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Endemic to the Mt. Panié range, Province Nord, New Caledonia where it has been recorded from the higher (above 1,000 m asl) altitudes of Mt. Panié, Mt. Colnett and Mt. Ignambi (Jaffré et al. 1987). Agathis montana has also been recorded (MacKee 34469 (P), 22/12/1977) from the summit of the Roches de la Ouaième, a separate range facing Mt. Panié. This specimen was originally collected by J.-F. Cherrier but deposited under H.S. MacKee's collecting numbers. According to the label, it was collected from a small tree at 950 m asl. Despite recent field botanical surveys (Munzinger 2013) that included canopy surveys, no further observations or collections have been recorded from this locality, suggesting that this tree may be single and isolated. Local indigenous people have mentioned that this individual tree is well known to them and “has a story”, suggesting it may have been planted by their ancestors. There is thus some doubt about whether this tree should be considered as a natural occurrence. While the most recent guidance from IUCN on introduced subpopulations indicate that those that are geographically close to the known native range of the taxon being assessed should be included in any assessment, the guidelines also clearly state that such introductions must have produced viable offspring (IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee 2014 p.7). As there is no indication of this, the Roches de la Ouaième locality is excluded from calculations of the extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO).
The overall EOO, using herbarium records but excluding the single tree on the Roches de la Ouaième, is estimated to be 90 km2 with an estimated AOO of 32 km2. Mapping and calculations were done using the GeoCAT software. The estimate for the extent of occurrence uses coordinates taken from gazetteers to georeference older herbarium specimens. There is some uncertainty about how accurate the estimations are. The AOO is estimated using the standard IUCN recommended 2 km x 2 km grid – this is very likely to be an overestimate.Agathis montana grows in mono-specific stands in the canopy above 1,200 m asl on the north-eastern slope and above 1,300 m asl on the south-western slope; all known trees seem to grow on slopes less than 35°. Using these data to model its range produces an estimated potential AOO of ca 1,200 ha for the main population. When the few isolated trees growing down to 1,000 m asl are included the estimate rises to ca 5,000 ha.