
  29. ^ Stafford-Deitsch 2000, p. 32. "The myth that pilotfishes guide their host to prey is erroneously derived from the fact that pilotfishes [...] often ride the pressure wave immediately in front of the snout of their host."
  30. ^ Andrews, Roy Chapman (1940). This Amazing Planet. G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 88. 
  31. ^ Stedman, John Gabriel (1813). Narrative of a Five Years' Expedition against the Revolted Negroes of Surinam in Guiana on the Wild Coast of South America from the Years 1772–1777. p. 400. ISBN 0-87636-015-0. "The pilot-fish ought here also to be noticed: this [...] is said not only to feed upon the gills of the shark, but to direct it to its prey, from which singularity originates its name." 
  32. ^ Eschmeyer & Herald 2002, p. 209. "The name Pilotfish comes from legendary tales of this species leading lost swimmers, ships, or whales to safety."
  33. ^ Athenaeus, Deipnosofistae 283e and Claudius Aelianus, De natura animalium 15.23.
  34. ^ Watt, G. D. (1855). Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young II. F. D. Richards. p. 188. 
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