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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults are found in large aggregations above thickets of branching Acropora corals in sheltered areas such as subtidal reef flats and lagoons. Juveniles closely tied to individual coral heads (Ref. 9710). Phytoplankton feeders. Breeding is done on sand and rubble. Males prepare nest for spawning which is shared with several females. Large number of eggs spawned hatching in 2-3 days. Males guard the nest ventilating fertilized egg with their caudal fins and feeding on those which do not hatch. Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205).
  • Allen, G.R. 1991 Damselfishes of the world. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. 271 p. (Ref. 7247)
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Distribution

Indo-Pacific: East coast of Africa to the Line Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago; north to Ryukyu Islands, south to the Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia.
  • Randall, J.E. 2005 Reef and shore fishes of the South Pacific. New Caledonia to Tahiti and the Pitcairn Islands. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 720 p. (Ref. 54980)
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Wake Atoll, Marquesas Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, Middleton Reef, New Caledonia and Tonga.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9 - 11; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 9 - 11
  • Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene 1990 Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
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Size

Max. size

10.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102))
  • Allen, G.R. and M.V. Erdmann 2012 Reef fishes of the East Indies. Perth, Australia: Universitiy of Hawai'i Press, Volumes I-III. Tropical Reef Research. (Ref. 90102)
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Maximum size: 70 mm SL
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Found in large aggregations above thickets of branching corals (@Acropora@)in sheltered areas such as subtidal reef flats and lagoons. Phytoplankton feeders. Males prepare nest for spawning which is shared with several females. Large number of eggs spawned hatching in 2-3 days. Males guard the nest ventilating fertilized egg with their caudal fins and feeding on those which do not hatch.
  • Froese, R. & D. Pauly (Editors). (2014). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Description: Overall pale green to light blue; nesting male is yellow (changing hues during nesting), becoming blackish posteriorly; spawning coloration dorsal and anal fins change to orangey or brownish (Ref. 2334, 90102).
  • Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene 1990 Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 1 - 12 m (Ref. 90102)
  • Allen, G.R. and M.V. Erdmann 2012 Reef fishes of the East Indies. Perth, Australia: Universitiy of Hawai'i Press, Volumes I-III. Tropical Reef Research. (Ref. 90102)
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Depth: 10 - 12m.
From 10 to 12 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Blue-green chromis.
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Depth range based on 96 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 44 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.15 - 413
  Temperature range (°C): 22.496 - 28.988
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.047 - 0.999
  Salinity (PPS): 32.019 - 40.307
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.163 - 5.079
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 0.415
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.819 - 5.552

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.15 - 413

Temperature range (°C): 22.496 - 28.988

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.047 - 0.999

Salinity (PPS): 32.019 - 40.307

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.163 - 5.079

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 0.415

Silicate (umol/l): 0.819 - 5.552
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Occur inshore (Ref. 75154). Found in large aggregations above thickets of branching Acropora corals in sheltered areas such as subtidal reef flats and lagoons (Ref. 9710, 54301). Juveniles closely tied to individual coral heads (Ref. 9710). Phytoplankton feeders.
  • Allen, G.R. 1991 Damselfishes of the world. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. 271 p. (Ref. 7247)
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Diseases and Parasites

Pop-eye disease. Bacterial diseases
  • Bassleer, G. 2000 Diseases in marine aquarium fish: causes, development, symptoms, treatment. Bassleer Biofish, Westmeerbeek, Belgium, 96 p. Second edition. (Ref. 41806)
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Fish tuberculosis. Bacterial diseases
  • Bassleer, G. 2000 Diseases in marine aquarium fish: causes, development, symptoms, treatment. Bassleer Biofish, Westmeerbeek, Belgium, 96 p. Second edition. (Ref. 41806)
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Fin Rot (early stage). Bacterial diseases
  • Bassleer, G. 2000 Diseases in marine aquarium fish: causes, development, symptoms, treatment. Bassleer Biofish, Westmeerbeek, Belgium, 96 p. Second edition. (Ref. 41806)
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
  • Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. (Ref. 205)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Chromis viridis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 30 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CACCCTCTACCTAGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCTGGAATAGTAGGCACAGCTTTAAGCCTCCTCATTCGAGCAGAACTGAGCCAACCAGGCGCCCTCCTCGGAGACGACCAGATTTATAATGTCATTGTTACAGCACACGCCTTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTATAATTGGAGGGTTCGGAAACTGACTTATTCCTCTCATGATCGGGGCCCCTGATATGGCATTCCCTCGAATGAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTCCTCCCTCCCTCGTTTTTACTTCTACTTGCCTCTTCCGGTGTTGAAGCAGGTGCAGGTACAGGATGAACTGTATACCCTCCCCTGTCGGGAAACCTGGCTCACGCAGGGGCCTCTGTAGACCTAACTATTTTCTCCCTCCACCTGGCAGGTATTTCCTCAATCCTGGGAGCAATTAATTTTATTACTACCATCATTAACATGAAACCCCCTGCTATTTCTCAATATCAAACCCCACTCTTTGTATGAGCCGTTCTCATCACTGCTGTCCTTCTTCTACTCTCTCTCCCAGTCTTAGCTGCTGGCATCACCATGCTCCTAACTGATCGAAACCTAAATACCACCTTCTTCGACCCAGCGGGAGGAGGGGACCCAATTCTGTACCAGCACCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chromis viridis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 17
Specimens with Barcodes: 37
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: commercial
  • Baensch, H.A. 1992 Neue Meerwasser-Praxis. Tetra Verlag, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 7309)
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Wikipedia

