Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Chinese (Simplified) (4) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

WhyReef - Lifestyle

The clown triggerfish is a loner, except when it reproduces. Then you can find one male guarding 2 to 5 females. The females make the nests for the eggs, but then leave the males to protect the eggs until they hatch. The males will even attack divers if they come to close to the eggs.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WhyReef

Source: WhyReef EOL content

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Lives in clear coastal to outer reef habitats (Ref. 48637). Occurs in clear seaward reefs adjacent to steep drop-offs. A solitary species (Ref. 9710). Uncommon to rare throughout most of its range (Ref. 9770). Adults usually seen along deep drop-offs, swimming about openly and may retreat to caves when approached. Juveniles secretive in small caves with rich invertebrate growth (Ref. 48637). Diet consists of sea urchins, crabs and other crustaceans, mollusks, and tunicates (Ref. 9770). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9770). Among the most highly prized aquarium fishes (Ref. 1602).
  • Matsuura, K. 2001 Balistidae. Triggerfishes. p. 3911-3928. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9770)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9770&speccode=9 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

WhyReef - Fun Facts

The clown triggerfish gets its name from the fact that its bright orange lips look like those of a clown. But there is more to its wacky appearance than its lips: half of its body is black with white spots, like a soccer ball, and half is mostly black with a splotch of odd black shapes outlined in yellow. As you can imagine, the clown triggerfish is pretty easy to recognize, but its pattern is not the only special thing about it. When it is scared, it can lock itself into a small hole. First, it quickly dives into a small hole in a coral. Then it extends the spines on its belly and head into the coral. Finally, it bites down on the coral with its strong mouth and locks itself into the hole, which makes it very difficult for predators to pull it out!
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WhyReef

Source: WhyReef EOL content

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Indo-Pacific: East Africa south to Durban, South Africa (Ref. 4420) and east through Indonesia to Samoa, north to southern Japan and south to New Caledonia.
  • Matsuura, K. 2001 Balistidae. Triggerfishes. p. 3911-3928. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9770)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9770&speccode=9 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Comores and Mascarenes east to Samoa, north to southern Hokkaido (Japan) and Ogasawara Islands, south to Lord Howe Island and New Caledonia.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 3; Dorsal soft rays (total): 25 - 27; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 21 - 27; Vertebrae: 18
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Maximum size: 500 mm TL
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Max. size

50.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334))
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Description

Occurs in clear seaward reefs adjacent to steep drop offs. Uncommon to rare throughout most of its range. Diet consists of sea urchins, crabs and other crustaceans, mollusks, and tunicates (Ref. 9770). Marketed fresh, but of minor importance to fisheries (Ref. 9770). Among the most highly prized aquarium fishes (Ref. 1602).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Unique color pattern of large white spots on belly, black spots on yellow background on the back, yellow snout. A white or yellowish band across snout in front of eye. Lips and the area around mouth orange-yellow. A broad vertical white, slightly yellowish band on caudal fin. Scales enlarged above pectoral-fin base and just behind gill opening to form a flexible tympanum. Rows of small anteriorly projecting spines on caudal peduncle. A prominent groove extending anteriorly from front of eye for a distance of about 1 eye diameter. Mouth terminal. Caudal peduncle compressed (Ref 9770). 39-50 rows of plate-like scales.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; brackish; marine; depth range 1 - 75 m (Ref. 9710)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 25 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 20 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 8 - 62
  Temperature range (°C): 24.430 - 28.575
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.136 - 1.522
  Salinity (PPS): 34.228 - 35.515
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.406 - 4.840
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.121 - 0.254
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.869 - 4.599

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 8 - 62

Temperature range (°C): 24.430 - 28.575

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.136 - 1.522

Salinity (PPS): 34.228 - 35.515

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.406 - 4.840

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.121 - 0.254

Silicate (umol/l): 0.869 - 4.599
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth: 1 - 75m.
From 1 to 75 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Clown triggerfish.  (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)  Attains 50 cm. Found on outer reef terraces with surge channels.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

