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Overview

Comprehensive Description

The Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) is an important game fish, popular with surfcasters, that is found from Massachusetts (U.S.A.) to northern Mexico. Red Drum travel in schools during their spring and fall migrations. They are known as Redfish in Florida and along the Gulf Coast and as Channel Bass in many other regions. Large specimens (which are usually well under 1.5 meters) are knowsn as "bullreds", while smaller ones are known as "ratreds". (Boschung et al. 1983; Robins and Ray 1986)

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Description

  Common names: drum (English), corvinón (Espanol)
 
Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus, 1766)

Red Drum



Body elongate, lower profile horizontal; snout overhangs small, horizontal mouth; teeth simple, in bands on jaws; chin without barbells, with 5 pores; snout with 10 pores; 12-14 short, stout gill rakers; preopercle smooth in adult, densely serrated in juvenile; dorsal fin continuous, IX + I, with deep notch between spines and rays, 23-25 soft rays; anal fin with short base, II, 8-9, 2nd  spine slender, ~ ½ length of 1st  ray; tail fin with straight edge in adult, angular point in juvenile; scales rough on body, smooth on head and breast; soft dorsal with 1-2 rows of scales along base.

Iridescent coppery silver, 1 to several ocellated eye-sized spots under soft dorsal fin and onto tail base.


Reaches 160 cm, 45 kg weight

Habitat Sandy and muddy bottoms

Depth range 0-10 m

Native to the eastern US, and the Gulf of Mexico. Introduced to Ecuador in 1974 for aquaculture purposes, escaped and still present there in the 1990s; its current status is not known.
   
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Biology

Occurs usually over sand and sandy mud bottoms in coastal waters and estuaries. Abundant in surf zone. Feeds mainly on crustaceans, mollusks and fishes. Utilized fresh and frozen; can be pan-fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988).
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The red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, has a elongate, moderately compressed body with a relatively straight profile along the ventral surface (Chao 2002). Like similar species, the head slopes forward, terminating in a blunt snout and a large, inferior mouth (Robins et al. 1986). Pores are present on the head, 5 on the chin and 10 on the snout (Chao 2002). Unlike several drum species, the chin lacks barbels. Background body coloration is iridescent silvery copper, which is darker above. One to several black spots about the size of the eye are present on the sides from just before the posterior tip of the dorsal fin to the base of the caudal fin. Usual fin ray counts are as follows: dorsal fin = 10 spines, posterior section with 1 spine and 23-25 soft rays; anal fin = 2 spines and 8-9 soft rays, with the second spine about half the height of the first soft ray (Chao 2002).
  • FWCC. 2010. Florida Saltwater Fishing Regulations. Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. Online at http://pub.jfgriffin.com/doc/jfgriffin/10FLSWJUL (Date accessed 08/24/2010).
  • Robins CR, Ray GC, and J Douglas. 1986. A Field Guide to Atlantic Coast Fishes. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 354 pp.
  • Chao, NL. 2002. Sciaenidae. pp. 1583-1639. In: The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Volume 3: Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals.
  • Carpenter KE (Ed.). FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes and American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists special publication no. 5. FAO, Rome. pp. 1375-2127.
  • FWCC. 2008. Red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission: Red Drum: 61. Online at http://research.myfwc.com/features/view_article.asp?id=30257 (Date accessed 08/25/2010).
  • Rooker, JR & SA Holt. 1997. Utilization of subtropical seagrass meadows by newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: patterns of distribution and growth. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 158: 139-149.
  • Rooker, JR, Holt, GJ & SA Holt. 1997. Condition of larval and juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) from estuarine nursery habitats. Mar. Biol. 127: 387-394.
  • Rooker, JR, Holt, GJ & SA Holt. 1998. Vulnerability of newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to predatory fish: is early-life enhanced by seagrass meadows? Mar. Biol. 131: 145-151.
  • Ruehl, CB & TJ DeWitt. 2007. Trophic plasticity and foraging performance in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 349: 284-294.
  • Scharf, FS & KK Schlight. 2000. Feeding habits of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in Galveston Bay, Texas: seasonal diet variation and predator-prey size relationships. Estuaries 23: 128-139.
  • Stunz, GW, Minello, TJ & PS Levin. 2002. Growth of newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus in different estuarine habitat types. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 238: 227-236.
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Distribution and Phylogeography

In a paper by Bohlmeyer et al in 1994, phylogeography of Sciaenops ocellatus is explored using allozyme loci. Allozyme loci are present in the nuclear genome. Fresh data and data previously studied was combined to create a large sample pool to collect allozyme information from. Samples were taken from both the Gulf of Mexico and the Southeastern United States in an effort to distinguish the level of differentiation between Gulf individuals and Atlantic individuals and between individuals in the Gulf and Atlantic sampling populations. The technique used involved testing for heterozygosity at a specific locus, in which less heterozygosity is more likely to show isolation of a given population in an area. This technique is standard to identifying genetically distinct populations during metapopulation analysis. As a control, tests of heterozygosity between individuals of a given population were performed but found to be inconsequential.
Historically, red drum have been thought to be divided into a Gulf population and an Atlantic population which generally do not interbreed. Bohlmeyer et al confirmed this speculation by determining low allele frequency cross between Gulf and Atlantic populations of red drum. Although the separation is defined as “weak” in the paper, it is still considered enough to divide Gulf and Atlantic populations into somewhat distinct populations using genetic phylogeny

