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BiologyAdults are found in steep outer reef slopes and shallow coastal reef flats, sometimes forming large aggregations feeding on zooplankton several meters above the bottom. Juveniles remain close to shelter. Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Nests are found in small patches of loose sand under ledges or at the base of slopes (Ref. 9710). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).