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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Endemic to New Zealand occurring on North Island, and on South Island where it is restricted to the Tasman district.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs in the lowland evergreen rainforests of the mixed angiosperm-conifer class, where it is a canopy tree with other conifers, e.g. Dacrycarpus dacrydioides, Dacrydium cupressinum, Halocarpus kirkii, Manoao colensoi, Phyllocladus trichomanoides, Podocarpus cunninghamii, P. totara, Prumnopitys ferruginea, P. taxifolia and in the far north of North Island Agathis australis. Undisturbed forest of this type can have as many as eight conifer genera (and species) on a single hectare (Ogden et al. 1993), but forest clearance as well as selective logging of 'pines' have drastically reduced these species-rich forests especially in the lowlands. Various angiosperms are mixed in, e.g. Beilschmiedia tarairi, Dysoxylum spectabile, and Leptospermum scoparium, but conifers (especially Agathis) can form groves with few angiosperms, forming a mozaic pattern rather than an evenly mixed forest. The altitudinal range is from near sea level to 600 m a.s.l. Especially in gaps tree ferns can become abundant. These forests receive abundant rainfall throughout the year and temperatures are mild in winter and warm in summer.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Libocedrus plumosa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Libocedrus plumosa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A. & Carter, G.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P.

Contributor/s

Justification
The area of occupancy is estimated to be 1,250 km2 which is within the threshold for vulnerable. There has been an unquantified historical decline due to exploitation for timber and forest conversion for agriculture. This decline has ceased and many formerly logged-out forest parcels are now regenerating. However, this species requires large forested areas for its life cycle and persistence in the forest structure and succession. It seems therefore appropriate to flag it as Near Threatened, until an increase of mature individuals is apparent. At that stage it would most likely be assessed as Least Concern.

History
  • 1997
    Vulnerable
    (Walter and Gillett 1998)
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Population

Population
The population of this species has experienced a historical decline due to logging and forest clearing to make way for agriculture and other land uses. Since the protection of the remaining forest stands by law, this trend is now reversed in many localities. Due to the fragmentation of lowland forest, many subpopulations are now separated by unsuitable habitat; some may occur in “bush” fragments too small for this species (see below under Habitats and Ecology).Historic logging seems to have been of some benefit to this species, as due to its naturally sparse distribution, a lot of stands were left unaffected and it is now reasonably common in areas which were heavily logged. Regular land disturbance seems to benefit regeneration for this species.

Population Trend
Increasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Lowland forests have been greatly reduced since European settlement in New Zealand began about two centuries ago. There is no quantitative record available to indicate the reduction rate for this species as a result of this wholesale removal of indigenous natural forest. Long term survival of this species in natural ecosystems requires large tracts of unmanaged old growth forest, where natural cyclic processes of disturbance and regeneration can span many centuries (see e.g. Ogden and Stewart in Enright and Hill 1995).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs within several protected areas, but also on private lands.
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Wikipedia

Libocedrus plumosa

Libocedrus plumosa (Kawaka) is a species of Libocedrus, endemic to New Zealand, occurring on the North Island, and locally at the north end of the South Island near Nelson (41° S). It grows from sea level up to 600 m altitude in temperate rainforests. It is threatened by habitat loss.[1][2]

It is an evergreen coniferous tree growing to 30–35 m tall, with a trunk up to 3 m diameter. The foliage is arranged in flattened sprays; the leaves are scale-like, arranged in opposite decussate pairs on the shoots; the facial leaves are 1–2 mm long and 1 mm broad, and the lateral leaves distinctly larger, 2–5 mm long and 1.5–2 mm broad. The seed cones are cylindrical, 12–18 mm long, with four scales each with a prominent curved spine-like bract; they are arranged in two opposite decussate pairs around a small central columella; the outer pair of scales is small and sterile, the inner pair large, each bearing two winged seeds. They are mature about six to eight months after pollination. The pollen cones are 3–5 mm long.[1]
It has been planted in several parts of the British Isles, even as north as Castlewellan, Northern Ireland.[3]

See also[edit]

Young tree

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Farjon, A. (2005). Monograph of Cupressaceae and Sciadopitys. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 1-84246-068-4
  2. ^ Conifer Specialist Group 2000: Libocedrus plumosa
  3. ^ "Libocedrus plumosa in the British Isles". 
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