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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits sandy areas of reef flats, lagoons, and semi-protected seaward reefs. Juveniles shallow in protected coastal waters; adults to about 30 m depth (Ref. 48636). Feeds on sand and rubble dwelling invertebrates (crustaceans, mollusks, forams, polychaetes, fish eggs, and small fishes). Has the habit of following sand-disturbing fishes such as goatfishes in order to intercept escaping prey. Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30874.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is found in the Indo-Pacific from Cocos-Keeling and Christmas Island and Rowley Shoals in the eastern Indian Ocean to the Line and Ducie Islands, north to south Japan, and south to Lord Howe Island, Australia. There are also records from Hong Kong (Ni and Kwok 1999) and it has been recorded in the South China Sea from southwest Taiwan, Spratley Islands and Paracel Islands (M. Liu pers. comm. 2009).
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Indo-West Pacific.
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Indo-Pacific: Christmas Island and Rowly Shoals in the eastern Indian Ocean to the Line and Ducie islands, north to south Japan, south to Lord Howe Island.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 11; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 10 - 11
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Size

Maximum size: 270 mm NG
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Max. size

27.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710))
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Diagnostic Description

Light greenish to yellowish on back, white below; scale rims pink to blackish; a black spot is at the upper base of the pectoral fin; another black spot about equal to eye diameter is at the upper base of the caudal peduncle.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is reef associated and found from 1-30 m. It inhabits sandy areas of reef flats, lagoons, and semi-protected outer seaward reefs. Juveniles occur in shallow, protected coastal waters, while adults are found to about 30 m depth (Kuiter and Tonozuka 2001). It feeds on sand and rubble dwelling invertebrates (crustaceans, molluscs, forams, polychaetes, fish eggs, and small fishes). It has the habit of following sand-disturbing fishes such as goatfishes in order to intercept escaping prey.

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth: 2 - 18m.
From 2 to 18 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 2 - 30 m (Ref. 48636)
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Depth range based on 158 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 128 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.15 - 19
  Temperature range (°C): 24.659 - 29.336
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.047 - 1.204
  Salinity (PPS): 34.113 - 36.148
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.444 - 4.825
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.083 - 0.383
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.819 - 4.659

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.15 - 19

Temperature range (°C): 24.659 - 29.336

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.047 - 1.204

Salinity (PPS): 34.113 - 36.148

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.444 - 4.825

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.083 - 0.383

Silicate (umol/l): 0.819 - 4.659
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

Occurs inshore (Ref. 75154).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Halichoeres trimaculatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 44
Specimens with Barcodes: 61
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Halichoeres trimaculatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 12 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACACGTTGACTGTTCTCAACTAATCATAAAGACATTGGCACCCTCTATCTAGTATTCGGCGCCTGAGCCGGGATAGTAGGCACAGCCCTG---AGTTTACTCATTCGGGCTGAGCTTAGCCAGCCCGGTGCCCTTCTTGGAGAC---GATCAAATTTATAACGTGATCGTTACAGCACATGCATTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATAATTGGTGGTTTTGGGAACTGGCTTATCCCCTTAATG---ATTGGAGCACCTGACATGGCCTTTCCCCGGATGAACAACATGAGCTTTTGGCTCCTTCCTCCTTCCTTCCTCCTTCTCCTTGCCTCCTCAGGTGTAGAAGCGGGTGCTGGAACTGGTTGAACTGTTTACCCTCCCCTAGCAGGCAACCTCGCCCATGCCGGAGCCTCTGTAGACCTA---ACTATTTTCTCTCTTCATTTGGCCGGAATCTCATCAATTTTAGGCGCTATCAATTTTATTACAACAATTATTAACATAAAACCCCCTGCCATCTCACAGTATCAAACACCCCTCTTCGTCTGAGCCGTCCTAATTACAGCAGTGCTTCTTCTACTTTCCCTTCCTGTTCTTGCTGCC---GGCATCACAATGCTCCTAACAGACCGAAACCTAAACACCACCTTCTTCGACCCTGCCGGAGGAGGGGACCCAATCTTATATCAACACTTGTTTTGATTCTTTGGGCATCCTGAAGTATATATCCTGATTCTTCCCGGCTTCGGAATAATTTCCCATATCGTTGCCTACTATTCAGGTAAAAAA---GAACCCTTCGGATACATGGGTATGGTTTGAGCTATGATAGCAATTGGCCTCCTAGGGTTTATTGTCTGAGCTCACCATATGTTTACGGTTGGAATAGACGTTGATACACGAGCCTACTTCACCTCTGCCACAATAATTATTGCAATTCCCACAGGTGTAAAAGTCTTTAGCTGACTC---GCCACACTCCATGGGGGG---TCAATTAAATGAGAAACACCCCTTCTCTGGGCCCTTGGCTTTATTTTCCTATTTACTGTAGGAGGACTTACAGGGATTGTTTTAGCCAACTCTTCTCTAGACATTGTCCTTCACGACACATATTATGTCGTAGCCCATTTCCACTACGTT---CTCTCAATAGGAGCTGTATTCGCAATTGTCGCGGCATTTGTACACTGATTCCCCCTTTTTACGGGCTATACCCTCCACTCTACATGAACAAAAATCCACTTTGGGATCATGTTTGTGGGCGTAAATTTAACTTTCTTCCCACAACACTTCCTAGGCCTAGCTGGAATGCCTCGT---CGATATTCAGACTATCCAGACGCCTACACC---CTATGAAACACAGTATCTTCTATTGGCTCCTTGATCTCCCTAGTGGCCGTAATTATCTTCTTATTTATTATCTGAGAAGCATTCGCCGCTAAACGTGAAGTT---CTGGGAGTGGAGCTAACTATTACAAAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Genomic DNA is available from 7 specimens with morphological vouchers housed at British Antarctic Survey
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Rocha, L., Craig, M. & Liu, M.

Reviewer/s
Sadovy, Y. & Carpenter, K.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Indo-Pacific and is common. There are no major threats known to this species. It is listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species. It is very common.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no specific conservation measures in place for this species. Its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

aquarium: commercial
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