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BiologyTwo forms: long-tailed and black as adults occur in the Andaman Sea, ranging east to western Bali and north to Japan. Second form, probably valid as N. xanthurus occur in the rest of the West Pacific and the two overlap in range on Bali's north coast (Ref. 48636). Occur in coral-rich areas of lagoon and seaward reefs. Usually solitary (Ref. 1602). Feed on algae, crustaceans, and pelagic tunicates and salps. Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).