  • Gold J., King T., Richardson L., Bohlmeyer D., Matlock G. Allozyme differentiation within and between red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) from the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Fish Biology. 4:567-590. 1994
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Life History

The life history of the Redfish (Sciaenops ocellatus) begins with redfish reproductive behavior. Near-shore spawning aggregations are where deposited gametes first become fertilized embryos and later larval-stage fish. The larval stage fish are approximately 7.7 to 8 mm in length and inhabit bay mouths and inlet areas (Fuiman and Cowan. 2003)(Peters and McMichael. 1987). Larval redfish are self-dispersing utilizing near-shore currents and tide phases to migrate inland. Larval fish take on two stages; yolk-sac stage which is immobile and a mobile stage (Holt et al. 1981). Behavioral responses of larval redfish to predation contribute to survival of recruits in this stage, compared to random chance of loss of recruits in a given cohort (Fuiman and Cowan. 2003). The dispersal range of larvae and adults is approximately 700-900 km (Gold and Turner. 2002).
Larval fishes gradually move toward inshore waters and eventually settle in low salinity waters toward the inland side of estuaries (Peters and McMichael. 1987). As juvenile fish begin to grow larger, they move from the fresh backwater areas into larger saline estuaries and upon reaching breeding size and maturity, begin to join spawning efforts on inlet and bay mouths, and near-shore reefs (Peters and McMichael. 1987).

  • 1. Fuiman LA, Cowan JH, Jr.: Behavior and Recruitment Success in Fish Larvae: Repeatability and Covariation of Survival Skills. Ecology 2003, 84(1):53-67.
  • 2. Gold, Turner: Population structure of red drum (<SMALL>Sciaenops ocellatus</SMALL>) in the northern Gulf of Mexico, as inferred from variation in nuclear-encoded microsatellites. Marine Biology 2002, 140(2):249-265.
  • 3. Peters KM, McMichael RH, Jr.: Early Life History of the Red Drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Pisces: Sciaenidae), in Tampa Bay, Florida. Estuaries 1987, 10(2):92-107.
  • 4. Holt J, Johnson AG, Arnold CR, Fable WA, Jr., Williams TD: Description of Eggs and Larvae of Laboratory Reared Red Drum, Sciaenops ocellata. Copeia 1981, 1981(4):751-756.
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Distribution

The Red Drum is found from Massachusetts (U.S.A.) to northern Mexico (Robins and Ray 1986).

The Red Drum is found along the coast from New York to Florida (U.S.A.), west to Laguna Madre, Mexico. It is most abundant from Florida to Texas. (Boschung et al. 1983)

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Western Atlantic: Massachusetts in USA to northern Mexico, including southern Florida, USA
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Common from Mexico through Florida to Chesapeake Bay with occasional strays to Massachusetts.

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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, TEP non-endemic, Exotic (Introduced)

Regional Endemism: All species, Eastern Pacific non-endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Western Atlantic: Massachusetts in USA to northern Mexico, including southern Florida, USA.
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The range of S. ocellatus extends from Massachusetts to northern Mexico, including the Gulf of Mexico (Robins et al. 1986; Chao 2002). Fishes are found in a variety of coastal habitats (see 'India River Lagoon Distribution' below). Some studies have linked the predation and growth of larval and juvenile red drum to the type of habitat in which they reside. Seagrass beds and salt marshes may be considered to be the most favorable habitats to increase survivorship, with shoal grass, Halodule wrighti (formerly H. beaudettei), cited as the optimal vegetation (Rooker & Holt 1997; Rooker et al. 1998).Indian River Lagoon (India River Lagoon) Distribution: Little information is available concerning the distribution of the red drum in the India River Lagoon, but the species can be found throughout the lagoon on submerged tidal flats, in seagrass beds and salt marshes, among mangrove roots and in shallow nearshore waters off nearby sandy beaches.
  • FWCC. 2010. Florida Saltwater Fishing Regulations. Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. Online at http://pub.jfgriffin.com/doc/jfgriffin/10FLSWJUL (Date accessed 08/24/2010).
  • Robins CR, Ray GC, and J Douglas. 1986. A Field Guide to Atlantic Coast Fishes. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 354 pp.
  • Chao, NL. 2002. Sciaenidae. pp. 1583-1639. In: The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Volume 3: Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals.
  • Carpenter KE (Ed.). FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes and American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists special publication no. 5. FAO, Rome. pp. 1375-2127.
  • FWCC. 2008. Red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission: Red Drum: 61. Online at http://research.myfwc.com/features/view_article.asp?id=30257 (Date accessed 08/25/2010).
  • Rooker, JR & SA Holt. 1997. Utilization of subtropical seagrass meadows by newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: patterns of distribution and growth. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 158: 139-149.
  • Rooker, JR, Holt, GJ & SA Holt. 1997. Condition of larval and juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) from estuarine nursery habitats. Mar. Biol. 127: 387-394.
  • Rooker, JR, Holt, GJ & SA Holt. 1998. Vulnerability of newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to predatory fish: is early-life enhanced by seagrass meadows? Mar. Biol. 131: 145-151.
  • Ruehl, CB & TJ DeWitt. 2007. Trophic plasticity and foraging performance in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 349: 284-294.
  • Scharf, FS & KK Schlight. 2000. Feeding habits of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in Galveston Bay, Texas: seasonal diet variation and predator-prey size relationships. Estuaries 23: 128-139.
  • Stunz, GW, Minello, TJ & PS Levin. 2002. Growth of newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus in different estuarine habitat types. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 238: 227-236.
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Western Atlantic; introduced in Réunion (Mascarenes).
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 0 (S) - 10 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

