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Overview

Brief Summary

Parexocoetus brachypterus

Ikan terbang adalah familia ikan lauut yang terdiri sekitar 50 spesies yang dikelompokkan dalam 7 hingga 9 genera. spesies ika terbang tersebar hampir di semua perairan, baik perairan tropis dan pada perairan sub tropis. ikan terbang termasuk dalam kategori ikan pelagis kecil (small Pelagis spesies). yang juga disebut flying fish. ikan terbang menyukai cahaya pada malam hari dan merupakan perenang cepat. Secara morfologi, ikan terbang memiliki tubuh yang bulat memanjang dan agak mampat ke bagian samping. rahang bawah dan rahang atas sama panjang tapi uniknya ketika masih muda bentuk rahang bawahnya sedikit lebih panjang. sirip yang dimiliki hampir keseluruhan dari mulai sirip dventral (perut), sirip dorsal (punggung), sirip pektoral (dada), sirip anal, dan sirip caudal (ekor). sirip dorsal dan sirip anal transparan, sirip ekor berwarna abu-abu,, sirip ventral ke abu-abuan dan belang pendek. sirip pektoral panjang digunakan untuk melayang. sirip ventral tidak mencapai sirip dorsal dengan pangkal sirip ventral lebih dekat ke posterior kepala daripada ke pangkal ekor. sirip ekornya berbentuk cagak dengan sirip bagian bawah lebih panjang. ikan terbang mengalami pemijahan dengan ovipar (bertelur). telur ikan terbang mempunyai warna kuning keemasan.

mennurut Hutomo, ikan terbang memiliki sekitar 53 spesies di dunia, masing-masing 17 spesies di samudra pasifik, 11 spesies di samudra Hindia dan 40 spesies di samudra pasifik. ikan terbang mempunyai dua kelompok yaitu ikan terbang yang bersayap 2 dan ikan terbang yang bersayap empat. sedangkan ikan Parexocoetus brachypterus merupakan jenis ikan terbang yang bersayap 2 yaitu diwakili oleh spesies dari genus Exocoetus. ikan ini ketika melompat ditandai dengan naik ke permukaan tanpa mmeluncur terlebih dahulu di atas permukaan. jarak yang dapat ditempuh tidak melebihi 20 meter. proses terbang ikan Parexocoetus brachypterus dilakukan karena salah satu reaksi dan kemampuan untuk menghindar dari serangan predator . populasi ikan terbang diketahui memiliki 1 -2 tahun dan secara alami akan mengalami kematian setelah melewati pemijahan 1 - 2 kali dalam siklus hidupnya(post spawning mortalty). (Campana,1993).

populasi ikan terbang dapat berkurang secara individu dalam populasi tersebut akibat tekanan penangkapan yang melebihi kemampuan regenerasi populasi iakn tersebut. faktor yang menentukan besarnya jumlah individu dalam suatu populasi mengikuti model keseimbangan stok dalam populasi tersebut dengan parameter kelahiran (natalitas) dan pertumbuhan sebagai faktor penambahan, serta kematian alami dan kematian karena penangkapan.

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Parexocoetus brachypterus

Ikan terbang adalah familia ikan lauut yang terdiri sekitar 50 spesies yang dikelompokkan dalam 7 hingga 9 genera. spesies ika terbang tersebar hampir di semua perairan, baik perairan tropis dan pada perairan sub tropis. ikan terbang termasuk dalam kategori ikan pelagis kecil (small Pelagis spesies). yang juga disebut flying fish. ikan terbang menyukai cahaya pada malam hari dan merupakan perenang cepat. Secara morfologi, ikan terbang memiliki tubuh yang bulat memanjang dan agak mampat ke bagian samping. rahang bawah dan rahang atas sama panjang tapi uniknya ketika masih muda bentuk rahang bawahnya sedikit lebih panjang. sirip yang dimiliki hampir keseluruhan dari mulai sirip dventral (perut), sirip dorsal (punggung), sirip pektoral (dada), sirip anal, dan sirip caudal (ekor). sirip dorsal dan sirip anal transparan, sirip ekor berwarna abu-abu,, sirip ventral ke abu-abuan dan belang pendek. sirip pektoral panjang digunakan untuk melayang. sirip ventral tidak mencapai sirip dorsal dengan pangkal sirip ventral lebih dekat ke posterior kepala daripada ke pangkal ekor. sirip ekornya berbentuk cagak dengan sirip bagian bawah lebih panjang. ikan terbang mengalami pemijahan dengan ovipar (bertelur). telur ikan terbang mempunyai warna kuning keemasan.

mennurut Hutomo, ikan terbang memiliki sekitar 53 spesies di dunia, masing-masing 17 spesies di samudra pasifik, 11 spesies di samudra Hindia dan 40 spesies di samudra pasifik. ikan terbang mempunyai dua kelompok yaitu ikan terbang yang bersayap 2 dan ikan terbang yang bersayap empat. sedangkan ikan Parexocoetus brachypterus merupakan jenis ikan terbang yang bersayap 2 yaitu diwakili oleh spesies dari genus Exocoetus. ikan ini ketika melompat ditandai dengan naik ke permukaan tanpa mmeluncur terlebih dahulu di atas permukaan. jarak yang dapat ditempuh tidak melebihi 20 meter. proses terbang ikan Parexocoetus brachypterus dilakukan karena salah satu reaksi dan kemampuan untuk menghindar dari serangan predator . populasi ikan terbang diketahui memiliki 1 -2 tahun dan secara alami akan mengalami kematian setelah melewati pemijahan 1 - 2 kali dalam siklus hidupnya(post spawning mortalty). (Campana,1993).

populasi ikan terbang dapat berkurang secara individu dalam populasi tersebut akibat tekanan penangkapan yang melebihi kemampuan regenerasi populasi iakn tersebut. faktor yang menentukan besarnya jumlah individu dalam suatu populasi mengikuti model keseimbangan stok dalam populasi tersebut dengan parameter kelahiran (natalitas) dan pertumbuhan sebagai faktor penambahan, serta kematian alami dan kematian karena penangkapan.

