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BiologyReaches at least 103 cm TL (Ref. 244). Abundant in the continental shelves, from the intertidal to deeper waters. Often occurs close to the surf zone off sandy beaches, and also enclosed bays, sounds, and harbors, in estuaries and river mouths. Feeds on small bony fishes, shrimps, crabs, segmented worms and mollusks (gastropod feet). Viviparous, with 1 to 7 young in a litter. Size at birth about 29 to 37 cm. Utilized for human consumption.