The Red Drum has an elongate, bronze-colored body that is darker above. Dark centers of the scales form obscure stripes. There is a conspicuous black spot (or spots) on the caudal peduncle. The caudal (tail) fin is rounded in young individuals, but squared off in adults. (Robins and Ray 1986) The 3rd and 4th dorsal spines are the longest. In contrast to some other drums, no chin barbels are present. (Boschung et al. 1983)

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Size

Length max (cm): 160.0 (S)
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Size

Length: 155 cm

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Maximum size: 1550 mm TL
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Max. size

155 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702)); max. published weight: 45.0 kg (Ref. 9988); max. reported age: 50 years (Ref. 32563)
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The maximum documented size of the red drum is 1.6 m, but individuals under 1 m are more common (Chao 2002). Growth rates vary with habitat type and age of the fish, but newly settled juveniles grow at an overall reported rate of 0.45 mm per day (Stunz et al. 2002). Males mature between 1 and 3 years old, while females reach maturity at 3-6 years (FWCC 2008). The maximum reported age for the red drum is 60 years (FWCC 2008).
  • FWCC. 2010. Florida Saltwater Fishing Regulations. Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. Online at http://pub.jfgriffin.com/doc/jfgriffin/10FLSWJUL (Date accessed 08/24/2010).
  • Robins CR, Ray GC, and J Douglas. 1986. A Field Guide to Atlantic Coast Fishes. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 354 pp.
  • Chao, NL. 2002. Sciaenidae. pp. 1583-1639. In: The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Volume 3: Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals.
  • Carpenter KE (Ed.). FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes and American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists special publication no. 5. FAO, Rome. pp. 1375-2127.
  • FWCC. 2008. Red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission: Red Drum: 61. Online at http://research.myfwc.com/features/view_article.asp?id=30257 (Date accessed 08/25/2010).
  • Rooker, JR & SA Holt. 1997. Utilization of subtropical seagrass meadows by newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: patterns of distribution and growth. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 158: 139-149.
  • Rooker, JR, Holt, GJ & SA Holt. 1997. Condition of larval and juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) from estuarine nursery habitats. Mar. Biol. 127: 387-394.
  • Rooker, JR, Holt, GJ & SA Holt. 1998. Vulnerability of newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to predatory fish: is early-life enhanced by seagrass meadows? Mar. Biol. 131: 145-151.
  • Ruehl, CB & TJ DeWitt. 2007. Trophic plasticity and foraging performance in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 349: 284-294.
  • Scharf, FS & KK Schlight. 2000. Feeding habits of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in Galveston Bay, Texas: seasonal diet variation and predator-prey size relationships. Estuaries 23: 128-139.
  • Stunz, GW, Minello, TJ & PS Levin. 2002. Growth of newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus in different estuarine habitat types. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 238: 227-236.
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The Red Drum may reach about 1.5 meters in length and 42 kg (Boschung et al. 1983; Robins and Ray 1986).

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Look Alikes

The red drum and the spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, are the only two local species of drums without chin barbels (Robins et al. 1986). The spot has a distinctly forked caudal fin, a brown dot on the shoulder, and 12-15 narrow, dark diagonal lines on the upper body. The average size of L. xanthurus typically does not exceed 36 cm (see "Age, Size, Lifespan" below for the red drum).
  • FWCC. 2010. Florida Saltwater Fishing Regulations. Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. Online at http://pub.jfgriffin.com/doc/jfgriffin/10FLSWJUL (Date accessed 08/24/2010).
  • Robins CR, Ray GC, and J Douglas. 1986. A Field Guide to Atlantic Coast Fishes. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 354 pp.
  • Chao, NL. 2002. Sciaenidae. pp. 1583-1639. In: The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Volume 3: Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals.
  • Carpenter KE (Ed.). FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes and American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists special publication no. 5. FAO, Rome. pp. 1375-2127.
  • FWCC. 2008. Red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission: Red Drum: 61. Online at http://research.myfwc.com/features/view_article.asp?id=30257 (Date accessed 08/25/2010).
  • Rooker, JR & SA Holt. 1997. Utilization of subtropical seagrass meadows by newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: patterns of distribution and growth. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 158: 139-149.
  • Rooker, JR, Holt, GJ & SA Holt. 1997. Condition of larval and juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) from estuarine nursery habitats. Mar. Biol. 127: 387-394.
  • Rooker, JR, Holt, GJ & SA Holt. 1998. Vulnerability of newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to predatory fish: is early-life enhanced by seagrass meadows? Mar. Biol. 131: 145-151.
  • Ruehl, CB & TJ DeWitt. 2007. Trophic plasticity and foraging performance in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 349: 284-294.
  • Scharf, FS & KK Schlight. 2000. Feeding habits of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in Galveston Bay, Texas: seasonal diet variation and predator-prey size relationships. Estuaries 23: 128-139.
  • Stunz, GW, Minello, TJ & PS Levin. 2002. Growth of newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus in different estuarine habitat types. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 238: 227-236.
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Ecology

Habitat

benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Habitat Type: Marine

Comments: Coastal and estuarine waters; most common over sandy bottoms and often captured in surf zone. Juveniles use estuaries as nursery areas for 6-8 months. May enter fresh water (e.g., St. Johns River, Florida). Spawns in coastal waters near passes, inlets, and bays (Manooch 1984).

