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BiologyBenthic in lower and middle reaches of streams (Ref. 58302). Adults inhabit mountainous streams. Are well adapted to exist in swiftly-flowing basalt-bottomed stream habitat (Ref. 26461). Presence of these species signify water of good water quality (Ref. 44091). Adults are primarily herbivorous, scraping algae off rocks, while the larvae are omnivorous; occasionally caught with nets ('upena), usually after being stupefied with native plants (e.g. hola and ahuhu), a process requiring partial diversion of the stream to reduce water flow; particularly prized in July and August when the females are gravid (Ref. 44091).