Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Occur in medium to large-sized rivers and enters flooded fields (Ref. 12975). Found on solid surfaces in flowing waters. Mostly herbivorous, feed largely on algae, periphyton and phytoplankton, but also take insect larvae or zooplankton. In current, they hold onto fixed objects with their sucker-like mouth. For breathing, water is pumped into the gill cavity through a small spiracle and across the gills for gas exchange. Large fish are sold in the markets, smaller ones are used to make prahoc (Ref. 12693). Aquarium keeping: needs plant feed; adults territorial; in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 60 cm (Ref. 51539).
  • Rainboth, W.J. 1996 Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong. FAO Species Identification Field Guide for Fishery Purposes. FAO, Rome, 265 p. (Ref. 12693)
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Distribution

Range Description

The species is known from the middle/lower Mekong (Thailand, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Viet Nam (e.g., the Mekong delta (Electricity Viet Nam 2010) and the Srepok and Se San tributaries), and southern China (Yunnan; Kottelat 1998; however, identification of these records requires confirmation (see Taxonomic Notes), Chao Phraya and Mae Klong basins, from the Dong Nai basin in Viet Nam, and from the northern Malay Peninsula (southern Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, and probably associated parts of the Mekong drainage in Myanmar (Mekong Myanmar (the Mae Kok, Mae Sai, and Kengtung)).
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Asia: Mekong, Chao Phraya and Meklong basins; northern Malay Peninsula.
  • Kottelat, M. 1998 Fishes of the Nam Theun and Xe Bangfai basins, Laos, with diagnoses of twenty-two new species (Teleostei: Cyprinidae, Balitoridae, Cobitidae, Coiidae and Odontobutidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 9(1):1-128. (Ref. 27732)
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Cambodia.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 280 mm SL
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Max. size

28.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 27732))
  • Kottelat, M. 1998 Fishes of the Nam Theun and Xe Bangfai basins, Laos, with diagnoses of twenty-two new species (Teleostei: Cyprinidae, Balitoridae, Cobitidae, Coiidae and Odontobutidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 9(1):1-128. (Ref. 27732)
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Diagnostic Description

Has 9 branched dorsal rays; 36-40 lateral line scales; no dark spots on pelvic and anal fins (Ref. 27732); a small dark spot always present behind spiracle; sometimes tiny tubercles on side of head and large tubercles confined to snout (Ref. 12693).
  • Kottelat, M. 1998 Fishes of the Nam Theun and Xe Bangfai basins, Laos, with diagnoses of twenty-two new species (Teleostei: Cyprinidae, Balitoridae, Cobitidae, Coiidae and Odontobutidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 9(1):1-128. (Ref. 27732)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Inhabits flowing streams and tributaries with substrates of boulders, pebbles, gravel and sand, often in areas with submerged driftwood or tree roots (Rainboth 1996). It is thought to undergo seasonal migrations during which it can be found in deeper, more turbid water and is known to enter temporarily-inundated zones. Occurs in medium to large-sized rivers and enters flooded fields (Taki 1978). It is a good indicator of stream/river quality (C. Vidthayanon pers. comm. 2011).

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Migration

Potamodromous. Migrating within streams, migratory in rivers, e.g. Saliminus, Moxostoma, Labeo. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Trophic Strategy

Lives mainly in mountain streams and brooks with gravel bottoms. Feeds on algae and other plants (Ref. 45563).
  • Lim, P., S. Lek, S.T. Touch, S.-O. Mao and B. Chhouk 1999 Diversity and spatial distribution of freshwater fish in Great Lake and Tonle Sap River (Cambodia, Southeast Asia). Aquat. Living Resour. 12(6):379-386. (Ref. 33813)
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Diseases and Parasites

Bacterial Infections (general). Bacterial diseases
  • Bassleer, G. 1997 Color guide of tropical fish diseases: on freshwater fish. Bassleer Biofish, Westmeerbeek, Belgium. 272 p. (Ref. 41805)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Gyrinocheilus aymonieri