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Environment

demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); brackish; marine; depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 9988)
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Depth range based on 66 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 31 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 37
  Temperature range (°C): 9.635 - 25.997
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 2.105
  Salinity (PPS): 32.419 - 36.130
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.618 - 6.494
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.100 - 0.565
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 2.555

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 37

Temperature range (°C): 9.635 - 25.997

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 2.105

Salinity (PPS): 32.419 - 36.130

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.618 - 6.494

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.100 - 0.565

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 2.555
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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The Red Drum occurs from the surf zone to offshore waters, depending on the season and an individual's age, and may sometimes enter fresh water (Boschung et al. 1983).

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Salinity: Marine, Brackish

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Mud, Sand & gravel, Beach, Estuary, Mangrove

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Benthic feeder. Juveniles eat mostly copepods, amphipods, and tiny shrimps; adults eat fishes, crabs, shrimps, and sand dollars (Manooch 1984).

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Occurs usually over sand and sandy mud bottoms in coastal waters and estuaries. Abundant in surf zone. Feeds mainly on crustaceans, mollusks and fishes.
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The red drum feeds on a variety of crustaceans, mollusks and fishes (Chao 2002), and is quite effective at using its powerful jaws to break through hard-shelled prey (Ruehl & DeWitt 2007). Studies on populations in Texas revealed that S. ocellatus adjusts its diet to the seasonal variability of prey items, consuming mostly white shrimp, Penaeus setiferus, in the fall, and gulf menhaden, Brevoortia patronus, in the spring (Scharf & Schlight 2000). Swimming crabs of the genus Callinectes were abundant and consumed year-round. It is likely that similar trends in diet variation among red drum exist in other locations where prey availability fluctuates seasonally. Predators: Studies have been conducted to assess the importance of habitat on deterring predation of larval and juvenile red drum by the pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides (Rooker et al. 1998) (see 'Habitat & Distribution' above). Other information concerning predators of S. ocellatus is scarce, but additional fish species and a variety of coastal birds likely consume red drum as well.
  • FWCC. 2010. Florida Saltwater Fishing Regulations. Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. Online at http://pub.jfgriffin.com/doc/jfgriffin/10FLSWJUL (Date accessed 08/24/2010).
  • Robins CR, Ray GC, and J Douglas. 1986. A Field Guide to Atlantic Coast Fishes. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 354 pp.
  • Chao, NL. 2002. Sciaenidae. pp. 1583-1639. In: The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Volume 3: Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals.
  • Carpenter KE (Ed.). FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes and American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists special publication no. 5. FAO, Rome. pp. 1375-2127.
  • FWCC. 2008. Red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission: Red Drum: 61. Online at http://research.myfwc.com/features/view_article.asp?id=30257 (Date accessed 08/25/2010).
  • Rooker, JR & SA Holt. 1997. Utilization of subtropical seagrass meadows by newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: patterns of distribution and growth. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 158: 139-149.
  • Rooker, JR, Holt, GJ & SA Holt. 1997. Condition of larval and juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) from estuarine nursery habitats. Mar. Biol. 127: 387-394.
  • Rooker, JR, Holt, GJ & SA Holt. 1998. Vulnerability of newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to predatory fish: is early-life enhanced by seagrass meadows? Mar. Biol. 131: 145-151.
  • Ruehl, CB & TJ DeWitt. 2007. Trophic plasticity and foraging performance in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 349: 284-294.
  • Scharf, FS & KK Schlight. 2000. Feeding habits of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in Galveston Bay, Texas: seasonal diet variation and predator-prey size relationships. Estuaries 23: 128-139.
  • Stunz, GW, Minello, TJ & PS Levin. 2002. Growth of newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus in different estuarine habitat types. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 238: 227-236.
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, octopus/squid/cuttlefish, bony fishes
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Associations

