Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Important food fish.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is widespread in western Amazon basin and also in the Rio Orinoco and in the River Essequibo in Guyana.
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South America: Amazon River and its main tributaries in Brazil; Orinoco and Essequibo River basins.
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Amazon River and its main tributaries in Brazil; Orinoco and Essequibo River basins: Brazil, Colombia, Guyana and Venezuela.
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Physical Description

Size

Max. size

46.2 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 38874))
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
B. amazonicus is a benthopelagic (ecological region at the lowest level of water body) species that inhabits streams and lakes. The larvae of B. amazonicus are found in the main stem of the Amazon River, and possibly in other high-nutrient tributaries. Juveniles live in the adjacent floodplain, mostly under the floating macrophytes (floating or submerged aquatic plants)). Adults are distributed throughout the floodplains, including the flooded forests of white and black water rivers.

The migration of this species is complex. Near Manaus, B. amazonicus joins multi-species schools and migrates downriver from the Negro River to spawn in the Amazon River in December and January, as water levels there begin to rise. A similar pattern was also observed for Brycon sp. in the Madeira River. The embryos and larvae develop while drifting in the Amazon River, and probably get washed into the white water floodplains. After spawning (February to March) the adult fish return to the black-water tributaries. Later in the year (May to August) these fish move downstream again from the Negro River or other nutrient-poor tributaries into the Amazon or Madeira rivers, where they remain until the end of the wet season in September. At this time, they move upstream again to the next nutrient-poor tributary and into forest streams, where they spend the dry season before the next spawning migration (Araujo-Lima and Ruffino 2004).

Plant material is an important part of the diet of adult Brycon species; and thus these fish play a role in the dispersal of plants whose fruits they eat (Berra 2001).

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

benthopelagic; freshwater
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Trophic Strategy

Feeds mainly on fruits and seeds which represented more than 60% of the mean relative occurrence in their stomachs (Ref. 76754).
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2009

Assessor/s
Reis, R & Lima, F.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B., Darwall, W., Ram, M. & Smith, K. (SRLI Freshwater Fish Evaluation Workshop)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is very abundant and widespread. Although possible over-exploited in parts of its range, B. amazonicus is not threatened overall, especially as aquaculture farms for this species are increasing. A Least Concern assessment has therefore been made.
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Population

Population
B. amazonicus is the most widespread and abundant species of matrinxa (common name).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is very important in fisheries in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela and Bolivia. It is also stocked in aquaculture farms in Brazil and Venezuela. It is certainly not a threatened species, even though probably over-exploited in part of its range.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no conservation measures in place although research is needed into the localised threat of over-exploitation.
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