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R. H. Brendemuehl
Sand pine (Pinus clausa) is also known as scrub pine and spruce pine. The majority of trees in natural sand pine stands of western Florida, especially between Panama City and Pensacola, bear cones that open when mature. These stands tend to be uneven-aged, somewhat open, with abundant reproduction developing in the openings. Sand pine stands in eastern and central Florida are generally dense and even-aged with a majority of the trees bearing serotinous cones. Two geographic races have been distinguished on the basis of cone characteristics: Ocala (var. clausa) from northeastern to south Florida and Choctawhatchee (var. immuginata D. B. Ward) in northwest Florida and Baldwin County, AL (25).