Overview

Comprehensive Description

Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Materials

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: catalogNumber: CIRR-304 ; recordedBy: Salvador Zarco Perello ; individualCount: 3 ; Location: continent: America; country: Mexico ; stateProvince: Yucatan; locality: Madagascar Reef ; verbatimDepth: 4 m; verbatimLatitude: 781272.611854; verbatimLongitude: 2373443.69326; verbatimCoordinateSystem: UTM 15N; verbatimSRS: WGS84; decimalLatitude: 21.441469 ; decimalLongitude: -90.286290 ; Event: samplingProtocol: Photosampling ; eventDate: 28/9/2007 ; Record Level: collectionID: YUC-PEC_239-01-64; institutionCode: UMDI-SISAL ; collectionCode: CIRR

Distribution

Western Atlantic. New York to Brazil. Including Bahamas and throughout the Caribbean Islands.

  • Zarco Perello, Salvador, Moreno Mendoza, Rigoberto, Simoes, Nuno (2014): Checklist of Fishes from Madagascar Reef, Campeche Bank, Mexico. Biodiversity Data Journal 2, 1100: 1100-1100, URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.2.e1100
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Biology

Common in coral reefs, usually solitary, occasionally in pairs. Juveniles are part-time cleaners. Feed mainly on sponges, but also takes tunicates, algae, zoantharians, gorgonians, hydroids, bryozoans, and seagrasses. Oviparous (Ref. 240), monogamous (Ref. 52884). Flesh reported to be of excellent quality (Ref. 3797); marketed fresh and salted (Ref. 5217). Friendly toward divers (Ref. 9710). Have been reared in captivity (Ref. 35419).
  • Allen, G.R. 1985 Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 4858)
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is distributed in the western Atlantic from New York (probably not overwintering north of Florida) (USA), throughout the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico, to Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) (Burgess 2002). Reported by Burgess (2002) to have been introduced to Bermuda. It is found at depths of 2-30 m.
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Western Atlantic: from New England, USA to the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Also Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean, including Antilles
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Western Atlantic: New England, USA to the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean (Ref. 26938).
  • Allen, G.R. 1985 Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 4858)
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Western Atlantic.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 31 - 33; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 23 - 25
  • Allen, G.R. 1985 Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 4858)
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Size

Maximum size: 600 mm TL
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Max. size

60.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 3797)); max. published weight: 1,830 g (Ref. 40637)
  • Burgess, W.E. 1978 Pomacanthidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Vol. 3. [var. pag.] FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3797)
  • IGFA 2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA. (Ref. 40637)
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Diagnostic Description

Pale gray around mouth, and pale gray margin on caudal fin. Inside of pectoral fin yellow (Ref. 26938). Juveniles are black with two light yellow bars on body and three on head; caudal fin yellow with a vertically elongate, nearly rectangular or hemispherical black spot in middle (Ref. 13442).
  • Allen, G.R. 1985 Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 4858)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Fairly common on coral and rocky reefs. Seen mostly in pairs, but also as individuals and in small groups. They feed on various invertebrates (mostly sponges) and algae (Burgess 2002).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 2 - 30 m (Ref. 9626)
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Depth range based on 475 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 296 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 97
  Temperature range (°C): 21.955 - 28.067
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.115 - 3.505
  Salinity (PPS): 34.217 - 37.169
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.285 - 4.992
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.046 - 0.380
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 5.080

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 97

Temperature range (°C): 21.955 - 28.067

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.115 - 3.505

Salinity (PPS): 34.217 - 37.169

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.285 - 4.992

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.046 - 0.380

Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 5.080
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 2 - 30m.
From 2 to 30 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Trophic Strategy

Common in coral reefs. Feed mainly on sponges, but also takes tunicates, algae, zoantharians, gorgonians, hydroids, bryozoans, and seagrasses. Omnivore (Ref. 57616).
  • Randall, J.E. 1967 Food habits of reef fishes of the West Indies. Stud. Trop. Oceanogr. Miami 5:665-847.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pomacanthus arcuatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTCTATTTACTATTTGGTGCTTGAGCCGGAATGGTAGGCACTGCTTTAAGCCTACTAATTCGAGCCGAGCTAAATCAACCGGGCAGCCTTCTCGGAGACGACCAGATCTACAATGTTATCGTTACAGCACACGCATTCGTAATAATTTTTTTTATGGTAATGCCCGCCATAATCGGAGGCTTTGGAAATTGATTAGTCCCACTAATAATTGGAGCCCCAGACATAGCATTTCCTCGAATAAATAATATAAGCTTTTGACTCCTGCCCCCTTCTCTTCTTCTTCTCCTTGCTTCCGCCGGGGTAGAAGCCGGAGCTGGAACTGGATGAACAGTTTACCCGCCTCTAGCTGGCAATCTAGCCCACGCAGGAGCATCCGTAGACCTAACCATCTTCTCCCTCCACCTAGCCGGAATCTCCTCAATTCTTGGGGCCATTAACTTCATCACAACCATCATTAACATAAAACCCCCTGCTATTTCACAATACCAAACTCCCCTATTTGTGTGAGCCGTCCTAATTACTGCAGTACTACTTCTGCTTTCCCTCCCCGTCCTTGCTGCCGGCATCACAATGCTTCTCACAGACCGAAATCTTAACACTACTTTCTTTGACCCTGCAGGAGGGGGAGATCCAATTCTTTACCAGCACTTGTTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pomacanthus arcuatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 17
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Pyle, R., Myers, R., Rocha, L.A. & Craig, M.T.

Reviewer/s
Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.

Contributor/s

Justification

Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, large population and no apparent major threats.

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Population

Population
This is a relatively common species with stable populations.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats

Collection for the aquarium trade is a local threat, but it does not seem to be affecting the population globally.

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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

There appear to be no species-specific conservation measures in place. This species is present within a number of marine protected areas. A maximum quota of 3,000 specimens for export from Brazil has been established for this species, which exceeds the current collection levels.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial; price category: high; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
  • Allen, G.R. 1985 Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 4858)
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Wikipedia

Gray angelfish

The gray angelfish or gray angelfish (Pomacanthus arcuatus) is a large angelfish of the family Pomacanthidae, found in the western Atlantic from New England to the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and also the Bahamas, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean, including the Antilles, at depths of between 2 and 30 m. Length is up to 60 cm. It weighs about 2.0 kg. It feeds mainly on sponges, it is usually found in warm water, in coral reefs, and in oceans.

References[edit]

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