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACACGCTGATTCTTCTCTACAAACCACAAAGACATTGGCACCCTCTACCTTGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGAATAGTAGGAACTGCTCTC---AGCCTCCTAATTCGAGCCGAACTTAGTCAGCCCGGATCGCTTCTTGGTGAT---GACCAAATTTACAACGTTATCGTTACCGCGCATGCTTTCGTAATGATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCCATTCTCATTGGAGGATTTGGGAACTGACTCGTACCGCTAATG---ATCGGGGCCCCAGACATGGCATTCCCTCGAATAAACAATATGAGCTTCTGACTGCTCCCACCCTCATTCCTTTTACTACTGGCCTCCTCTGGAGTTGAAGCCGGAGCAGGAACAGGATGAACAGTTTATCCACCCCTTGCAGGTAACCTTGCTCACGCAGGAGCATCCGTAGATCTA---ACTATTTTCTCCCTACATCTGGCAGGTGTCTCATCAATTCTAGGGGCAATCAATTTCATCACTACAACTATCAACATAAAACCCCCTGCAATTTCTCAATACCAAACCCCTCTATTCGTCTGAGCCGTACTAGTAACAGCCGTCCTTCTTCTCCTCTCCCTACCCGTGCTAGCTGCC---GGAATTACAATACTTTTAACAGACCGAAACCTAAACACCACATTCTTTGACCCCGCCGGGGGAGGAGACCCAATCCTTTATCAACACCTGTTCTGATTCTTTGGCCATCCAGAAGTATACATTCTTATTTTACCCGGGTTTGGTATTATTTCACATGTCGTAGCCTACTACTCAGGTAAAAAA---GAACCATTCGGATACATGGGCATGGTCTGAGCCATAATGGCTATCGGACTTCTAGGGTTCATCGTATGAGCCCATCATATGTTTACTGTTGGAATAGACGTAGACACCCGTGCATACTTCACATCTGCCACAATAATCATTGCCATTCCCACAGGAGTAAAAGTATTCAGCTGACTA---GCCACACTTCATGGGGGC---TCAATTAAATGAGAGACACCTATGCTGTGAGCCCTGGGATTTATTTTCCTATTTACAGTGGGTGGACTAACAGGAATTGTCCTAGCCAACTCATCCCTCGACATTGTTCTCCACGACACATACTATGTAGTTGCACACTTCCACTATGTT---CTATCAATGGGTGCCGTATTTGCAATTATAGCAGCCTTCGTACACTGATTCCCCTTATTTACAGGATACACCCTCCATAGCACTTGAACAAAAATCCACTTTGGGGTAATGTTCGTAGGCGTAAATCTTACCTTTTTCCCGCAACACTTCCTAGGCCTAGCAGGAATACCACGA---CGATATTCCGACTACCCAGACGCCTACGCC---CTATGAAATACAGTTTCTTCTATCGGATCACTTATCTCGCTAGTAGCCGTAATCATGTTCCTCTTTATCCTATGAGAGGCTTTCGCTGCAAAACGAGAAGTA---CTGTCAGTAGAACTAACAATAACAAAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Gyrinocheilus aymonieri

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Vidthayanon, C.

Reviewer/s
Allen, D. & Smith, K.

Contributor/s

Justification
The species has a wide distribution from southern China and southeast Asia (Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Viet Nam). Populations have declined in some parts of its range (e.g., Thailand) as a result of over-exploitation. Although considered threatened in China and Viet Nam, and perhaps naturally rare, it is assessed as Least Concern at present as it is not thought likely to have declined sufficiently across its range in order to qualify for a threatened category.
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Population

Population
It is naturally rare/uncommon in China and southern Viet Nam (Mekong delta areas), but is locally common in Viet Nam's Mekong tributaries (the Se San and Sre Pok) and the Chao Phraya-Mae Khlong basin and the Tonle Sap basin. Populations in Thailand have declined; it was an important component of fish sauce (nam pla) in Thailand, but stocks are now insufficient for that purpose.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Although the species may be impacted by dams, not enough is known about its migratory habits to predict the scale of impacts. Populations have declined locally, especially in Thailand, as a result of a range if factors, including over-exploitation.
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
More information on the species ecology, threats and distribution is required. Listed as a protected animal in Yunnan Province in 1989 and considered Endangered (Wang 1998), and considered rare in Viet Nam (Huynh 1998).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquarium: highly commercial
  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott 1991 World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. (Ref. 4537)
  • Rainboth, W.J. 1996 Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong. FAO Species Identification Field Guide for Fishery Purposes. FAO, Rome, 265 p. (Ref. 12693)
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Wikipedia