Although there are no obligate associations documented between the red drum and other species, S. ocellatus is commonly found alongside organisms from the various coastal marine and estuarine habitats in which it resides. For more extensive information on these ecosystems and their associated species found in and around the IRL, please visit Habitats of the IRL.
  • FWCC. 2010. Florida Saltwater Fishing Regulations. Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. Online at http://pub.jfgriffin.com/doc/jfgriffin/10FLSWJUL (Date accessed 08/24/2010).
  • Robins CR, Ray GC, and J Douglas. 1986. A Field Guide to Atlantic Coast Fishes. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 354 pp.
  • Chao, NL. 2002. Sciaenidae. pp. 1583-1639. In: The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Volume 3: Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals.
  • Carpenter KE (Ed.). FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes and American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists special publication no. 5. FAO, Rome. pp. 1375-2127.
  • FWCC. 2008. Red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission: Red Drum: 61. Online at http://research.myfwc.com/features/view_article.asp?id=30257 (Date accessed 08/25/2010).
  • Rooker, JR & SA Holt. 1997. Utilization of subtropical seagrass meadows by newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: patterns of distribution and growth. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 158: 139-149.
  • Rooker, JR, Holt, GJ & SA Holt. 1997. Condition of larval and juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) from estuarine nursery habitats. Mar. Biol. 127: 387-394.
  • Rooker, JR, Holt, GJ & SA Holt. 1998. Vulnerability of newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to predatory fish: is early-life enhanced by seagrass meadows? Mar. Biol. 131: 145-151.
  • Ruehl, CB & TJ DeWitt. 2007. Trophic plasticity and foraging performance in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 349: 284-294.
  • Scharf, FS & KK Schlight. 2000. Feeding habits of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in Galveston Bay, Texas: seasonal diet variation and predator-prey size relationships. Estuaries 23: 128-139.
  • Stunz, GW, Minello, TJ & PS Levin. 2002. Growth of newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus in different estuarine habitat types. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 238: 227-236.
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In an analysis of stomach contents of Red Drum in Galveston Bay, Texas, Scharf and Schlicht (2000) found significant seasonal patterns in diet. The diet was dominated by White Shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) during fall and Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) during spring. Blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) was an important component of Red Drum diets during both seasons. In the fall, White Shrimp were present in between about a quarter and two thirds of 598 stomachs examined and accounted for between a third and two thirds of the diet. The spring diet of Red Drum was dominated by fishes, which represented over 97% of the diet by number and over 80% by weight. Of these fishes, Gulf Menhaden accounted for 95% of the diet by number and nearly 70% of the diet by weight (the authors note, however, that these totals are somewhat skewed by the fact that a few individual Red Drum stomachs contained as many as 100 to 200 Gulf Menhaden: frequency of occurrence in Red Drum stomachs was only 35%).

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Known prey organisms

  • W. M. Kemp, W. H. B. Smith, H. N. McKellar, M. E. Lehman, M. Homer, D. L. Young and H. T. Odum, Energy cost-benefit analysis applied to power plants near Crystal River, Florida. In: Ecosystem Modeling in Theory and Practice: An Introduction with Case His
  • Christian RR, Luczkovich JJ (1999) Organizing and understanding a winter’s seagrass foodweb network through effective trophic levels. Ecol Model 117:99–124
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Known predators

Sciaenops ocellatus (Red drum) is prey of:
sediment POC

Based on studies in:
USA: Florida (Estuarine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Christian RR, Luczkovich JJ (1999) Organizing and understanding a winter’s seagrass foodweb network through effective trophic levels. Ecol Model 117:99–124
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Diseases and Parasites

Iridovirosis. Viral diseases
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Population Biology

Detailed abundance records for S. ocellatus populations within the IRL are scarce. However, studies conducted by Rooker & Holt (1997) on populations in a Texas estuary revealed densities up to 3.4 individuals per square meter.Reproduction &
  • FWCC. 2010. Florida Saltwater Fishing Regulations. Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. Online at http://pub.jfgriffin.com/doc/jfgriffin/10FLSWJUL (Date accessed 08/24/2010).
  • Robins CR, Ray GC, and J Douglas. 1986. A Field Guide to Atlantic Coast Fishes. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 354 pp.
  • Chao, NL. 2002. Sciaenidae. pp. 1583-1639. In: The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Volume 3: Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals.
  • Carpenter KE (Ed.). FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes and American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists special publication no. 5. FAO, Rome. pp. 1375-2127.
  • FWCC. 2008. Red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission: Red Drum: 61. Online at http://research.myfwc.com/features/view_article.asp?id=30257 (Date accessed 08/25/2010).
  • Rooker, JR & SA Holt. 1997. Utilization of subtropical seagrass meadows by newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: patterns of distribution and growth. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 158: 139-149.
  • Rooker, JR, Holt, GJ & SA Holt. 1997. Condition of larval and juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) from estuarine nursery habitats. Mar. Biol. 127: 387-394.
  • Rooker, JR, Holt, GJ & SA Holt. 1998. Vulnerability of newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to predatory fish: is early-life enhanced by seagrass meadows? Mar. Biol. 131: 145-151.
  • Ruehl, CB & TJ DeWitt. 2007. Trophic plasticity and foraging performance in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 349: 284-294.
  • Scharf, FS & KK Schlight. 2000. Feeding habits of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in Galveston Bay, Texas: seasonal diet variation and predator-prey size relationships. Estuaries 23: 128-139.
  • Stunz, GW, Minello, TJ & PS Levin. 2002. Growth of newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus in different estuarine habitat types. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 238: 227-236.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Red Drum may live around 25 to 35 years (Murphy and Taylor 1990).

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Reproduction

Spawns September-February; eggs hatch in 19-20 hours at 75 F; sexually mature in 3 years (Manooch 1984).

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In a study of Red Drum in Florida, Murphy and Taylor (1990) found that males matured at smaller sizes than females. Some Gulf coast males were sexually mature after they reached 400 mm, and some on the Atlantic coast were mature after they reached 350 mm (Interpolated lengths at 50% maturity were 529 mm and 511 mm, respectively). Some Gulf coast females were sexually mature after they reached 600 mm, and some on the Atlantic coast were mature after they reached 550 mm (interpolated lengths at 50% maturity were 825 and 900 mm, respectively). The authors note that based on previous studies in Mississippi and Texas, there is geographic variation in the size and age at which Red Drum mature (Murphy and Taylor 1990 and references therein). Spawning peaked on both coasts of Florida from about September through October. According to Murphy and Taylor, Red Drum apparently spawn not only in nearshore areas close to channels and passes, but also over the nearshore continental shelf and in estuaries.