The habitat consists of clear waters of outer reef slopes at depth between about 5 and 75 m. Juveniles are very secretive, mainly confining themselves to caves below 20 m depth on steep drop offs (Ref. 54301). Lives in clear coastal to outer reef habitats (Ref. 48637). A solitary species (Ref. 9710). Uncommon to rare throughout most of its range (Ref. 9770). Adults usually seen along deep drop-offs, swimming about openly and may retreat to caves when approached. Juveniles secretive in small caves with rich invertebrate growth (Ref. 48637). Diet consists of sea urchins, crabs and other crustaceans, mollusks, and tunicates (Ref. 9770).
  • Matsuura, K. 2001 Balistidae. Triggerfishes. p. 3911-3928. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9770)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9770&speccode=9 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Partner Web Site: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

WhyReef - Menu

The clown triggerfish chomps on things found on the bottom of the reef, such as crabs, sea urchins, sea stars, sponges, snails, clams, and other invertebrates. It has many different types of teeth that help it crunch hard shells. It can also blow water from its mouth to expose prey that hide under sand! It only eats other animals, so it is a carnivore.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WhyReef

Source: WhyReef EOL content

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Spawning occurs in patches of mixed coral rubble and sand on clear seaward reefs (Ref. 37816).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Balistoides conspicillum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 7 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACGCGTTGATTCTTCTCAACTAATCACAAAGACATCGGCACCCTATACTTAGTTTTTGGTGCTTGAGCTGGAATAGTAGGTACAGCCTTA---AGCTTGCTAATCCGAGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCCGGCGCTCTCTTAGGTGAC---GATCAAATTTATAATGTAATCGTTACAGCACATGCCTTCGTAATAATCTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTATGATTGGAGGGTTTGGAAACTGACTTATCCCTTTAATA---ATTGGAGCCCCCGACATAGCATTTCCTCGAATAAATAACATGAGCTTCTGACTTCTACCCCCTTCTCTCCTTCTACTCCTTGCCTCCTCAAGCGTAGAAGCAGGGGCTGGAACCGGATGAACTGTGTATCCTCCTCTCGCAGGAAACCTGGCCCATGCCGGAGCCTCTGTAGACCTT---ACTATCTTCTCATTACATTTAGCGGGTATTTCCTCAATTCTGGGAGCAATTAACTTTATTACTACAATTATTAATATGAAACCCCCTGCTATCTCCCAATATCAGACACCTCTATTTGTTTGAGCCGTCCTAATCACAGCAGTACTCCTACTCCTATCCCTTCCCGTACTAGCTGCC---GGAATCACAATACTACTTACTGACCGAAACTTAAACACCACATTTTTTGACCCTGCTGGAGGGGGAGACCCAATTCTTTACCAACATTTATTTTGATTCTTCGGCCACCCTGAAGTATATATTCTTATTCTCCCTGGATTTGGGATAATCTCCCACATTGTTGCTTATTACTCCGGTAAAAAA---GAACCTTTTGGCTATATGGGTATGGTCTGAGCTATAATGGCCATCGGACTTCTAGGCTTCATCGTTTGAGCCCACCACATGTTCACGGTCGGAATAGACGTAGACACCCGAGCCTATTTCACCTCAGCTACAATAATTATCGCAATTCCAACCGGTGTAAAAGTATTTAGCTGATTA---GCCACACTGCACGGAGGC---TCAATCAAGTGAGAAACCCCTCTCCTATGAGCCCTAGGCTTTATTTTCTTATTCACAGTGGGGGGCCTAACAGGCATTGTCTTAGCAAACTCATCACTCGATATTGTACTACATGATACATATTATGTAGTAGCCCACTTCCACTATGTT---CTCTCAATAGGAGCTGTGTTTGCCATCGTCGCCGCCTTCGTCCATTGATTCCCGCTATTTTCTGGTTATACCCTACACGACACATGGACAAAAATCCATTTTGGAGTAATGTTTGCAGGAGTTAATCTCACATTCTTCCCACAACACTTCCTAGGCCTAGCCGGAATGCCTCGA---CGCTACTCAGACTACCCCGATGCCTATACC---CTTTGAAATACAGTTTCCTCAATCGGGTCTCTTGTATCCCTAGTAGCAGTCATCCTTTTCTTATTTATTATCTGAGAAGCATTTGCAGCTAAACGAGAAGTC---CTATCCGTGGAACTCACCTCAACTAAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Balistoides conspicillum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 12
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