Chromis viridis

The Green Chromis, Chromis viridis, is a species of damselfish. Individuals tend to be iridescent apple-green and light blue, and reach a maximal length of 10 cm.[1]

It is sometimes called the "Blue-green Chromis", but that may also refer to Chromis caerulea, C. caerulea or Blue Puller, a close relative that is sometimes considered conspecific.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The species is found in the Indo-Pacific, including the Red Sea.[1] It is found in tropical and subtropical waters. In the Indian Ocean, they are found in the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, eastern Africa, Madagascar, Seychelles, the Persian Gulf, the Arabian Sea, the Maldives, Sri Lanka, the Andaman Sea, Australia, and Indonesia.[1] In the Pacific Ocean, they are found in the Gulf of Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, China, Taiwan, Japan, the Great Barrier Reef, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Polynesia, Melanesia, and Hawaii in the Indo-Pacific part of the Pacific Ocean.[1] In the eastern Pacific Ocean, they are found from the Gulf of California south to Peru and the Galapagos Islands.[1] There are some reports of this species in the Mediterranean Sea.[1] They live in coral reefs and lagoons. Individuals of this species are encountered in depths of 1 to 12 metres (3.3 to 39.4 ft).[1]

Description[edit]

Adults of this species can grow up to 10 centimetres (3.9 in) at maximum length.[1] They have 12 dorsal rays, 9 to 11 soft dorsal rays, 2 anal spines, and 9 to 11 anal soft rays on their fins.[1] It is a blue green fish. When they are breeding, males turn more yellowish.[2]

Ecology[edit]

Diet[edit]

Phytoplankton, zooplankton, and algae, copepods, Artemia, and amphipods consists of the diet of this fish in the wild.[2][3] This fish also feeds on eggs that fail to hatch.[2] It feeds by ram jawing.[3]

Behavior[edit]

Chromis viridis schools in aggregations around Acropora coral heads.[1][2]

In the aquarium[edit]

C. viridis over Acropora coral head

In a marine aquarium, schools are kept in small groups of odd numbers.[citation needed] The green chromis is relatively inexpensive. A small school will be more comfortable in a minimum size of a 110 litres (29 US gal) tank but a single specimen can be kept in a 38 litres (10 US gal). Some aquarists have successfully bred the blue green chromis in the home aquarium.

Tankmates[edit]

The green chromis is not housed with larger predatory fish, as they may become food themselves. Groupers, lionfish, and eels all present an element of danger for this species.

Reproduction[edit]

C. viridis spawn over sand and rubble. The male prepares the nest which is shared with several females. The nest is located on sand or rubble.[1][2] During spawning, the male turns more yellowish in color.[2] The large number of eggs will hatch in 2–3 days.[2] The male guards the nest and ventilates it with its fins and feeding on those eggs that do not hatch.[1][2] Males feed on unhatched eggs to prevent them from being breeding grounds for microorganisms which risks their lives.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2014). "Chormis viridis" in FishBase. November 2014 version.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Free Fish Facts, Blue Green Chromis" Free Fish Facts Retrieved on December 19, 2014
  3. ^ a b "Zooplankton capture by a coral reef fish: an adaptive response to evasive prey" Retrieved on December 19, 2014
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