Wilson and Nieland (1994) studied the reproductive biology of Red Drum in the northern Gulf of Mexico. They inferred an 8 to 9 week spawning season extending from mid-August to early October. Both sexes achieved >50% maturity at age 4; however, at 50% maturity males were somewhat smaller than females (males 660 to 670 mm versus females 690 to 700 mm, males 3.4 to 3.5 kg vs. females 4.0 to 4.1 kg).

In a study of Red Drum taken off North Carolina (Ross et al. 1995), maximum observed age and size were 56 years and 1,250 mm fork length (FL) for males and 52 years and 1,346 mm FL for females (fork length is the length from the most forward part of the jaw to the middle of the tail between the lobes). Fifty percent maturity was attained among males by age 2 at 621 to 640 mm FL and among females by age 3 at 801 to 820 mm FL. Spawning occurred from August through early October in estuarine waters of Pamlico Sound and nearshore ocean waters close to barrier island inlets. Ross et al. report that the relative abundance of 20 to 55-year-old Red Drums has declined 90% since 1968-1972.

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Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Growth

Reproductive and embryological studies on the red drum are elusive, despite the success of the species in aquaculture and stock enhancement programs. Spawning occurs in the late summer and early fall from estuaries to nearshore waters (Rooker & Holt 1997; FWCC 2008), and planktonic larvae settle and metamorphose into juveniles in a variety sheltered coastal habitats.Temperature &
  • FWCC. 2010. Florida Saltwater Fishing Regulations. Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. Online at http://pub.jfgriffin.com/doc/jfgriffin/10FLSWJUL (Date accessed 08/24/2010).
  • Robins CR, Ray GC, and J Douglas. 1986. A Field Guide to Atlantic Coast Fishes. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 354 pp.
  • Chao, NL. 2002. Sciaenidae. pp. 1583-1639. In: The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Volume 3: Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals.
  • Carpenter KE (Ed.). FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes and American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists special publication no. 5. FAO, Rome. pp. 1375-2127.
  • FWCC. 2008. Red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission: Red Drum: 61. Online at http://research.myfwc.com/features/view_article.asp?id=30257 (Date accessed 08/25/2010).
  • Rooker, JR & SA Holt. 1997. Utilization of subtropical seagrass meadows by newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: patterns of distribution and growth. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 158: 139-149.
  • Rooker, JR, Holt, GJ & SA Holt. 1997. Condition of larval and juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) from estuarine nursery habitats. Mar. Biol. 127: 387-394.
  • Rooker, JR, Holt, GJ & SA Holt. 1998. Vulnerability of newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to predatory fish: is early-life enhanced by seagrass meadows? Mar. Biol. 131: 145-151.
  • Ruehl, CB & TJ DeWitt. 2007. Trophic plasticity and foraging performance in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 349: 284-294.
  • Scharf, FS & KK Schlight. 2000. Feeding habits of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in Galveston Bay, Texas: seasonal diet variation and predator-prey size relationships. Estuaries 23: 128-139.
  • Stunz, GW, Minello, TJ & PS Levin. 2002. Growth of newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus in different estuarine habitat types. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 238: 227-236.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

PCR primers have been developed for Red Drum for a large number of polymorphic microsatellite loci, which may be useful for analysis of stock structure, monitoring and assessment of Red Drum stock enhancement, parentage analysis as employed in aquaculture, and the generation of a genetic map for Red Drum (Karlsson et al. 2008 and references therein).

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Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sciaenops ocellatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 30
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Sciaenops ocellatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 11 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTCTACCTAGTTTTCGGTGCATGAGCCGGAATAGTAGGCACAGCCTTA---AGCCTTCTAATCCGAGCAGAACTAAGTCAGCCCGGTGCACTCCTCGGAGAT---GACCAAATTTATAACGTAATTGTTACGGCGCATGCCTTCGTTATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCCATTATGATTGGAGGTTTCGGGAACTGACTCGTACCCCTAATG---ATTGGAGCCCCCGACATGGCATTCCCCCGAATAAATAATATGAGCTTCTGGCTTCTTCCCCCATCTTTCCTTCTTCTCCTTACCTCCTCAGGTGTAGAGGCAGGGGCCGGAACAGGATGAACAGTTTACCCTCCACTCGCCGGAAACCTTGCACACGCAGGAGCTTCCGTCGACTTA---GCCATCTTTTCCCTCCACCTCGCGGGTGTTTCATCAATTCTGGGGGCCATTAACTTTATCACAACAATCATTAACATAAAACCCCCCGCTATTTCCCAGTATCAGACACCTTTATTTGTATGAGCTGTATTAATTACAGCCGTTCTTCTACTTCTATCCCTCCCTGTCTTAGCTGCC---GGCATTACAATACTCCTGACAGACCGCAACCTCAATACAACCTTCTTCGACCCAGCAGGAGGGGGAGACCCGATCCTCTACCAACATCTG
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Threats

Not Evaluated
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Management

Management Requirements: See Arnold et al. (1988).

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Comments: An important game fish for surfcasters (Robins and Ray 1986).