WhyReef - Threats

Clown triggerfish are some of the most popular tropical fish to have as pets, but humans must be careful not to take too many of them out of the reef!

Reefs are in danger, and that means so is the home of the clown triggerfish!

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WhyReef

Source: WhyReef EOL content

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Clown triggerfish

Clown triggerfish (Balistoides conspicillum), also known as the bigspotted triggerfish, are demersal marine fish belonging to the family Balistidae, or commonly called triggerfish.

Description[edit]

The clown triggerfish is a small sized fish which grows up to 50 cm.[1] Its body has a stock appearance, oval shape and compressed laterally. The head is large and represents approximately one third of the body length. The mouth is small, terminal and has strong teeth.[1]

The first dorsal fin is composed of three spines, one of which is longer and stronger. It is erectile and hidden in a dorsal furrow. This set of dorsal spines composed a trigger system which is a characteristic from the family Balistidae. The second dorsal fin is similar in shape and size to the anal fin which is symmetrically opposed to it. The pelvic fin is reduced to a ventral protrusion.[1]

The background coloration is black. Half of inferior part of the body is marked with big white spots which are more or less round. The area around the first dorsal fin is crossed by yellowish sinuosities which draw like a network reminding the leopard's patterns. There is a yellowish ring around the mouth, which is surrounded by another fin white ring. A white stripe ride the snout just under the eyes level. The second dorsal fin and the anal fin are white and underlined with a yellow line at their base. The caudal peduncle has a yellowish blotch on its top part and has three horizontal sets of spiny scales. The caudal fin is yellowish in its center and has black margin. Juveniles have a black background coloration spangled with small white spots, the extremity of the snout and the base of the first dorsal fin is yellowish.[2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The clown triggerfish is widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian Ocean until the western Pacific Ocean.[3] It is most commonly found along external reef slopes with clear water until 75 m depth.[4] Juveniles are usually staying below 20 m sheltered close to caves or overhangs.

1693 aquaimages.jpg

Feeding[edit]

Balistoides conspicillum has a varied diet based on different benthic organisms like molluscs, echinoderms and crustaceans.[5]

Behaviour[edit]

This triggerfish has a diurnal activity, is solitary and defend a territory. It can be very aggressive with other fishes and congeners. The first long dorsal spine when is erected, it is used to impress an opponent or to avoid a predator to pull it out of its refuge.

In the aquarium[edit]

Balistoides conspicillum 2.jpg

Because of its attractive coloration, this fish is one of the most highly prized aquarium fish.[6] Like many other triggerfish, it can require a large aquarium and be aggressive towards other fish. It should not be kept with small fishes. It will also prey on invertebrates in the aquarium.[7][8] This fish can become tame enough to be hand-fed; however, one should beware of the fish's sharp teeth.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Lieske & Myers,Coral reef fishes,Princeton University Press, 2009, ISBN 9780691089959
  2. ^ http://eol.org/pages/994708/details#diagnostic_description
  3. ^ http://eol.org/pages/994708/details#distribution
  4. ^ http://eol.org/pages/994708/details#habitat
  5. ^ http://eol.org/pages/994708/details#trophic_strategy
  6. ^ http://www.fishbase.org/summary/2300
  7. ^ Dakin, Nick (1992). The Macmillan book of the Marine Aquarium. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. p. 177. ISBN 0-02-897108-6. 
  8. ^ a b Sanford, Gina (1999). Aquarium Owner's Guide. New York: DK Publishing. p. 132. ISBN 0-7894-4614-6. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!