Gyrinocheilus aymonieri

Gyrinocheilus aymonieri is a freshwater fish native to large parts of Southeast Asia.[1] It is of interest as a local food source and for the aquarium trade, being first imported into Germany in 1956.[2]

G. aymonieri is found in the Chao Phraya basin, northern Malay Peninsula, Mekong basin (in Cambodia, Yunnan province in China, Laos, and Thailand), Mae Klong basin and the Xe Bang Fai River.[1] It is most often seen in large rivers, occasionally entering flooded fields.[3] The fish spends most of its time on flat surfaces, such as rocks, in flowing water, using its unusually formed inferior mouth to attach itself to rocks in stronger flows.[4]

The fish are sold in local markets as a food source and small fish are used in preparation of prahok.

Physical description[edit]

G. aymonieri has been recorded as reaching at least 28 cm (11.02 in) SL and is the only species in the genus to have 9 branched dorsal rays and 36-40 lateral line scales.[1] The mouth is inferior with a special "sucker" modification which allows the fish to attach itself to smooth surfaces. No barbels are present.[5]

Wild type colour varies from pale grey to olive, with darker markings along the lateral line which vary from a solid stripe with alternating higher and lower extensions to uneven dots. The belly is usually paler than the base colour. Some darker markings may also be observed along the back and on the caudal fin, but no dark markings occur on the pelvic and anal fins.[1]

In aquaria[edit]

Golden G. aymoneiri

G. aymonieri is similar in colouration to a number of other species which are commonly available in the aquarium trade, such as Crossocheilus oblongus, Epalzeorhynchos kalopterus, and Garra cambodgiensis,[5] and is sometimes misidentified as one of these species. It is available in a number of colour morphs, including wild type, gold, marble, albino, and lecustic forms.

The species does not breed readily in home aquaria, although fry are occasionally reported as being found in overgrown aquaria.[6] At this time, no definitive spawning triggers are known. Sexing is difficult, although mature males may develop breeding tubercles on their noses, while females become plumper.[7]

G. aymonieri fish are often bought as algae eaters because they will readily eat algae when young, but with age, their preference changes towards meatier foods, such as prepared aquarium foods, frozen crustaceans and small fish. This change is also reflected in behaviour, which becomes aggressive with age, especially so towards others of their own kind and fish with similar colors.[8]

The other species in the genus, Gyrinocheilus pennocki and the Gyrinocheilus pustulosus, are rarely seen in the aquarium trade.


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Kottelat, Maurice (July 1998). "Fishes of the Nam Theun and Xe Bangfai basins, Laos, with diagnoses of 22 new species (Teleostei: Cyprinidae, Balitoridae, Cobitidae, Coiidae and Odontobutidae)". Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 9 (1): 1–128. 
  2. ^ Froese, R. & Pauly, D.,eds. (2011). Gyrinocheilus aymonieri in Catalog of Fishes.
  3. ^ Taki, Y. (1978). "An analytical study of the fish fauna of the Mekong basin as a biological production system in nature". Research Institute of Evolutionary Biology Special Publications 1: 77. 
  4. ^ Rainboth, Walter J. (1996). Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong. Rome: FAO (Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations). p. 265. ISBN 92-5-103743-4. 
  5. ^ a b Frank, Neil; Liisa Sarakontu. "Algae Eating Cyprinids from Thailand and Neighboring Areas". The Aquatic Gardener: Journal of the Aquatic Gardeners Association. Aquatic Gardeners Association. 
  6. ^ "Spawning Chinese Algae Eater (Gyrinocheilus aymonieri)". Retrieved 24 October 2011. 
  7. ^ "How to keep Chinese algae eaters, Gyrinocheilus aymonieri, with pictures". Aqualand Pets Plus. 2006. Retrieved 2010-11-09. "Sexing: Males develop breeding “horns” on their heads. Females get heftier." 
  8. ^ "Chinese Algae Eater, Gyrinocheilus aymonieri" (PDF). PETCO Animal Supplies, Inc. 2004. Retrieved 2010-11-09. 
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