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Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums; price category: high; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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Economic & Ecological Importance: The red drum is widely consumed and is the basis of an important recreational fishery in Florida waters (e.g. Robins et al. 1986; Chao 2002; FWCC 2010). Current Florida recreational fishing regulations for S. ocellatus allow the collection of one fish per person per day, 18-27 inches in length. Gigging, spearing and snatching are prohibited, as is harvesting in federal waters (FWCC 2010). The red drum has also become a successfully cultured species, which may prove a beneficial first step in conserving similar species through captive breeding programs (Chao 2002).
  • FWCC. 2010. Florida Saltwater Fishing Regulations. Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. Online at http://pub.jfgriffin.com/doc/jfgriffin/10FLSWJUL (Date accessed 08/24/2010).
  • Robins CR, Ray GC, and J Douglas. 1986. A Field Guide to Atlantic Coast Fishes. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 354 pp.
  • Chao, NL. 2002. Sciaenidae. pp. 1583-1639. In: The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Volume 3: Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals.
  • Carpenter KE (Ed.). FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes and American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists special publication no. 5. FAO, Rome. pp. 1375-2127.
  • FWCC. 2008. Red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission: Red Drum: 61. Online at http://research.myfwc.com/features/view_article.asp?id=30257 (Date accessed 08/25/2010).
  • Rooker, JR & SA Holt. 1997. Utilization of subtropical seagrass meadows by newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: patterns of distribution and growth. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 158: 139-149.
  • Rooker, JR, Holt, GJ & SA Holt. 1997. Condition of larval and juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) from estuarine nursery habitats. Mar. Biol. 127: 387-394.
  • Rooker, JR, Holt, GJ & SA Holt. 1998. Vulnerability of newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to predatory fish: is early-life enhanced by seagrass meadows? Mar. Biol. 131: 145-151.
  • Ruehl, CB & TJ DeWitt. 2007. Trophic plasticity and foraging performance in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 349: 284-294.
  • Scharf, FS & KK Schlight. 2000. Feeding habits of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in Galveston Bay, Texas: seasonal diet variation and predator-prey size relationships. Estuaries 23: 128-139.
  • Stunz, GW, Minello, TJ & PS Levin. 2002. Growth of newly settled red drum Sciaenops ocellatus in different estuarine habitat types. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 238: 227-236.
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Wikipedia

Red drum

The red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), also known as channel bass, redfish, spottail bass or simply reds, is a game fish that is found in the Atlantic Ocean from Massachusetts to Florida and in the Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Northern Mexico.[1] It is the only species in the genus Sciaenops. The red drum is a cousin to the black drum (Pogonias cromis), and the two species are often found in close proximity to each other; they can interbreed and form a robust hybrid, and younger fish are often indistinguishable in flavor.[2]

Characteristics[edit]

Mature red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) showing characteristic spot(s) at the base of the tail. This one is not a "bull red," because it is shorter than 27 inches (0.69 m).

Red drum are a dark red color on the back, which fades into white on the belly. The red drum have a characteristic eyespot near the tail and are somewhat streamlined. Three year-old red drum typically weigh six to eight pounds. When they are near or over twenty-seven inches, they are called “bull reds”. The largest red drum on record weighed just over 94 pounds and was caught in 1984 on Hatteras Island. Red drum are relatives of the black drum and both make a croaking or drumming sound when distressed.

The most distinguishing mark on the red drum is one large black spot on the upper part of the tail base. Having multiple spots is not uncommon for this fish but having no spots is extremely rare. As the fish with multiple spots grow older they seem to lose their excess spots. Scientists believe that the black spot near their tail helps fool predators into attacking the red drum's tail instead of their head, allowing the red drum to escape.[3] The red drum uses its senses of sight and touch, and its downturned mouth, to locate forage on the bottom through vacuuming or biting. On the top and middle of the water column, it uses changes in the light that might look like food. In the summer and fall, adult red drum feed on crabs, shrimp, and sand dollars, in the spring and winter, adults primarily feed on menhaden, mullet, pinfish, sea robin, lizardfish, spot, Atlantic croaker, and flounder.

Distribution[edit]

Red drum naturally occur along the southern Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the United States, including the coasts of Louisiana, Texas, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. Aquaculture activities involving Red Drum occur around the world.[4] Immature red drum prefer grass marsh areas of bays and estuaries when available. Both younger mature red drum (3-6 years of age) and bull red drum prefer rocky outcroppings including jetties and manmade structures, such as oil rigs and bridge posts. Around this type of structure, they are found throughout the water column.

Reproduction and growth[edit]

Weight vs. length for red drum (data from Jenkins 2004).

Mature red drum spawn in near shorelines from mid-August to mid-October.[5] The red drum's eggs incubate for 24 hours. A female lays about 1.5 million (with a range of 200,000 up to more than three million) eggs per batch. Scharf (2000) reported that in the first year, young red drum in Texas estuaries grew about 0.6 mm per day, though the rates varied with location and year and were higher in more southerly estuaries.[6] After the first year they may be 271 – 383 mm long. About half of red drum are able to reproduce by age 4 years, when they are 660-700 mm long and 3.4 – 4 kg in weight. Red drum live to be 60 years old unless caught.