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Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: flyingfish (English), volador (Espanol)
 
Parexocoetus brachypterus brachypterus (Richardson, 1846)



Sailfin flyingfish



Elongate, broadly cylindrical body; head short, snout short and blunt; mouth small, upper jaw protrusible, small conical teeth; fins without spines; dorsal 12-14 rays, long fin rays; anal 12-14 rays; pectoral moderately long, not reaching past anal base, 1st  2 rays unbranched , 11-12 branched rays; pelvic fin short, barely reaching anal origin; anal origin before 2nd  dorsal ray; tail deeply forked with a longer lower lobe; lateral line low on the body,  with a branch to origin of pectoral; scales large, smooth, easily shed; 23-30 scale rows; juveniles with paired chin barbells (easily lost).


Dark, iridescent green-blue above, silvery white below; dorsal fin clear, with large black blotch at outer tip; pelvics grey; other fins clear except tail with red cast.


Size: 20 cm.

Habitat: coastal pelagic.

Depth: surface, 0-20 m.

An Indo-Pacific subspecies of a circumtropical species; Central Mexico to Ecuador.
   
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Biology

Occurs in coastal waters (Ref. 9300), rare in the open ocean (Ref. 9839). Capable of leaping out of the water and gliding for considerable distances above the surface. 3-4 individuals aggregate during breeding (Ref. 47825). Carnivorous (Ref. 9137). Not important as food fish, but occasionally taken by fisheries.
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Distribution

Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, TEP non-endemic, Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans), "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific), All Pacific (West + Central + East)

Regional Endemism: All species, Eastern Pacific non-endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Indo-Pacific: widespread from East Africa, including the Red Sea (Ref. 26165) to southern Japan, Hawaii, the Marquesas, and Queensland (Australia); separate population in the eastern tropical Pacific (Bay of Panama). Western Atlantic: northeastern Florida, USA and the Bahamas to Brazil (Ref. 7251); common in Caribbean Sea and Lesser Antilles area; less common in the Gulf of Mexico, the Gulf Stream and the western Sargasso Sea (Ref. 3720). Eastern Atlantic: Guinea to Angola (Ref. 4498).
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Marquesas Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga; western Atlantic: northeastern Florida (U.S
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (F) - 20 (F)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 12 - 14; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 12 - 14
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Size

Length max (cm): 20.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 200 mm TL
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Max. size

20.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217))
  • Cervigón, F., R. Cipriani, W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, M. Hendrickx, A.J. Lemus, R. Márquez, J.M. Poutiers, G. Robaina and B. Rodriguez 1992 Fichas FAO de identificación de especies para los fines de la pesca. Guía de campo de las especies comerciales marinas y de aquas salobres de la costa septentrional de Sur América. FAO, Rome. 513 p. Preparado con el financiamento de la Comisión de Comunidades Europeas y de NORAD. (Ref. 5217)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5217&speccode=7 External link.
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Epipelagic in coastal waters (Ref. 9300), rare in the open ocean (Ref. 9839). Capable of leaping out of the water and gliding for considerable distances above the surface. Carnivorous (Ref. 9137). Not important as food fish, but occasionally taken by fisheries.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Body iridescent greenish blue dorsally, silvery white ventrally; dorsal black except for base and posterior rays which are pale; pelvic fins greyish, other fins transparent (Ref. 2797).
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 0 - 20 m
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Depth range based on 20 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 13 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 5517
  Temperature range (°C): 4.196 - 27.525
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.248 - 33.242
  Salinity (PPS): 34.891 - 36.286
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.516 - 5.104
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.057 - 1.936
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.333 - 28.123

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 5517

Temperature range (°C): 4.196 - 27.525

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.248 - 33.242

Salinity (PPS): 34.891 - 36.286

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.516 - 5.104

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.057 - 1.936

Silicate (umol/l): 1.333 - 28.123
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 0 - 20m.
Recorded at 20 meters.

Habitat: pelagic.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Offshore, In & Offshore, Inshore

Water Column Position: Surface, Water column only

Habitat: Water column

FishBase Habitat: Pelagic
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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Occurs in coastal waters (Ref. 9300), rare in the open ocean (Ref. 9839). Inhabits coral reefs (Ref. 58534). Feeds on zooplankton (Ref. 9137).
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Planktivore

Diet: zooplankton, pelagic fish eggs, pelagic fish larvae
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

During breeding, a spawning aggregation composed at least of 3-4 individuals, probably 2-3 males to 1 female, were observed jumping and flying over the water surface, exuding ripe eggs and sperm in the process.Spawning on surface substrate (e.g. flotsam) when present is the usual reproductive mode but other modes may be employed if this substrate is not available. The fertilised eggs may remain suspended in the water surface during its development with the help of the small filaments on the egg surface and the adhesive filaments holding the egg mass together, by increasing the surface to volume ratio of the eggs, which aids in propping the eggs up in the water column. The eggs may also be suspended upon current or become benthic.
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
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