  • Adults mature by 3 – 5 years of age; approximate length at maturity: males – 28 inches, females – 33 inches.
  • Spawn during late summer and fall. Spawning aggregations occur near estuary inlets and passes along barrier island beaches. Males produce drumming sounds using muscular contractions to vibrate the swimbladder, to attract females.
  • Larval red drum use vertical migrations to ride high salinity tidal currents into tidal creeks and shallow salt marsh nursery habitats. [7]

As red drum grow longer, they increase in weight. The relationship between length and weight is not linear. The relationship between length (L) and weight (W) for nearly all species of fish can be expressed by an equation of the form:

W = aL^b\!\,

Invariably, b is close to 3.0 for all species, and a varies between species. Jenkins (2004)[8] reported slightly different weight-length relationships for red drum caught in the spring and the fall off the western Gulf Coast of Louisiana:

Spring: W = 0.000005297L^{3.110}\!\,
Fall: W = 0.000015241L^{2.94}\!\,

where weight is in grams and length is total length measured in millimeters. For example, these relationships predict that a 600 mm red drum (just under two feet long) would weigh about 2300 grams (just over five pounds). These relationships can be used more specifically to determine how healthy a sample of red drum are by comparing their actual weights to weights predicted by these relationships for the same length.

Consumption[edit]

Redfish was named as giving a good result with court-bouillon in a cookbook published in New Orleans in 1901.[9]

In the early 1980s, the chef Paul Prudhomme made his dish of Cajun-style blackened redfish (red drum) popular. When catches of redfish declined in the 1980s many believed that it was being commercially over-fished because of its recent popularity. However, redfish numbers started declining in the late 1970s, possibly because of over-fishing of young redfish in shallow coastal waters by recreational fishermen.[citation needed]

On March 1, 2009 redfish was the "secret ingredient" on the television program Iron Chef America, with competitors Mourad Lahlou and Cat Cora both preparing several dishes from the fish.

Red drum have a moderate flavor and are not oily. Big drum can be challenging to clean; removing the large scales can be challenging. Many fishers prefer to fillet with an electric knife, first removing the fillet from along the backbone, and then using the electric knife to cut the fillet from the skin and scales. Fish over 15 lbs can become tough and have a consistency comparable with chicken, rather than the flakey texture of many species of fish. Younger fish are often indistinguishable in flavor from black drum.[10]

Commercial and recreational use[edit]

From 1980 through 1988, commercial fishermen took an average of 28% of the redfish while sport fishermen harvested 72 percent. Catch limits and size restrictions have increased the average weight of redfish caught in Louisiana coastal waters.[11] Restrictions on both sport and commercial fishermen allowed the species to rebuild. States actively vary the recreational catch limits and minimum and maximum lengths in order to help maintain sustainable red drum populations. Executive Order 13449 of October 20, 2007, issued by U.S. President George W. Bush, designated the red drum as a protected game fish. The order prohibits sale of red drum caught in Federal waters and encourages states to consider designating red drum as a protected game fish within state waters.[12] While they may no longer be commercially harvested in U.S. federal waters or in most state waters, they are readily caught and still enjoyed as table fare by many. In addition, farm raised redfish are still available as a commercial product [13] Commercial netting disappeared after coastal states like Florida declared red drum prohibited for sale. Recreational size and bag limits have been highly effective, allowing daily limits to be increased in recent years.

Relationship to humans[edit]

The North Carolina General Assembly of 1971 designated the red drum as the official State Salt Water Fish. (Session Laws, 1971, c. 274; G.S. 145-6).[14]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sciaenops ocellatus, Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2009.FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org, version (07/2009). http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/SpeciesSummary.php?id=425
  2. ^ A Comparison of Black Drum, Red Drum, and their Hybrid in Saltwater Pond Culture Anne Henderson-Arzapalo, Robert L. Colura, Anthony F. Maciorowski, Journal of the World Aquaculture Society Volume 25 Issue 2, Pages 289 - 296
  3. ^ Smithsonian Marine Station page on red drum
  4. ^ Peters Life History of Red Drum Peters, K.M., McMichael Jr., R. H. Florida Department of Natural Resources Bureau of Marine Research, St. Petersburg, Florida.
  5. ^ Wilson and Nieland, 1994
  6. ^ Scharf 2000
  7. ^ Wenner C. 1999. Red Drum: natural history and fishing techniques in South Carolina. Marine Resources Research Institute, Marine Resources Division, SC Department of Natural Resources, Charleston, SC. 40 pp.
  8. ^ Jenkins, J.A. Fish bioindicators of ecosystem condition at the Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana. National Wetlands Research Center, USGS, Open-File Report 2004-1323, 2004
  9. ^ Anonymous. (1901). "The Original Picayune Creole Cook Book." New Orleans: Times-Picayune Publishing Corporation. (reprinted 1906, 1916, 1922, 1928, 1936, 1938, 1942, 1945, 1947, 1954, 1966, 1971.)
  10. ^ A Comparison of Black Drum, Red Drum, and their Hybrid in Saltwater Pond Culture Anne Henderson-Arzapalo, Robert L. Colura, Anthony F. Maciorowski, Journal of the World Aquaculture Society Volume 25 Issue 2, Pages 289 - 296
  11. ^ Understanding Redfish Biology - accessed August 6, 2009
  12. ^ "Executive Order 13449: Protection of Striped Bass and Red Drum Fish Populations". Office of the Federal Register. October 20, 2007. Retrieved October 24, 2007. 
  13. ^ Fritcheey, Robert (1994). Wetland Riders. Golden Meadow, Louisiana: New Moon Press.
  14. ^ Official State Symbols of North Carolina

References[edit]

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